Difference between pages "Install/de/Portage" and "Repository Configuration"

< Install(Difference between pages)
(Einführung in Portage)
 
(Migrating existing configurations)
 
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<noinclude>
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{{Warning|This article is a work-in-progress referring to a future Portage version. It does not apply to the current Funtoo Portage version. Please do not update your configuration yet.}}
{{InstallPart|an introduction to Portage}}
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</noinclude>
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=== Einführung in Portage ===
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Portage ist der Paketmanager für Funtoo Linux. Um Pakete aus ihrem Quellcode zu bauen und zu installieren, benutzt man den Befehl <code>emerge</code>. Dieser Befehl sorgt neben der Installation auch dafür, dass alle Abhängigkeiten für die Installation des Pakets aufgelöst werden.
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emerge wird folgerndermaßen aufgerufen:
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Starting with Portage-2.3.8, a switch to a new repository configuration framework is complete and users may want to update their configuration files. This document aims to describe the goals for the new framework and how to use it.
  
<console>
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== Multiple repository layout ==
(chroot) # ##i##emerge paketname
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One of the most important changes is the switch from the old ''overlay'' layout to a new cleaner ''repository'' system. The new layout is more flexible and more predictable. For example, repositories can now use resources (eclasses, for example) provided by other repositories.
</console>
+
  
 +
The old layout was based on the concept of one ''main tree'' and optionally a number of overlays. The main tree provided base system ebuilds, eclasses, profiles, while overlays mostly were able to provide their own ebuilds. The ebuild provided by overlays overrode the ebuilds in main tree to the extend of making it impossible to install the main tree version. Overlays could also provide eclasses for their own ebuilds and package.* entries that applied to all overlays and to the main tree. The Package Manager is responsible for updating the main tree, while overlays are managed externally.
  
Wenn ein Paket auf diese Weise installiert wird, speichert Portage den Paketnamen in der Datei  <code>/var/lib/portage/world</code> ab. Da das Paket explizit, per Paketname installiert wurde, geht Portage davon aus, dass es auch in Zukunft auf dem aktuellen Stand gehalten werden soll.
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The new layout is based on the concept of one or more configurable repositories. Each repository can either be stand-alone or depend upon other repositories. The distribution provides a repository called ''funtoo'' (a drop-in replacement for Gentoo's ''gentoo'' repository). Users can install more repositories at they will, the repositories providing their own ebuilds, eclasses and profiles as necessary and/or using them from other repositories. Users can explicitly choose the repository they want to install packages from. The Package Manager can update all repositories.
Das Paket wird somit Teil des Systems. <code>world</code> ist dabei ein sogenanntes Set. Dadurch, dass alle Pakete dem <code>world</code> Set hinzugefügt werden, kann man das gesamte System wie folgt aktualisieren:
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Zuerst aktualisiert man den gesamten Portage tree, in welchem sich alle verfügbaren Pakete als sogenannte ebuilds befinden. Ebuilds sind Skripte, die dem Tool emerge beschreiben, was genau getan werden muss, um ein Paket zu installieren. Bei Funtoo Linux wird der Portage Tree in einem git Repository gespeichert. Dieses ist um einiges schneller als das in Gentoo standardmäßig verwendete rsync.
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== Portage configuration ==
 +
=== New repository layout ===
 +
The repository configuration should be stored in <code>/etc/portage/repos.conf</code>. It can be either a single file or a directory containing one or more ''.conf'' files.
  
<console>
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The default configuration is installed as <code>/usr/share/portage/config/repos.conf</code>. This file is internal configuration file installed with portage ebuild and should '''not''' be modified. Instead, the configuration in <code>/etc/portage/repos.conf</code> can override the defaults specified there.
(chroot) # ##i##emerge --sync
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<console>
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 +
The configuration uses format similar to Windows .ini files. Each section heading (repository name in square brackets) signifies a single repository, followed by one or more key-value option pairs. For example, the following file copies default configuration for Funtoo repository:
  
Anschließend kann man das gesamte System (das <code>world</code> Set) mit folgendem Befehl aktualisieren:
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{{file|name=/etc/portage/repos.conf/funtoo.conf|desc=Example configuration override for Funtoo repository to move it to non-standard location|body=
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[funtoo]
 +
# moved to non-standard location!
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location = /var/db/repos/funtoo
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sync-type = git
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sync-uri = git://github.com/funtoo/ports-2015.git
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auto-sync = yes
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}}
  
