Difference between pages "Making the Distribution, Part 2" and "Metro Quick Start Tutorial/pt-br"

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{{Article
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= Prefácio =
|Summary=In his previous article, Daniel Robbins told the story of how he became a Stampede Linux developer and why he eventually left Stampede to start the Enoch Linux distribution. In this go-round he lets you in on the strange events that happened after the Enoch development team discovered a little-known, blazingly fast compiler.
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|Article Category=General
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== Como o Metro Funciona ==
|Author=Drobbins
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|Previous in Series=Making the Distribution, Part 1
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Você pode estar se perguntando como o [[Metro]] cria seu primeiro stage tarball. Como você pode ter imaginado, [[Metro]] não pode criar um stage tarball. Para construi um novo stage tarball, [[Metro]] deve utilizar um já existente, antigo stage tarball chamado de uma "seed" stage. Essa semente "semente" stage tipicamente é utilizado com o ''ambiente build'' para a criação do stage que queremos.
|Next in Series=Making the Distribution, Part 3
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[[Metro]] pode utilizar dois tipos de semente stages. Tradicionalmente, [[Metro]] tem utilizado um stage3 como uma semente stage. Esse stage3 é então utilizado para construir um novo stage1, que em troca é utlilizado para construir um novo stage2, e então um novo stage3. Esse é geralmente o jeito mais confiável de construir [[Gentoo Linux]] ou [[Funtoo Linux]], entao essa é a recomendação recomendada.
 +
{{fancyimportant|'''Depois de portar o metro builds para o perfil do Funtoo, os stages do Gentoo não são mais fornecidos'''!}}
 +
 
 +
== Sementes e Build Isolation ==
 +
 
 +
Um outro conceito importante a mencionar aqui é algo chamando de ''build isolation''. Por que o [[Metro]] cria um ambiente build isolado, e o ambiente build é explicitamente definido utilizando entidades existentes, tangíveis -- uma semente stage e um portage snapshot -- você obterá resultados consistentes, repetíveis. Em outras palavras, a mesma semente stage, portage snapshot e instrções build gerarão resultados identico, mesmo se você desempenhar o um mês mais tarde em algum workstation de outro pessoa.
 +
 
 +
== Local Build ==
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 +
Digamos que você queira construir um novo tarball stage3 <tt>pentium4</tt>. O módo recomendado de se fazer isso seria apanhar um tarball stage3 <tt>pentium4</tt> existente como sua semente stage3 stage. Será dito ao [[Metro]] utilizar o stage3 <tt>pentium4</tt> existente para construir um novo stage1 para o mesmo <tt>pentium4</tt>. Para esse process, o stage3 para o <tt>pentium4</tt> genérico forneceria o ''ambiente build'' para a criação de nosso novo stage1. Então, o novo stage1 serviria como o ambiente build (build environment) para a criação do novo stage2 <tt>pentium4</tt>. E o novo stage2 para <tt>pentium4</tt> serviria como o ambiente build para a criação do novo stage3 para <tt>pentium4</tt>.
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 +
Na terminologia [[Metro]] isso é chamado de um '''local build''', que significa que um stage3 de uma dada arquitetura é utilizada para semear um build novo em folha da mesma arquitetura. Incidentalmente esse será o primeiro exercício que vamos realizar nesse tutorial.
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 +
Uma semana depois, você pode querer construir um tarball stage3 para <tt>pentium4</tt> novo em folha. Ao invés de iniciar a partir do stage3 para <tt>pentium4</tt> original de novo, você provavelmente configuraria o [[Metro]] para utilizar o built stage3 para <tt>pentium4</tt> mais recente construído como a semente. [[Metro]] possui funcionalidade built-in para tornar isso fácil, permitindo facilmente encontrar e rastrear a semente stage3 mais recente disponível.
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 +
== Build Remoto ==
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 +
[[Metro]] pode também desempenhar '''build remoto (remote build)''', onde um stage3 de uma arquitetura diferente, mas compatível binariamente, é utilizado como uma semente para construir um stage3 de arquitetura diferente. Consequencialidade, no segundo exercício que vamos realizar nesse tutorial será construir um tarball stage3 para <tt>core2 32bit</tt> a partir do tarball stage3 do <tt>pentium4</tt> que acabamos de construir.
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 +
TODO: adicione  ressalvas a respeito de quais arquiteturas podem ser semeadas e quais não podem (talvez um table?)
 +
 
 +
== Build Adaptado ==
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 +
Por ultimo, também é válido tanto <tt>local</tt> e <tt>builds remotos</tt>, [[Metro]] pode ser configurado para adicionar e/ou remover pacotes individuais ao ultimo tarball.
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Digamos que você não consiga viver sem <tt>app-misc/screen</tt>, no final desse tutorial, mostraremos como obter o seu stage3 adaptado para incluí-lo.
 +
 
 +
== Instalar o Metro ==
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 +
'''O método recomendado e que possui suporte''' é utilizar o repositório Git do [[Metro]]. 
 +
 
 +
Asegure-se de que {{Package|dev-vcs/git}} e {{Package|dev-python/boto}} (opcional; exigido para suporte EC2) sejam estalados no seu sistema:
 +
 
 +
<console>
 +
# ##i##emerge dev-vcs/git
 +
# ##i##emerge dev-python/boto
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
Depois, clone o master git repository como a seguir:
 +
 
 +
<console>
 +
# ##i##cd /root
 +
# ##i##git clone git://github.com/funtoo/metro.git
 +
# ##i##cp /root/metro/metro.conf ~/.metro
 +
</console>
 +
 
 +
Agora você terá o diretório chamado <tt>/root/metro</tt> que contem todo o código fonte do [[Metro]].
 +
 
 +
O Metro agora está instalado. É hora de personalizá-lo para o seu sistema local.
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 +
= Configuring Metro =
 +
 
