Difference between pages "Install/de/Stage3" and "Install/pt-br/Configuring"

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<noinclude>
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=== Configurando seu sistema ===
{{InstallPart|the process of installing the Stage3 tarball}}
+
Como é esperado de uma distribuição Linux, Funtoo Linux tem seu compartilhamento de arquivos de configuração. O arquivo que absolutamente requer que você edite de forma a assegurar que o Funtoo Linux inicialize com sucesso é <code>/etc/fstab</code>. Os outros são opcionais.
</noinclude>
+
==== Setzen des Datums ====
+
  
{{fancyimportant|Falls das Datum oder die Zeit falsch sein sollte kann das dazu fuehren das Portage die Quelldateien nicht richtig herunterladen kann. Das liegt daran das einige Quelldatien ueber HTTPS heruntergeladen werden, welches SSL Zertifikate verwendent. Und diese werden mit einem Ablaufdatum versehen. Wenn das Datum aber nah genug am tatsaechlichen Datum ist kann dieser Schritt trotzdem funktionieren.}}
+
==== Utilizando o Nano ====
  
Jetzt ist es an der Zeit zu ueberpruefen ob das Datum richtigerweise auf UTC gesetzt ist. Man benutzt den  <code>date</code> Befehl um das zu zu tun.
+
O editor padrão incluso no ambiente chroot é chamado de <code>nano</code>. Para editar um dos arquivos abaixo, chame o nano como a seguir:
  
 
<console>
 
<console>
# ##i##date
+
(chroot) # ##i##nano /etc/fstab
Fri Jul 15 19:47:18 UTC 2011
+
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
Falls das Datum korrigiert werden muss kann dies auf folgende Weise getan werden <code>date MMDDhhmmYYYY</code>.
+
Quando estiver no editor, você pode utilizar as teclas de cetas para mover o cursor, e teclas comuns como backspace e delete funcionarão como esperado. Para salvar o arquivo, pressione Control-X, e responda <code>y</code> quando solicitado para salvar o buffer modificado se você gostaria de salvar suas alterações.
Das untere Beispiel setzt das Datum auf den 16. Juli 2001 20:00 Uhr UTC:
+
  
<console>
+
==== Configuration Files ====
# ##i##date 071620002011
+
Fri Jul 16 20:00:00 UTC 2011
+
</console>
+
  
Nachdem die Systemuhr gesetzt ist sollte man diese Zeit auf die Hardware-Uhr kopieren, damit die Zeit nach dem naechsten neustart bestehen bleibt:
+
Aqui estão uma lista completa de arquivos que você pode queres editar, dependendo de suas necessidades:
 +
{{TableStart}}
 +
<tr class="active"><th>Arquivo</th>
 +
<th>Preciso alter-á-lo?</th>
 +
<th>Descrição</th>
 +
</tr><tr  class="danger">
 +
<td><code>/etc/fstab</code></td>
 +
<td>'''SIM - exigido'''</td>
 +
<td>Pontos de montagem para todos os filesystems a serem utilizados no momento do boot. Esse arquivo deve refletir sua configuação de partição de disco. Vamos lhe guiar através da modificação desse arquivo abaixo.</td>
 +
</tr><tr>
 +
<td><code>/etc/localtime</code></td>
 +
<td>''Talvez - recomendável''</td>
 +
<td>Seu fuso horário (timezone), que será padrão ao UTC se não definido. Esse deve ser um link simbólico para algo localizado sob /usr/share/zoneinfo (ex. /usr/share/zoneinfo/America/Montreal) </td>
 +
</tr><tr>
 +
<td><code>/etc/make.conf</code> (symlink) - also known as:<br/><code>/etc/portage/make.conf</code></td>
 +
<td>''Talvêz - recomendado''</td>
 +
<td>Parâmetros utilizado pelo gcc (compilador), pelo portage, e pelo make. É uma boa ideia definir o MAKEOPTS. Isso é coberto mais para frente nessa documentação.</td>
 +
</tr><tr>
 +
<td><code>/etc/conf.d/hostname</code></td>
 +
<td>''Talvez - recomendado''</td>
 +
<td>Utilizado para definir o hostname do sistema. Defina a variável <code>hostname</code> como nome fully-qualified (com pontos, ex. <code>foo.funtoo.org</code>) se você tiver um. Caso contrário, defina para o hostname do sistema local (sem pontos, ex. <code>foo</code>). Padrões para <code>localhost</code> se não definido.</td>
 +
</tr><tr>
 +
<td><code>/etc/hosts</code></td>
 +
<td>''Não''</td>
 +
<td> Você não precisa mais definir manual o hostname nesse arquivo. Esse arquivo é gerado manualmente pelo <code>/etc/init.d/hostname</code>.</td>
 +
</tr><tr>
 +
<td><code>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</code></td>
 +
<td>Opcional</td>
 +
<td>Arquivo de configuração de mapeamento do teclado (fara console pseudo terminais). Configure se você não possui um teclado no padrão americano (non-US). Veja [[Funtoo Linux Localization]].</td>
 +
</tr><tr>
 +
<td><code>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</code></td>
 +
<td>Opcional</td>
 +
<td>Como o tempo de clock do hardware mantido pela bateria (battery-backed) do sistema é interpretado [UTC ou hora local (local time)]. Linux utiliza o clock do hardware mantido pela bateria para inicializar a hora do sistema quando o sistema é inicializado.</td>
 +
</tr><tr>
 +
<td><code>/etc/conf.d/modules</code></td>
 +
<td>Opcional</td>
 +
<td>Kernel modules to load automatically at system startup. Typically not required. See [[Additional Kernel Resources]] for more info.</td>
 +
</tr><tr>
 +
<td><code>/etc/conf.d/consolefont</code></td>
 +
<td>Optional</td>
 +
<td>Allows you to specify the default console font. To apply this font, enable the consolefont service by running rc-update add consolefont.</td>
 +
</tr><tr>
 +
<td><code>profiles</code></td>
 +
<td>Optional</td>
 +
<td>Some useful portage settings that may help speed up intial configuration.</td>
 +
</tr>
 +
{{TableEnd}}
 +
 