</console>
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The most useful repository configuration options are listed below:
(chroot) # ##i##emerge -auDN @world
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;location: ''Obligatory.'' Specifies the directory where repository is/will be stored. If Portage knows how to sync the repository and the location does not exist, it will be created on next ''emerge --sync''. Otherwise, the directory must exist.
</console>
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;priority: Specifies the priority used for ordering ebuilds from different repositories. If two repositories provide an ebuild with matching versions, the repository with higher priority will be used.
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;auto-sync: Specifies whether ''emerge --sync'' should update the repository. Defaults to ''yes'' if ''sync-type'' is specified, ''no'' otherwise.
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;sync-depth: Specifies ''--depth'' for git clone. Used only on initial sync. Defaults to 1. Can be set to 0 to force full clone (not pass ''--depth'' at all).
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;sync-type: Specifies syncing/update method. Can be one of: ''cvs'', ''git'', ''rsync'', ''svn''.
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;sync-umask: Specifies the umask used when updating/syncing the repository.
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;sync-uri: Specifies remote URI from which the repository will be cloned/synced. Can use any syntax valid for a particular syncing method.
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;sync-user: Specifies the user[:group] used to update/sync the repository. If ''FEATURES=usersync'' is used, defaults to the credentials of directory owner.
  
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Additionally a <code>[DEFAULT]</code> section may be specified. Options in this section are used as defaults for all repositories.
  
Hier eine Aufschlüsselung der verwendeten Optionen:
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=== Migrating existing configurations ===
* '''<code>a</code>''' - (englisch: ask) bevor die Aktion durchgeführt wird, werden die einzelnen anstehenden Updates angezeigt, und man muss die Aktion nochmals bestätigen
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The new configuration format provides replacement for existing configuration done through <code>/etc/portage/make.conf</code> and environment variables. While the variables are still supported for backwards compatibility, users are recommended to move to the new configuration scheme. Funtoo portage ebuild is planned to make the migration unattended (repos.conf installed automatically to ease the config steps) with the following file:
* '''<code>u</code>''' -  (englisch: update) führt Updates für Pakete durch, für die es eine neue Version im Portage Tree gibt
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* '''<code>D</code>''' - (englisch: deep) beachtet den kompletten Abhängigkeitsbaum beim aktualisieren
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{{file|name=/etc/portage/repos.conf/funtoo.conf|body=
* '''<code>N</code>''' -  (englisch: new) baut alle Pakte, die ein neues  bzw. geänderte USE flag haben
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[funtoo]
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location = /usr/portage
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sync-type = git
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sync-uri = git://github.com/funtoo/ports-2015.git
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auto-sync = yes
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}}
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The following replacements are provided for existing variables:
 +
;PORTDIR: Used to specify main tree location. Replaced by ''location'' key in the section corresponding to the default repository (<code>[funtoo]</code> by default).
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;PORTDIR_OVERLAY: Used to specify locations of overlays. Each of the paths needs to be replaced with a separate repository section, with the path placed in ''location'' key. Additionally, ''priority'' may be used to force specific ordering of ebuild overrides.
 +
;SYNC: Used to specify URI for syncing the main repository, also implied a protocol for doing that. Replaced by the ''sync-uri'' and ''sync-type'' keys in the default repository section.
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;SYNC_UMASK: Used to specify umask for syncing repositories. Replaced by ''sync-umask'' key in repository configuration. Can be specified in <code>[DEFAULT]</code> section to apply to all repositories.
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;SYNC_USER: Used to specify user credentials for syncing repositories. Replaced by ''sync-user'' key in repository configuration. Can be specified in <code>[DEFAULT]</code> section to apply to all repositories.
  
Von Zeit zu Zeit sollte man die Option <code>--with-bdeps=y</code> übergeben. Dieses dient dazu auch alle build Abhängigkeiten zu aktualisieren, welche nicht explizit im <code>world</code> Set aufgeführt sind.
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{{file|name=/etc/portage/make.conf|desc=Example old make.conf file|body=
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# user changed PORTDIR location
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PORTDIR="/var/db/repos/funtoo"
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PORTDIR_OVERLAY="/var/db/repos/foo /var/db/repos/bar"
  
Manchmal möchte man auch ein Paket installieren, es aber nicht zum <code>world</code> Set hinzufügen. Zum Beispiel wenn man das Paket nur temporär installieren möchte, oder das Paket nur eine Abhängigkeit eines anderen ist. In diesem Fall wird <code>emerge</code> folgendermaßen aufgerufen:
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SYNC="git://github.com/funtoo/ports-2015.git"
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SYNC_USER="oleg"
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SYNC_UMASK="022"
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}}
  
<console>
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{{file|name=/etc/portage/repos.conf|desc=Replacement repos.conf file|body=
(chroot) # ##i##emerge -1 paketname
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[DEFAULT]
</console>
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sync-user = oleg
 +
sync-umask = 022
  
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[funtoo]
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location = /var/db/repos/funtoo
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sync-type = git
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sync-uri = git://github.com/funtoo/ports-2015.git
  
Fortgeschrittene Benutzer, und alle die es werden wollen, sollten für weitere Informationen die [[Emerge]] wiki Seite lesen.
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[foo]
 +
location = /var/db/repos/foo
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priority = 1
  
==== Aktualisieren von world ====
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[bar]
 +
location = /var/db/repos/bar
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priority = 2
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}}
  
Jetzt ist eine gute Zeit um das gesamte System zu aktualisieren. Am besten vor dem ersten Neustart.
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The <code>repos.conf</code> configuration can be further extended with ''sync-type'' and ''sync-uri'' for overlays to get ''emerge --sync'' updating them automatically.
  