 +
{{Note|Metro não é atualmente capaz de construir stages do Gentoo. Veja {{Bug|FL-901}}.}}
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 +
[[User:Drobbins|Daniel Robbins]] mantem o  [[Metro]], então ele vem pré-configurado para construir com sucesso os lançamentos do [[Funtoo Linux]]. Antes de ler mais adiante, você pode querer personalizar algumas configurações básicas como o o número de de jobs simultâneos para se encaixar as compatibilidades do seu hardware ou o diretório para utilizar arquivos stage produzidos. Isso é excelente ao editar <tt>~/.metro</tt> a qual é o arquivo de configuração [[Metro]]'s master.
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 +
Por favor, note que o <code>path/install</code> deve apontar para aonde o metro foi instalado. Aponte <code>path/distfiles</code> para aonde seus distfiles residem. Defina também  <code>path/mirror/owner</code> e <code>path/mirror/group</code> para o proprietário e grupo de todos os arquivos que serão escritos para construir o diretório do repositório, which by default (as per the configuration file) is at <code>/home/mirror/funtoo</code>. The cache directory normally resides inside the temp directory -- this can be modified as desired. The cache directory can end up holding many cached .tbz2 packages, and eat up a lot of storage. You may want to place the temp directory on faster storage, for faster compile times, and place the cache directory on slower, but more plentiful storage.
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 +
{{file|name=.metro|desc=Metro configuration|body=
 +
# Main metro configuration file - these settings need to be tailored to your install:
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 +
[section path]
 +
install: /root/metro
 +
tmp: /var/tmp/metro
 +
cache: $[path/tmp]/cache
 +
distfiles: /var/src/distfiles
 +
work: $[path/tmp]/work/$[target/build]/$[target/name]
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 +
[section path/mirror]
 +
 
 +
: /home/mirror/funtoo
 +
owner: root
 +
group: repomgr
 +
dirmode: 775
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 +
[section portage]
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 +
MAKEOPTS: auto
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 +
[section emerge]
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 +
options: --jobs=4 --load-average=4 --keep-going=n
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 +
# This line should not be modified:
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[collect $[path/install]/etc/master.conf]
 
}}
 
}}
==  From Enoch to Gentoo, via minor setbacks and corporate run-ins ==
 
  
=== First steps to Enoch ===
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== Arch and Subarch ==
  
In my previous article, I gave you the low-down on my days with the Stampede development team and why I left (to get away from lower-level politically-minded, project-controlling "freaks"). Because of the interference from these meddlesome by-standers, I figured it would be easier to put together my own Linux distribution than to continue improving Stampede under such dirty conditions! Fortunately I took with me a considerable amount of experience based on my (may I say substantial?) work for Stampede, including maintaining several of their packages, designing the initialization scripts, and leading the slpv6 (next-generation package management project).
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In the following example we are creating a pentium4 stage 3 compiled for x86-32bit binary compatibility. Pentium4 is a subarch of the x86-32bit architecture. Once you have metro installed you may find a full list of each subarch in your <tt>/root/metro/subarch</tt> directory each subarch will have the file extension .spec
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Example:
 +
<console>
 +
###i## ls /root/metro/subarch
 +
# ls subarch/
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amd64-bulldozer-pure64.spec  armv7a.spec          core-avx-i.spec        i686.spec        pentium.spec
 +
amd64-bulldozer.spec        armv7a_hardfp.spec  core2_32.spec          k6-2.spec        pentium2.spec
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amd64-k10-pure64.spec        athlon-4.spec        core2_64-pure64.spec    k6-3.spec        pentium3.spec
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amd64-k10.spec              athlon-mp.spec      core2_64.spec          k6.spec          pentium4.spec
 +
amd64-k8+sse3.spec          athlon-tbird.spec    corei7-pure64.spec      native_32.spec    pentiumpro.spec
 +
amd64-k8+sse3_32.spec        athlon-xp.spec      corei7.spec            native_64.spec    prescott.spec
 +
amd64-k8-pure64.spec        athlon.spec          generic_32.spec        niagara.spec      ultrasparc.spec
 +
amd64-k8.spec                atom_32.spec        generic_64-pure64.spec  niagara2.spec    ultrasparc3.spec
 +
amd64-k8_32.spec            atom_64-pure64.spec  generic_64.spec        nocona.spec      xen-pentium4+sse3.spec
 +
armv5te.spec                atom_64.spec        generic_sparcv9.spec    opteron_64.spec  xen-pentium4+sse3_64.spec
 +
armv6j.spec                  btver1.spec          geode.spec              pentium-m.spec
 +
armv6j_hardfp.spec          btver1_64.spec      i486.spec              pentium-mmx.spec
 +
</console>
  
The distribution I began working on, code-named Enoch, was going to be blazingly fast because it would completely automate the package creation and upgrading process. I have to admit that this was in large part because I was a one-member team and couldn't afford to spend my time on repetitive work that my development box could be automated to do for me. And since I was designing a complete distribution from scratch (rather than "spinning off" from someone like RedHat), I had my work cut out for me and needed all the free time I could scrounge up.
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= First stages build (local build) =
  
After getting my basic Enoch system up and running, I headed back to irc.openprojects.net and started my own channel called #enoch. From there I gradually assembled a team of about ten developers. In those early days we all hung out on IRC and worked on the distribution in our spare time. As we communally and cooperatively hacked away at it, finding and fixing new bugs, Enoch became more functional and professional every day.
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To get this all started, we need to bootstrap the process by downloading an initial seed stage3 to use for building and place it in its proper location in <tt>/home/mirror/funtoo</tt>, so that [[Metro]] can find it. We will also need to create some special &quot;control&quot; files in <tt>/home/mirror/funtoo</tt>, which will allow [[Metro]] to understand how it is supposed to proceed.
  