 +
If you're installing an English version of Funtoo Linux, you're in luck as most of the configuration files can be used as-is. If you're installing for another locale, don't worry. We will walk you through the necessary configuration steps on the [[Funtoo Linux Localization]] page, and if needed, there's always plenty of friendly, helpful support. (See [[#Community portal|Community]])
 +
 
 +
Let's go ahead and see what we have to do. Use <code>nano -w <name_of_file></code> to edit files -- the "<code>-w</code>" disables word-wrapping, which is handy when editing configuration files. You can copy and paste from the examples.
 +
 
 +
{{fancywarning|It's important to edit your <code>/etc/fstab</code> file before you reboot! You will need to modify both the "fs" and "type" columns to match the settings for your partitions and filesystems that you created with <code>gdisk</code> or <code>fdisk</code>. Skipping this step may prevent Funtoo Linux from booting successfully.}}
 +
 
 +
==== /etc/fstab ====
 +
 
 +
<code>/etc/fstab</code> is used by the <code>mount</code> command which is ran when your system boots. Statements of this file inform <code>mount</code> about partitions to be mounted and how they are mounted. In order for the system to boot properly, you must edit <code>/etc/fstab</code> and ensure that it reflects the partition configuration you used earlier:
  
 
<console>
 
<console>
# ##i##hwclock --systohc
+
(chroot) # ##i##nano -w /etc/fstab
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
=== Installation des stage 3 Tarballs ===
+
<pre>
 +
# The root filesystem should have a pass number of either 0 or 1.
 +
# All other filesystems should have a pass number of 0 or greater than 1.
 +
#
 +
# NOTE: If your BOOT partition is ReiserFS, add the notail option to opts.
 +
#
 +
# See the manpage fstab(5) for more information.
 +
#
 +
# <fs>     <mountpoint>  <type>  <opts>        <dump/pass>
  
Nachdem die Dateisysteme erstellt wurden und die Uhrzeit gesetzt ist, ist der naechste Schritt das herunterladen des Stage 3 Archivs.
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/dev/sda1    /boot        ext2    noauto,noatime 1 2
Dabei handelt es sich um eine vorkompilierstes System das als Startpunkt fuer Funtoo Linux benutzt wird.
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/dev/sda2    none          swap    sw            0 0
 +
/dev/sda3    /            ext4    noatime        0 1
 +
#/dev/cdrom  /mnt/cdrom    auto    noauto,ro      0 0
 +
</pre>
  
Um die richtige build Version zu installieren gehe zu [[Subarches}}. Subarches sind Builds von Funtoo Linux die auf eine bestimme CPU angepasst wurden um maximale Performance zu erzielen. Es koennen somit die optimalen Befehlssaetze der CPU genutzt werden.
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{{Note|Currently, our default <code>/etc/fstab</code> has the root filesystem as <code>/dev/sda4</code> and the swap partition as <code>/dev/sda3</code>. These will need to be changed to <code>/dev/sda3</code> and <code>/dev/sda2</code>, respectively.}}
  