=== The first roadblock ===
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== Step 1: Set up pentium4 repository (local build) ==
  
One inevitable day, Enoch hit its first roadblock. After adding Xfree86, glib, and gtk+, I decided to get xmms (an X11/gtk+-based MP3/CD player app) working. I figured it was time to celebrate with some music! But after installing xmms, I tried to start it... and X locked up! At first I thought xmms locked up because I used insane compiler optimizations ("-O6 -mpentiumpro", in case you were wondering). My first thought, to compile xmms with standard optimizations, didn't solve the problem. So I started looking elsewhere. After spending a full week of development time trying to track down the problem, I got an e-mail from an Enoch user, Omegadan, who was also experiencing xmms lockups.
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Assuming we're following the basic steps outlined in the previous section, and building an unstable funtoo (<tt>funtoo-current</tt>) build for the <tt>pentium4</tt>, using a generic <tt>pentium4</tt> stage3 as a seed stage, then here the first set of steps we'd perform:
  
We corresponded for a while, and after many hours of testing we determined that the problem was a POSIX threads-related issue. For some reason, a pthread_mutex_trylock() call did not return the way it should. As the creator of a distribution, these were the types of bugs I really didn't want to encounter. I counted on the developers to release perfect sources so I could focus on enhancing the Linux experience rather than getting buggy sources to work. Of course I soon learned that this was an unrealistic expectation, and that problems like this will always pop up from time to time.
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<console>
 +
# ##i##install -d /home/mirror/funtoo/funtoo-current/x86-32bit/pentium4
 +
# ##i##install -d /home/mirror/funtoo/funtoo-current/snapshots
 +
# ##i##cd /home/metro/mirror/funtoo/funtoo-current/x86-32bit/pentium4
 +
# ##i##install -d 2011-12-13
 +
# ##i##cd 2011-12-13
 +
# ##i##wget -c http://ftp.osuosl.org/pub/funtoo/funtoo-current/x86-32bit/pentium4/2011-12-13/stage3-pentium4-funtoo-current-2011-12-13.tar.xz
 +
# ##i##cd ..
 +
# ##i##install -d .control/version
 +
# ##i##echo "2011-12-13" > .control/version/stage3
 +
# ##i##install -d .control/strategy
 +
# ##i##echo local >  .control/strategy/build
 +
# ##i##echo stage3 > .control/strategy/seed
 +
</console>
  
As it turned out, the problem wasn't with xmms, gtk+, or glib. And it wasn't an issue with Xfree86 3.3.5 not being thread-safe and locking up. Surprisingly, we found the bug in the Linux POSIX threads implementation itself, part of the GNU C library (glibc) version 2.1.2. I was shocked at the time to find that such a critical part of Linux had such a major bug. (And we used a release version of glibc in Enoch, not a prerelease or CVS version!).
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OK, let's review the steps above. First, we create the directory <tt>/home/mirror/funtoo/funtoo-current/x86-32bit/pentium4</tt>, which is where Metro will expect to find unstable <tt>funtoo-current</tt> pentium4 builds -- it is configured to look here by default. Then we create a specially-named directory to house our seed x86 stage3. Again, by default, Metro expects the directory to be named this way. We enter this directory, and download our seed x86 stage3 from funtoo.org. Note that the <tt>2010-12-24</tt> version stamp matches. Make sure that your directory name matches the stage3 name too. Everything has been set up to match Metro's default filesystem layout.
  
So how did we track down the problem? Actually, we never were able to come up with a bug fix, but at one point I stumbled across a couple of e-mails on the glibc developer mailing list from another person who had the same problem. The glibc developer who replied posted a patch that solved the thread problem for us. But I was curious why RedHat 6 (which also used glibc 2.1.2) didn't suffer from this problem since the patch was just posted and RedHat 6 had been available for some time. To find out, I downloaded RedHat's glibc SRPM (source RPM) and took a look at their patches.
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Next, we go back to the <tt>/home/mirror/metro/funtoo-current/x86-32bit/pentium4</tt> directory, and inside it, we create a <tt>.control</tt> directory. This directory and its subdirectories contain special files that Metro references to determine certain aspects of its behavior. The <tt>.control/version/stage3</tt> file is used by Metro to track the most recently-built stage3 for this particular build and subarch. Metro will automatically update this file with a new version stamp after it successfully builds a new stage3. But because Metro didn't actually ''build'' this stage3, we need to set up the <tt>.control/version/stage3</tt> file manually. This will allow Metro to find our downloaded stage3 when we set up our pentium4 build to use it as a seed. Also note that Metro will create a similar <tt>.control/version/stage1</tt> file after it successfully builds an pentium4 funtoo-current stage1.
  
RedHat had their own homegrown glibc patch that solved the pthread_mutex_trylock() issue. Apparently they experienced the same problem and created their own custom fix. Too bad they didn't send this patch "upstream" to the glibc developers so it could be shared with the rest of the world. But who knows, maybe RedHat sent the patch upstream and for some reason the glibc developers didn't accept it. Or maybe the thread bug was triggered by a specific combination of compiler and binutils versions, and RedHat never ran into it (although they did have a thread patch in their SRPM). I suppose we'll never know exactly what happened. But I did learn that RedHat SRPMs contain a lot of private bug fixes and tweaks that never seem to make it upstream to the original developers. I'm going to rant about this for a little while.
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We also set up <tt>.control/strategy/build</tt> and <tt>.control/strategy/seed</tt> files with values of <tt>local</tt> and <tt>stage3</tt> respectively. These files define the building strategy Metro will use when we build pentium4 funtoo-current stages. With a build strategy of <tt>local</tt>, Metro will source its seed stage from funtoo-current pentium4, the current directory. And with a seed strategy of <tt>stage3</tt>, Metro will use a stage3 as a seed, and use this seed to build a new stage1, stage2 and stage3.
  
=== Rant ===
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== Step 2: Building the pentium4 stages ==
  
When you put together a Linux distribution it's really important that any bug fixes you create are sent upstream to the original developers. As I see it, this is one of the many ways that distribution creators contribute to Linux. We're the guys who actually get all these different programs working as a unified whole. We should send our fixes upstream as we unify so that other users and distributions can benefit from our discoveries. If you decide to keep bug fixes to yourself, you're not helping anyone; you're just ensuring that a lot of people will waste time fixing the same problem over and over again. This kind of policy goes against the whole open source ethic and stunts the growth of Linux development. Maybe I should say that it "bugs" us all.
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Incidentally, if all you wanted to do at this point was to build a new pentium4 funtoo-current stage1/2/3 (plus openvz and vserver templates). You would begin the process by typing:
  
It's unfortunate that some distributions (ahem) aren't as good (RedHat) as others (Debian) about sharing their work with the community.
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<console>
 +
# ##i##cd /root/metro
 +
# ##i##scripts/ezbuild.sh funtoo-current pentium4
 +
</console>
  
=== Compiler drama ===
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If you have a slow machine, it could take several hours to be completed because several "heavy" components like gcc or glibc have to be recompiled in each stage. Once a stage has been successfully completed, it is placed in the <tt>"${METRO_MIRROR}/funtoo-current/x32-bit/pentium4/YYYY-MM-DD"</tt> subdirectory, where <tt>YYYY-MM-DD</tt> is today's date at the time the <tt>ezbuild.sh</tt> script was started or the date you put on the ezscript.sh command line.
  
During the time we were trying to fix the glibc threads problem, I e-mailed Ulrich Drepper (one of the guys at Cygnus who is heavily involved with glibc development). I mentioned the POSIX thread problem we were having, and that Enoch was using pgcc for optimum performance. And he responded with something like this (I'm paraphrasing here): "Our own compiler included with the CodeFusion product has an excellent x86 backend that produces executables far faster than those generated with pgcc." Obviously, I was very interested in testing out this mystery "turbo" compiler the Cygnus guys had created.
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= Building for another binary compatible architecture (remote build) =
  
I thereupon requested a demo copy of Cygnus Codefusion 1.0 so that I could test it out, and Omegadan and I were amazed to find that this compiler was everything that Ulrich claimed and then some. The x86 backend increased the performance of some of the CPU-intensive executables (like bzip2) by close to 90%! All applications seemed to benefit from at least a 10% real-world performance increase, and all we did was swap out compilers. Enoch even booted 30 - 40% faster. The performance gains were far, far greater than what we gained by switching from gcc to pgcc. Obviously, after experiencing it for ourselves, we wanted to use this compiler for Enoch. Fortunately, the sources were included on the CodeFusion CD and were released under the GPL, so we were fully permitted to use this compiler... or so we thought.
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As written above, [[Metro]] is able to perform '''remote build''' building different architecture stage3 from a binary compatible seeding stage3 (e.g. using a pentium4 stage3 to seed a <tt>Intel Core2 32bits</tt> stage3).  
  
=== Let the freakiness begin ===
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In the Metro terminology this is called a '''remote build''' (a stage 3 of a different, but binary compatible, architecture is used as a seed).
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What's not compatible? You can't use a <tt>Sparc</tt> architecture to generate an <tt>x86</tt> or <tt>ARM</tt> based stage and vice-versa. If you use a 32bit stage then you don't want to seed a 64bit build from it. Be sure that you are using a stage from the same architecture that you are trying to seed. Check [http://ftp.osuosl.org/pub/funtoo/funtoo-current/ Funtoo-current FTP Mirror] for a stage that is from the same Architecture that you will be building. 
  
I sent an e-mail to the marketing manager at Cygnus to let them know our intentions, expecting a "yeah, go for it, thanks for using our compiler" response. Instead the reply was that although we were (technically) allowed to use the Cygnus compiler, we were strongly urged not to use or include the compiler sources with Enoch. I responded by asking why they had released the source under the GPL, if that was the case. It's my guess that if they had a choice, they wouldn't have used the GPL, but because they derived their compiler from egcs (released under the GPL), they had no choice.
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{{Note|Often, one build (ie. funtoo-current) can be used as a seed for another build such as funtoo-stable. However, hardened builds require hardened stages as seeds in order for the build to complete successfully.}}
  
This is a good example of a situation where the GPL prevented a company from creating a proprietary product based on open sources. My educated guess is that Cygnus was afraid that if we used their compiler we would undermine their boxed product sales, which would be especially strange because none of their marketing materials (nor the InfoWorld review) mentioned the new compiler included with CodeFusion. CodeFusion was marketed solely as a "development IDE" product, not as a compiler.
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== Step 1: Set up Core_2 32bit repository ==
  
In an attempt to put some of their paranoia to rest, I offered to endorse CodeFusion and place the endorsement on our Web site with a link to help spur CodeFusion sales. Personally I didn't think that a "turbo" Enoch would negatively affect their sales, since CodeFusion was marketed as an IDE. But I tried nevertheless to make them happy. The IDE component of CodeFusion was a commercial product, and we had no desire or intention (or right) to distribute it with Enoch.
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In this example, we're going to use this pentium4 funtoo-current stage3 to seed a new Core_2 32bit funtoo-current build. To get that done, we need to set up the pentium4 build directory as follows:
  
I e-mailed my (generous?) offer to Cygnus and received another strange response. They wanted authority over all of our "marketing materials" (apparently, this also included the content of our Web site!) Another shocker. The Cygnus marketing team seemed to have no grasp of how the Linux community or the GPL worked, so I decided to cut off communication with Cygnus for the indefinite future. In the mean time, we created a private "turbo" and public "non-turbo" version of Enoch, leaving the final decision for later.
+
<console>
 +
# ##i## cd /home/mirror/funtoo/funtoo-current/x86-32bit
 +
# ##i##install -d core2_32
 +
# ##i##cd core2_32
 +
# ##i##install -d .control/strategy
 +
# ##i##echo remote > .control/strategy/build
 +
# ##i##echo stage3 > .control/strategy/seed
 +
# ##i##install -d .control/remote
 +
# ##i##echo funtoo-current > .control/remote/build
 +
# ##i##echo x86-32bit > .control/remote/arch_desc
 +
# ##i##echo pentium4 > .control/remote/subarch
 +
</console>
  