Die [[Subarches]] Seite listet alle optimierten Versionen von Funtoo Linux. Suche die auf deine CPU passende heraus, und klicke auf ihren Namen in der ersten Spalte (Beispiel: <code>corei</code> ). Von dieser Seite kann nun das Stage 3 Archiv heruntergeladen werden.
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{{Note|If you're using UEFI to boot, change the <code>/dev/sda1</code> line so it says <code>vfat</code> instead of <code>ext2</code>. Similarly, make sure that the <code>/dev/sda3</code> line specifies either <code>xfs</code> or <code>ext4</code>, depending on which filesystem you chose at filesystem-creation time.}}
  
Fuer die meisten Subarches gibt es mehre verfuegbare Stage 3 Archive zur Auswahl. Der naechste Abschnitt wird dir erklaeren wie du die passende auswaehlst.
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==== /etc/localtime ====
  
==== Welche Build Version? ====
+
<code>/etc/localtime</code> is used to specify the timezone that your machine is in, and defaults to UTC. If you would like your Funtoo Linux system to use local time, you should replace <code>/etc/localtime</code> with a symbolic link to the timezone that you wish to use.
  
'''Falls du nicht sicher bist nimm <code>funtoo-current</code>.'''
+
<console>
 +
(chroot) # ##i##ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/MST7MDT /etc/localtime
 +
</console>
  
Funtoo Linux hat verschiedene 'builds':
+
The above sets the timezone to Mountain Standard Time (with daylight savings). Type <code>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</code> to see what timezones are available. There are also sub-directories containing timezones described by location.
  
{{TableStart}}
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==== /etc/make.conf ====
<tr><th class="info">Build</th><th class="info">Description</th></tr>
+
<tr><td><code>funtoo-current</code></td><td>Der meistgewaehlte build fuer Funtoo Linux. Wird hauefig aktualisiert und von Desktop Benutzern bevorzugt.</td></tr>
+
<tr><td><code>funtoo-stable</code></td><td>Hat weniger haeufige Aktualisierungen und setzt auf vertrauenswuerdige und stabile Versionen eines Pakets.</td></tr>
+
{{TableEnd}}
+
  
==== Welche Variante? ====
+
MAKEOPTS can be used to define how many parallel compilations should occur when you compile a package, which can speed up compilation significantly. A rule of thumb is the number of CPUs (or CPU threads) in your system plus one. If for example you have a dual core processor without [[wikipedia:Hyper-threading|hyper-threading]], then you would set MAKEOPTS to 3:
  
'''Falls du nicht sicher bist nimm <code>(None)</code>.'''
+
<pre>
 +
MAKEOPTS="-j3"
 +
</pre>
  
Besides our "regular" stage3's listed with a variant of <code>(None)</code>, the following variant builds are available:
+
If you are unsure about how many processors/threads you have then use nproc to help you.
 +
<console>
 +
(chroot) # ##i##nproc
 +
16
 +
</console>
  
{{TableStart}}
+
Set MAKEOPTS to this number plus one:
<tr><th class="info">Variant</th><th class="info">Description</th></tr>
+
<tr><td>(None)</td><td>The "standard" version of Funtoo Linux</td></tr>
+
<tr><td><code>pure64</code></td><td>A 64-bit build that drops multilib (32-bit compatibility) support. Can be ideal for server systems.</td></tr>
+
<tr><td><code>hardened</code></td><td>Includes PIE/SSP toolchain for enhanced security. PIE does require the use of PaX in the kernel, while SSP works with any kernel, and provides enhanced security in user-space to avoid stack-based exploits.</td></tr>
+
{{TableEnd}}
+
  
==== Download des Stage3 Archivs ====
+
<pre>
 +
MAKEOPTS="-j17"
 +
</pre>
  
Once you have found the stage3 that you would like to download, use <code>wget</code> to download the Stage 3 tarball you have chosen to use as the basis for your new Funtoo Linux system. It should be saved to the <code>/mnt/funtoo</code> directory as follows:
+
USE flags define what functionality is enabled when packages are built. It is not recommended to add a lot of them during installation; you should wait until you have a working, bootable system before changing your USE flags. A USE flag prefixed with a minus ("<code>-</code>") sign tells Portage not to use the flag when compiling. A Funtoo guide to USE flags will be available in the future. For now, you can find out more information about USE flags in the [http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/handbook/handbook-amd64.xml?part=2&chap=2 Gentoo Handbook].
  