But after several months they integrated the CodeFusion x86 backend into gcc 2.95.2. Now everyone could benefit from the nice new backend, not just the people who knew about the "secret GPL compiler" included on the CodeFusion CD. But we decided to go ahead and use gcc rather than the CodeFusion compiler. In addition to being more stable, gcc 2.95.2 also allowed us avoid Cygnus, which by this time had been purchased by RedHat for a ridiculous sum of money. (Note: the new x86 backend in gcc 2.95.2 is what gave newer Linux distributions the significant speed boost that we all got to experience. It also gave FreeBSD 4.0 a nice speed boost over 3.3.6. Notice the difference?)
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The steps we follow are similar to those we performed for a ''local build'' to set up our pentium4 directory for local build. However, note the differences. We didn't download a stage, because we are going to use the pentium4 stage to build a new Core_2 32bit stage. We also didn't create the <tt>.control/version/stage{1,3}</tt> files because Metro will create them for us after it successfully builds a new stage1 and stage3. We are still using a <tt>stage3</tt> seed strategy, but we've set the build strategy to <tt>remote</tt>, which means that we're going to use a seed stage that's not from this particular subdirectory. Where are we going to get it from? The <tt>.control/remote</tt> directory contains this information, and lets Metro know that it should look for its seed stage3 in the <tt>/home/mirror/funtoo/funtoo-current/x86-32bit/pentium4</tt> directory. Which one will it grab? You guessed it -- the most recently built ''stage3'' (since our seed strategy was set to <tt>stage3</tt>) that has the version stamp of <tt>2010-12-24</tt>, as recorded in <tt>/home/mirror/funtoo-current/x86-32bit/pentium4/.control/version/stage</tt>. Now you can see how all those control files come together to direct Metro to do the right thing.
  
=== On the soapbox ===
+
{{Note|<code>arch_desc</code> should be set to one of: <code>x86-32bit</code>, <code>x86-64bit</code> or <code>pure64</code> for PC-compatible systems. You must use a 32-bit build as a seed for other 32-bit builds, and a 64-bit build as a seed for other 64-bit builds.}}
  
Thanks to this and other experiences, I've learned a lot about for-profit open source companies. There's absolutely nothing bad about being a for-profit open source company. Nor is there anything morally wrong with producing proprietary closed-source software, if that's what you'd like to do. But it doesn't make any sense for open source companies to subvert or refuse to cooperate with the rest of the open source world, either by not supporting the GPL or by any other means. This is a practical point that clearly makes business sense.
+
== Step 2: Building the Core_2 32bit stages ==
  
Open source companies should realize that the free exchange of ideas and code is what they profit from. By opposing things like the standard GPL practices, they undermine the environment they rely upon to prosper and grow. If open source is the soil from which your business has sprouted, it makes sense to keep the soil healthy.
+
Now, you could start building your new Core_2 32bit stage1/2/3 (plus openvz and vserver templates) by typing the following:
  
I understand that there's a temptation to keep at least some information secret for short-term financial gain. Advanced code or special techniques provide a coveted competitive advantage, which could potentially result in increased sales and profit. But if the goal is to be the sole provider of a product, the product should be commercial rather than open source. Open source does not allow for exclusive access to the inner workings of anything. That's what it means.
+
<console>
 +
# ##i##/root/metro/scripts/ezbuild.sh funtoo-current core2_32
 +
</console>
  
=== Back to Enoch ===
+
In that case, the produced stages are placed in the <tt>/home/mirror/funtoo/funtoo-current/x32-bit/core2_32/YYYY-MM-DD</tt> subdirectory.
  
Now, I'll step down from my soapbox and continue my story.
+
== Step 3: The Next Build ==
  
As Enoch became more and more refined, we decided that a name change was in order, and "Gentoo Linux" was born. By this time we had released a couple of versions of Enoch (now Gentoo), and were racing to get to Gentoo Linux version 1.0. Around this time I also decided to upgrade my old Celeron 300 box (overclocked and rock-solid at 450Mhz) to a brand-new Abit BP6 (a dual Celeron board that had just hit the market). I sold my old box and put my dual Celeron 366 system together. After overclocking the processors to something on the order of 500Mhz, I was cruising. But I noticed that my new machine wasn't very stable.
+
At this point, you now have a new Core_2 32bit stage3, built using a "remote" pentium4 stage3. Once the first remote build completes successfully, metro will automatically change <code>.control/strategy/build</code> to be <code>local</code> instead of <code>remote</code>, so it will use the most recently-built Core_2 32bit stage3 as a seed for any new Core_2 32bit builds from now on.
  
Obviously my first reaction was to go back down to 2x366Mhz. But now I experienced an even stranger problem. As long as my machine kept the CPUs chugging away, the machine didn't lock up. But if I left the machine idle overnight, there was a good probability that the system would lock up completely. Yes, an idle bug -- argh! After some research, I found several other Linux users with the same problem on this particular motherboard. A chip on the BP6 (was it the PCI controller?) seemed to be flaky or out of spec, which caused Linux to lock up at idle.
+
= Build your own tailored stage3 =
  
I was more than a wee bit upset, and because I couldn't afford to order more PC parts, Gentoo development effectively halted. I became more and more pessimistic about Linux and decided to switch over to FreeBSD. Yes, FreeBSD. And that's where I'll end this installment -- see you in Part 3. :)
+
Metro can be easily configured for building custom stage3 by including additional packages. Edit the following configuration file <tt>/root/metro/etc/builds/funtoo-current/build.conf</tt>:
{{ArticleFooter}}
+
{{file|name=funtoo-current/build.conf|body=
 +
[collect ../../fslayouts/funtoo/layout.conf]
 +
 
 +
[section release]
 +
 
 +
author: Daniel Robbins <drobbins@funtoo.org>
 +
 
 +
[section target]
 +
 
 +
compression: xz
 +
 
 +
[section portage]
 +
 
 +
FEATURES:
 +
SYNC: $[snapshot/source/remote]
 +
USE:
 +
 
 +
[section profile]
 +
 
 +
format: new
 +
path: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu
 +
arch: $[:path]/arch/$[target/arch_desc]
 +
build: $[:path]/build/current
 +
flavor: $[:path]/flavor/core
 +
mix-ins:
 +
 
 +
[section version]
 +
 
 +
python: 2.7
 +
 
 +
[section emerge]
 +
 
 +
 
 +
[section snapshot]
 +
 
 +
type: live
 +
compression: xz
 +
 
 +
[section snapshot/source]
 +
 
 +
type: git
 +
branch: funtoo.org
 +
# branch to have checked out for tarball:
 +
branch/tar: origin/master
 +
name: ports-2012
 +
remote: git://github.com/funtoo/ports-2012.git
 +
options: pull
 +
 
 +
[section metro]
 +
 
 +
options:
 +
options/stage: cache/package
 +
target: gentoo
 +
 
 +
[section baselayout]
 +
 
 +
services: sshd
 +
 
 +
[section multi]
 +
 
 +
snapshot: snapshot
 +
 
 +
[section files]
 +
 
 +
motd/trailer: [
 +
 
 +
>>> Send suggestions, improvements, bug reports relating to...
 +
 
 +
>>> This release:                  $[release/author]
 +
>>> Funtoo Linux (general):        Funtoo Linux (http://www.funtoo.org)
 +
>>> Gentoo Linux (general):        Gentoo Linux (http://www.gentoo.org)
 +
]
 +
 
 +
[collect ../../multi-targets/$[multi/mode:zap]]
 +
}}

Revision as of 10:58, January 15, 2015

Prefácio

Como o Metro Funciona

Você pode estar se perguntando como o Metro cria seu primeiro stage tarball. Como você pode ter imaginado, Metro não pode criar um stage tarball. Para construi um novo stage tarball, Metro deve utilizar um já existente, antigo stage tarball chamado de uma "seed" stage. Essa semente "semente" stage tipicamente é utilizado com o ambiente build para a criação do stage que queremos.

Metro pode utilizar dois tipos de semente stages. Tradicionalmente, Metro tem utilizado um stage3 como uma semente stage. Esse stage3 é então utilizado para construir um novo stage1, que em troca é utlilizado para construir um novo stage2, e então um novo stage3. Esse é geralmente o jeito mais confiável de construir Gentoo Linux ou Funtoo Linux, entao essa é a recomendação recomendada.

Important

Depois de portar o metro builds para o perfil do Funtoo, os stages do Gentoo não são mais fornecidos!

Sementes e Build Isolation

Um outro conceito importante a mencionar aqui é algo chamando de build isolation. Por que o Metro cria um ambiente build isolado, e o ambiente build é explicitamente definido utilizando entidades existentes, tangíveis -- uma semente stage e um portage snapshot -- você obterá resultados consistentes, repetíveis. Em outras palavras, a mesma semente stage, portage snapshot e instrções build gerarão resultados identico, mesmo se você desempenhar o um mês mais tarde em algum workstation de outro pessoa.

Local Build

Digamos que você queira construir um novo tarball stage3 pentium4. O módo recomendado de se fazer isso seria apanhar um tarball stage3 pentium4 existente como sua semente stage3 stage. Será dito ao Metro utilizar o stage3 pentium4 existente para construir um novo stage1 para o mesmo pentium4. Para esse process, o stage3 para o pentium4 genérico forneceria o ambiente build para a criação de nosso novo stage1. Então, o novo stage1 serviria como o ambiente build (build environment) para a criação do novo stage2 pentium4. E o novo stage2 para pentium4 serviria como o ambiente build para a criação do novo stage3 para pentium4.

Na terminologia Metro isso é chamado de um local build, que significa que um stage3 de uma dada arquitetura é utilizada para semear um build novo em folha da mesma arquitetura. Incidentalmente esse será o primeiro exercício que vamos realizar nesse tutorial.

Uma semana depois, você pode querer construir um tarball stage3 para pentium4 novo em folha. Ao invés de iniciar a partir do stage3 para pentium4 original de novo, você provavelmente configuraria o Metro para utilizar o built stage3 para pentium4 mais recente construído como a semente. Metro possui funcionalidade built-in para tornar isso fácil, permitindo facilmente encontrar e rastrear a semente stage3 mais recente disponível.

Build Remoto

Metro pode também desempenhar build remoto (remote build), onde um stage3 de uma arquitetura diferente, mas compatível binariamente, é utilizado como uma semente para construir um stage3 de arquitetura diferente. Consequencialidade, no segundo exercício que vamos realizar nesse tutorial será construir um tarball stage3 para core2 32bit a partir do tarball stage3 do pentium4 que acabamos de construir.

TODO: adicione ressalvas a respeito de quais arquiteturas podem ser semeadas e quais não podem (talvez um table?)

Build Adaptado

Por ultimo, também é válido tanto local e builds remotos, Metro pode ser configurado para adicionar e/ou remover pacotes individuais ao ultimo tarball. Digamos que você não consiga viver sem app-misc/screen, no final desse tutorial, mostraremos como obter o seu stage3 adaptado para incluí-lo.

Instalar o Metro

O método recomendado e que possui suporte é utilizar o repositório Git do Metro.

Asegure-se de que Git e dev-python/boto (package not on wiki - please add) (opcional; exigido para suporte EC2) sejam estalados no seu sistema:

# emerge dev-vcs/git
# emerge dev-python/boto

Depois, clone o master git repository como a seguir:

# cd /root
# git clone git://github.com/funtoo/metro.git
# cp /root/metro/metro.conf ~/.metro

Agora você terá o diretório chamado /root/metro que contem todo o código fonte do Metro.

O Metro agora está instalado. É hora de personalizá-lo para o seu sistema local.