<console># ##i##cd /mnt/funtoo
+
LINGUAS tells Portage which local language to compile the system and applications in (those who use LINGUAS variable like OpenOffice). It is not usually necessary to set this if you use English. If you want another language such as French (fr) or German (de), set LINGUAS appropriately:
# ##i##wget http://build.funtoo.org/funtoo-current/x86-64bit/generic_64/stage3-latest.tar.xz
+
</console>
+
  
Note that 64-bit systems can run 32-bit or 64-bit stages, but 32-bit systems can only run 32-bit stages. Make sure that you select a Stage 3 build that is appropriate for your CPU. If you are not certain, it is a safe bet to choose the <code>generic_64</code> or <code>generic_32</code> stage. Consult the [[Subarches]] page for more information.
+
<pre>
 +
LINGUAS="fr"
 +
</pre>
  
Once the stage is downloaded, extract the contents with the following command, substituting in the actual name of your stage 3 tarball:
+
==== /etc/conf.d/hwclock ====
 +
If you dual-boot with Windows, you'll need to edit this file and change the value of '''clock''' from '''UTC''' to '''local''', because Windows will set your hardware clock to local time every time you boot Windows. Otherwise you normally wouldn't need to edit this file.
 
<console>
 
<console>
# ##i##tar xpf stage3-latest.tar.xz
+
(chroot) # ##i##nano -w /etc/conf.d/hwclock
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
{{important|It is very important to use <code>tar's</code> "<code>'''p'''</code>" option when extracting the Stage 3 tarball - it tells <code>tar</code> to ''preserve'' any permissions and ownership that exist within the archive. Without this option, your Funtoo Linux filesystem permissions will be incorrect.}}
+
==== Localization ====
 +
 
 +
By default, Funtoo Linux is configured with Unicode (UTF-8) enabled, and for the US English locale and keyboard. If you would like to configure your system to use a non-English locale or keyboard, see [[Funtoo Linux Localization]].

Revision as of 01:49, February 1, 2015

Configurando seu sistema

Como é esperado de uma distribuição Linux, Funtoo Linux tem seu compartilhamento de arquivos de configuração. O arquivo que absolutamente requer que você edite de forma a assegurar que o Funtoo Linux inicialize com sucesso é /etc/fstab. Os outros são opcionais.

Utilizando o Nano

O editor padrão incluso no ambiente chroot é chamado de nano. Para editar um dos arquivos abaixo, chame o nano como a seguir:

(chroot) # nano /etc/fstab

Quando estiver no editor, você pode utilizar as teclas de cetas para mover o cursor, e teclas comuns como backspace e delete funcionarão como esperado. Para salvar o arquivo, pressione Control-X, e responda y quando solicitado para salvar o buffer modificado se você gostaria de salvar suas alterações.

Configuration Files

Aqui estão uma lista completa de arquivos que você pode queres editar, dependendo de suas necessidades:

Arquivo Preciso alter-á-lo? Descrição
/etc/fstab SIM - exigido Pontos de montagem para todos os filesystems a serem utilizados no momento do boot. Esse arquivo deve refletir sua configuação de partição de disco. Vamos lhe guiar através da modificação desse arquivo abaixo.
/etc/localtime Talvez - recomendável Seu fuso horário (timezone), que será padrão ao UTC se não definido. Esse deve ser um link simbólico para algo localizado sob /usr/share/zoneinfo (ex. /usr/share/zoneinfo/America/Montreal)
/etc/make.conf (symlink) - also known as:
/etc/portage/make.conf
Talvêz - recomendado Parâmetros utilizado pelo gcc (compilador), pelo portage, e pelo make. É uma boa ideia definir o MAKEOPTS. Isso é coberto mais para frente nessa documentação.
/etc/conf.d/hostname Talvez - recomendado Utilizado para definir o hostname do sistema. Defina a variável hostname como nome fully-qualified (com pontos, ex. foo.funtoo.org) se você tiver um. Caso contrário, defina para o hostname do sistema local (sem pontos, ex. foo). Padrões para localhost se não definido.
/etc/hosts Não Você não precisa mais definir manual o hostname nesse arquivo. Esse arquivo é gerado manualmente pelo /etc/init.d/hostname.
/etc/conf.d/keymaps Opcional Arquivo de configuração de mapeamento do teclado (fara console pseudo terminais). Configure se você não possui um teclado no padrão americano (non-US). Veja Funtoo Linux Localization.
/etc/conf.d/hwclock Opcional Como o tempo de clock do hardware mantido pela bateria (battery-backed) do sistema é interpretado [UTC ou hora local (local time)]. Linux utiliza o clock do hardware mantido pela bateria para inicializar a hora do sistema quando o sistema é inicializado.
/etc/conf.d/modules Opcional Kernel modules to load automatically at system startup. Typically not required. See Additional Kernel Resources for more info.
/etc/conf.d/consolefont Optional Allows you to specify the default console font. To apply this font, enable the consolefont service by running rc-update add consolefont.
profiles Optional Some useful portage settings that may help speed up intial configuration.