Configuring Metro

Note

Metro não é atualmente capaz de construir stages do Gentoo. Veja FL-901.

Daniel Robbins mantem o Metro, então ele vem pré-configurado para construir com sucesso os lançamentos do Funtoo Linux. Antes de ler mais adiante, você pode querer personalizar algumas configurações básicas como o o número de de jobs simultâneos para se encaixar as compatibilidades do seu hardware ou o diretório para utilizar arquivos stage produzidos. Isso é excelente ao editar ~/.metro a qual é o arquivo de configuração Metro's master.

Por favor, note que o path/install deve apontar para aonde o metro foi instalado. Aponte path/distfiles para aonde seus distfiles residem. Defina também path/mirror/owner e path/mirror/group para o proprietário e grupo de todos os arquivos que serão escritos para construir o diretório do repositório, which by default (as per the configuration file) is at /home/mirror/funtoo. The cache directory normally resides inside the temp directory -- this can be modified as desired. The cache directory can end up holding many cached .tbz2 packages, and eat up a lot of storage. You may want to place the temp directory on faster storage, for faster compile times, and place the cache directory on slower, but more plentiful storage.

.metro - Metro configuration
# Main metro configuration file - these settings need to be tailored to your install:

[section path]
install: /root/metro
tmp: /var/tmp/metro
cache: $[path/tmp]/cache
distfiles: /var/src/distfiles
work: $[path/tmp]/work/$[target/build]/$[target/name]

[section path/mirror]

: /home/mirror/funtoo
owner: root
group: repomgr
dirmode: 775

[section portage]

MAKEOPTS: auto 

[section emerge]

options: --jobs=4 --load-average=4 --keep-going=n

# This line should not be modified:
[collect $[path/install]/etc/master.conf]

Arch and Subarch

In the following example we are creating a pentium4 stage 3 compiled for x86-32bit binary compatibility. Pentium4 is a subarch of the x86-32bit architecture. Once you have metro installed you may find a full list of each subarch in your /root/metro/subarch directory each subarch will have the file extension .spec Example:

# ls /root/metro/subarch
# ls subarch/
amd64-bulldozer-pure64.spec  armv7a.spec          core-avx-i.spec         i686.spec         pentium.spec
amd64-bulldozer.spec         armv7a_hardfp.spec   core2_32.spec           k6-2.spec         pentium2.spec
amd64-k10-pure64.spec        athlon-4.spec        core2_64-pure64.spec    k6-3.spec         pentium3.spec
amd64-k10.spec               athlon-mp.spec       core2_64.spec           k6.spec           pentium4.spec
amd64-k8+sse3.spec           athlon-tbird.spec    corei7-pure64.spec      native_32.spec    pentiumpro.spec
amd64-k8+sse3_32.spec        athlon-xp.spec       corei7.spec             native_64.spec    prescott.spec
amd64-k8-pure64.spec         athlon.spec          generic_32.spec         niagara.spec      ultrasparc.spec
amd64-k8.spec                atom_32.spec         generic_64-pure64.spec  niagara2.spec     ultrasparc3.spec
amd64-k8_32.spec             atom_64-pure64.spec  generic_64.spec         nocona.spec       xen-pentium4+sse3.spec
armv5te.spec                 atom_64.spec         generic_sparcv9.spec    opteron_64.spec   xen-pentium4+sse3_64.spec
armv6j.spec                  btver1.spec          geode.spec              pentium-m.spec
armv6j_hardfp.spec           btver1_64.spec       i486.spec               pentium-mmx.spec

First stages build (local build)

To get this all started, we need to bootstrap the process by downloading an initial seed stage3 to use for building and place it in its proper location in /home/mirror/funtoo, so that Metro can find it. We will also need to create some special "control" files in /home/mirror/funtoo, which will allow Metro to understand how it is supposed to proceed.

Step 1: Set up pentium4 repository (local build)

Assuming we're following the basic steps outlined in the previous section, and building an unstable funtoo (funtoo-current) build for the pentium4, using a generic pentium4 stage3 as a seed stage, then here the first set of steps we'd perform:

# install -d /home/mirror/funtoo/funtoo-current/x86-32bit/pentium4
# install -d /home/mirror/funtoo/funtoo-current/snapshots
# cd /home/metro/mirror/funtoo/funtoo-current/x86-32bit/pentium4
# install -d 2011-12-13
# cd 2011-12-13
# wget -c http://ftp.osuosl.org/pub/funtoo/funtoo-current/x86-32bit/pentium4/2011-12-13/stage3-pentium4-funtoo-current-2011-12-13.tar.xz
# cd ..
# install -d .control/version
# echo "2011-12-13" > .control/version/stage3
# install -d .control/strategy
# echo local >  .control/strategy/build
# echo stage3 > .control/strategy/seed

OK, let's review the steps above. First, we create the directory /home/mirror/funtoo/funtoo-current/x86-32bit/pentium4, which is where Metro will expect to find unstable funtoo-current pentium4 builds -- it is configured to look here by default. Then we create a specially-named directory to house our seed x86 stage3. Again, by default, Metro expects the directory to be named this way. We enter this directory, and download our seed x86 stage3 from funtoo.org. Note that the 2010-12-24 version stamp matches. Make sure that your directory name matches the stage3 name too. Everything has been set up to match Metro's default filesystem layout.

Next, we go back to the /home/mirror/metro/funtoo-current/x86-32bit/pentium4 directory, and inside it, we create a .control directory. This directory and its subdirectories contain special files that Metro references to determine certain aspects of its behavior. The .control/version/stage3 file is used by Metro to track the most recently-built stage3 for this particular build and subarch. Metro will automatically update this file with a new version stamp after it successfully builds a new stage3. But because Metro didn't actually build this stage3, we need to set up the .control/version/stage3 file manually. This will allow Metro to find our downloaded stage3 when we set up our pentium4 build to use it as a seed. Also note that Metro will create a similar .control/version/stage1 file after it successfully builds an pentium4 funtoo-current stage1.

We also set up .control/strategy/build and .control/strategy/seed files with values of local and stage3 respectively. These files define the building strategy Metro will use when we build pentium4 funtoo-current stages. With a build strategy of local, Metro will source its seed stage from funtoo-current pentium4, the current directory. And with a seed strategy of stage3, Metro will use a stage3 as a seed, and use this seed to build a new stage1, stage2 and stage3.

Step 2: Building the pentium4 stages

Incidentally, if all you wanted to do at this point was to build a new pentium4 funtoo-current stage1/2/3 (plus openvz and vserver templates). You would begin the process by typing:

# cd /root/metro
# scripts/ezbuild.sh funtoo-current pentium4

If you have a slow machine, it could take several hours to be completed because several "heavy" components like gcc or glibc have to be recompiled in each stage. Once a stage has been successfully completed, it is placed in the "${METRO_MIRROR}/funtoo-current/x32-bit/pentium4/YYYY-MM-DD" subdirectory, where YYYY-MM-DD is today's date at the time the ezbuild.sh script was started or the date you put on the ezscript.sh command line.

Building for another binary compatible architecture (remote build)

As written above, Metro is able to perform remote build building different architecture stage3 from a binary compatible seeding stage3 (e.g. using a pentium4 stage3 to seed a Intel Core2 32bits stage3).

In the Metro terminology this is called a remote build (a stage 3 of a different, but binary compatible, architecture is used as a seed). What's not compatible? You can't use a Sparc architecture to generate an x86 or ARM based stage and vice-versa. If you use a 32bit stage then you don't want to seed a 64bit build from it. Be sure that you are using a stage from the same architecture that you are trying to seed. Check Funtoo-current FTP Mirror for a stage that is from the same Architecture that you will be building.

Note

Often, one build (ie. funtoo-current) can be used as a seed for another build such as funtoo-stable. However, hardened builds require hardened stages as seeds in order for the build to complete successfully.

Step 1: Set up Core_2 32bit repository

In this example, we're going to use this pentium4 funtoo-current stage3 to seed a new Core_2 32bit funtoo-current build. To get that done, we need to set up the pentium4 build directory as follows:

#  cd /home/mirror/funtoo/funtoo-current/x86-32bit
# install -d core2_32
# cd core2_32
# install -d .control/strategy
# echo remote > .control/strategy/build
# echo stage3 > .control/strategy/seed
# install -d .control/remote
# echo funtoo-current > .control/remote/build
# echo x86-32bit > .control/remote/arch_desc
# echo pentium4 > .control/remote/subarch

The steps we follow are similar to those we performed for a local build to set up our pentium4 directory for local build. However, note the differences. We didn't download a stage, because we are going to use the pentium4 stage to build a new Core_2 32bit stage. We also didn't create the .control/version/stage{1,3} files because Metro will create them for us after it successfully builds a new stage1 and stage3. We are still using a stage3 seed strategy, but we've set the build strategy to remote, which means that we're going to use a seed stage that's not from this particular subdirectory. Where are we going to get it from? The .control/remote directory contains this information, and lets Metro know that it should look for its seed stage3 in the /home/mirror/funtoo/funtoo-current/x86-32bit/pentium4 directory. Which one will it grab? You guessed it -- the most recently built stage3 (since our seed strategy was set to stage3) that has the version stamp of 2010-12-24, as recorded in /home/mirror/funtoo-current/x86-32bit/pentium4/.control/version/stage. Now you can see how all those control files come together to direct Metro to do the right thing.

Note

arch_desc should be set to one of: x86-32bit, x86-64bit or pure64 for PC-compatible systems. You must use a 32-bit build as a seed for other 32-bit builds, and a 64-bit build as a seed for other 64-bit builds.

Step 2: Building the Core_2 32bit stages

Now, you could start building your new Core_2 32bit stage1/2/3 (plus openvz and vserver templates) by typing the following:

# /root/metro/scripts/ezbuild.sh funtoo-current core2_32

In that case, the produced stages are placed in the /home/mirror/funtoo/funtoo-current/x32-bit/core2_32/YYYY-MM-DD subdirectory.

Step 3: The Next Build

At this point, you now have a new Core_2 32bit stage3, built using a "remote" pentium4 stage3. Once the first remote build completes successfully, metro will automatically change .control/strategy/build to be local instead of remote, so it will use the most recently-built Core_2 32bit stage3 as a seed for any new Core_2 32bit builds from now on.

Build your own tailored stage3

Metro can be easily configured for building custom stage3 by including additional packages. Edit the following configuration file /root/metro/etc/builds/funtoo-current/build.conf:

funtoo-current/build.conf
[collect ../../fslayouts/funtoo/layout.conf]

[section release]

author: Daniel Robbins <drobbins@funtoo.org>

[section target]

compression: xz

[section portage]

FEATURES: 
SYNC: $[snapshot/source/remote]
USE:

[section profile]

format: new
path: gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu
arch: $[:path]/arch/$[target/arch_desc]
build: $[:path]/build/current
flavor: $[:path]/flavor/core
mix-ins:

[section version]

python: 2.7

[section emerge]


[section snapshot]

type: live
compression: xz

[section snapshot/source]

type: git
branch: funtoo.org
# branch to have checked out for tarball:
branch/tar: origin/master
name: ports-2012 
remote: git://github.com/funtoo/ports-2012.git
options: pull

[section metro]

options: 
options/stage: cache/package
target: gentoo

[section baselayout]

services: sshd

[section multi]

snapshot: snapshot

[section files]

motd/trailer: [

 >>> Send suggestions, improvements, bug reports relating to...

 >>> This release:                  $[release/author]
 >>> Funtoo Linux (general):        Funtoo Linux (http://www.funtoo.org)
 >>> Gentoo Linux (general):        Gentoo Linux (http://www.gentoo.org)
]

[collect ../../multi-targets/$[multi/mode:zap]]