If you're installing an English version of Funtoo Linux, you're in luck as most of the configuration files can be used as-is. If you're installing for another locale, don't worry. We will walk you through the necessary configuration steps on the Funtoo Linux Localization page, and if needed, there's always plenty of friendly, helpful support. (See Community)

Let's go ahead and see what we have to do. Use nano -w <name_of_file> to edit files -- the "-w" disables word-wrapping, which is handy when editing configuration files. You can copy and paste from the examples.

Warning

It's important to edit your /etc/fstab file before you reboot! You will need to modify both the "fs" and "type" columns to match the settings for your partitions and filesystems that you created with gdisk or fdisk. Skipping this step may prevent Funtoo Linux from booting successfully.

/etc/fstab

/etc/fstab is used by the mount command which is ran when your system boots. Statements of this file inform mount about partitions to be mounted and how they are mounted. In order for the system to boot properly, you must edit /etc/fstab and ensure that it reflects the partition configuration you used earlier:

(chroot) # nano -w /etc/fstab
# The root filesystem should have a pass number of either 0 or 1.
# All other filesystems should have a pass number of 0 or greater than 1.
#
# NOTE: If your BOOT partition is ReiserFS, add the notail option to opts.
#
# See the manpage fstab(5) for more information.
#
# <fs>	     <mountpoint>  <type>  <opts>         <dump/pass>

/dev/sda1    /boot         ext2    noauto,noatime 1 2
/dev/sda2    none          swap    sw             0 0
/dev/sda3    /             ext4    noatime        0 1
#/dev/cdrom  /mnt/cdrom    auto    noauto,ro      0 0
Note

Currently, our default /etc/fstab has the root filesystem as /dev/sda4 and the swap partition as /dev/sda3. These will need to be changed to /dev/sda3 and /dev/sda2, respectively.

Note

If you're using UEFI to boot, change the /dev/sda1 line so it says vfat instead of ext2. Similarly, make sure that the /dev/sda3 line specifies either xfs or ext4, depending on which filesystem you chose at filesystem-creation time.

/etc/localtime

/etc/localtime is used to specify the timezone that your machine is in, and defaults to UTC. If you would like your Funtoo Linux system to use local time, you should replace /etc/localtime with a symbolic link to the timezone that you wish to use.

(chroot) # ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/MST7MDT /etc/localtime

The above sets the timezone to Mountain Standard Time (with daylight savings). Type ls /usr/share/zoneinfo to see what timezones are available. There are also sub-directories containing timezones described by location.

/etc/make.conf

MAKEOPTS can be used to define how many parallel compilations should occur when you compile a package, which can speed up compilation significantly. A rule of thumb is the number of CPUs (or CPU threads) in your system plus one. If for example you have a dual core processor without hyper-threading, then you would set MAKEOPTS to 3:

MAKEOPTS="-j3" 

If you are unsure about how many processors/threads you have then use nproc to help you.

(chroot) # nproc
16

Set MAKEOPTS to this number plus one:

MAKEOPTS="-j17"

USE flags define what functionality is enabled when packages are built. It is not recommended to add a lot of them during installation; you should wait until you have a working, bootable system before changing your USE flags. A USE flag prefixed with a minus ("-") sign tells Portage not to use the flag when compiling. A Funtoo guide to USE flags will be available in the future. For now, you can find out more information about USE flags in the Gentoo Handbook.

LINGUAS tells Portage which local language to compile the system and applications in (those who use LINGUAS variable like OpenOffice). It is not usually necessary to set this if you use English. If you want another language such as French (fr) or German (de), set LINGUAS appropriately:

LINGUAS="fr"

/etc/conf.d/hwclock

If you dual-boot with Windows, you'll need to edit this file and change the value of clock from UTC to local, because Windows will set your hardware clock to local time every time you boot Windows. Otherwise you normally wouldn't need to edit this file.

(chroot) # nano -w /etc/conf.d/hwclock

Localization

By default, Funtoo Linux is configured with Unicode (UTF-8) enabled, and for the US English locale and keyboard. If you would like to configure your system to use a non-English locale or keyboard, see Funtoo Linux Localization.