<console>
+
let's see a real example of tree and overlays added.
(chroot) # ##i##emerge --sync
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{{file|name=/etc/portage/repos.conf|desc=Replacement repos.conf file|body=
(chroot) # ##i##emerge -auDN @world
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</console>
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{{fancyimportant|1=
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[gentoo]
<code>emerge</code> gibt manchmal wichtige Meldungen aus. Diese sollten in jedem Fall gelesen werden! Besonders nachdem man perl oder python aktualisiert hat}}
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location = /usr/portage
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sync-type = git
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sync-uri = git://github.com/funtoo/ports-2012.git
 +
 +
[funtoo-overlay]
 +
location = /root/git/funtoo-overlay
 +
 +
[funtoo-gnome]
 +
location = /root/git/funtoo-gnome-overlay
 +
}}
 +
funtoo-overlay and funtoo-gnome-overlay are an overlays added on top of regular portage tree.
 +
[[Category:Portage]]

Revision as of 05:39, February 21, 2015

Warning

This article is a work-in-progress referring to a future Portage version. It does not apply to the current Funtoo Portage version. Please do not update your configuration yet.

Starting with Portage-2.3.8, a switch to a new repository configuration framework is complete and users may want to update their configuration files. This document aims to describe the goals for the new framework and how to use it.

Multiple repository layout

One of the most important changes is the switch from the old overlay layout to a new cleaner repository system. The new layout is more flexible and more predictable. For example, repositories can now use resources (eclasses, for example) provided by other repositories.

The old layout was based on the concept of one main tree and optionally a number of overlays. The main tree provided base system ebuilds, eclasses, profiles, while overlays mostly were able to provide their own ebuilds. The ebuild provided by overlays overrode the ebuilds in main tree to the extend of making it impossible to install the main tree version. Overlays could also provide eclasses for their own ebuilds and package.* entries that applied to all overlays and to the main tree. The Package Manager is responsible for updating the main tree, while overlays are managed externally.

The new layout is based on the concept of one or more configurable repositories. Each repository can either be stand-alone or depend upon other repositories. The distribution provides a repository called funtoo (a drop-in replacement for Gentoo's gentoo repository). Users can install more repositories at they will, the repositories providing their own ebuilds, eclasses and profiles as necessary and/or using them from other repositories. Users can explicitly choose the repository they want to install packages from. The Package Manager can update all repositories.

Portage configuration

New repository layout

The repository configuration should be stored in /etc/portage/repos.conf. It can be either a single file or a directory containing one or more .conf files.

The default configuration is installed as /usr/share/portage/config/repos.conf. This file is internal configuration file installed with portage ebuild and should not be modified. Instead, the configuration in /etc/portage/repos.conf can override the defaults specified there.

The configuration uses format similar to Windows .ini files. Each section heading (repository name in square brackets) signifies a single repository, followed by one or more key-value option pairs. For example, the following file copies default configuration for Funtoo repository:

/etc/portage/repos.conf/funtoo.conf - Example configuration override for Funtoo repository to move it to non-standard location
[funtoo]
# moved to non-standard location!
location = /var/db/repos/funtoo
sync-type = git
sync-uri = git://github.com/funtoo/ports-2015.git
auto-sync = yes

The most useful repository configuration options are listed below:

location
Obligatory. Specifies the directory where repository is/will be stored. If Portage knows how to sync the repository and the location does not exist, it will be created on next emerge --sync. Otherwise, the directory must exist.
priority
Specifies the priority used for ordering ebuilds from different repositories. If two repositories provide an ebuild with matching versions, the repository with higher priority will be used.
auto-sync
Specifies whether emerge --sync should update the repository. Defaults to yes if sync-type is specified, no otherwise.
sync-depth
Specifies --depth for git clone. Used only on initial sync. Defaults to 1. Can be set to 0 to force full clone (not pass --depth at all).
sync-type
Specifies syncing/update method. Can be one of: cvs, git, rsync, svn.
sync-umask
Specifies the umask used when updating/syncing the repository.
sync-uri
Specifies remote URI from which the repository will be cloned/synced. Can use any syntax valid for a particular syncing method.
sync-user
Specifies the user[:group] used to update/sync the repository. If FEATURES=usersync is used, defaults to the credentials of directory owner.

Additionally a [DEFAULT] section may be specified. Options in this section are used as defaults for all repositories.

Migrating existing configurations

The new configuration format provides replacement for existing configuration done through /etc/portage/make.conf and environment variables. While the variables are still supported for backwards compatibility, users are recommended to move to the new configuration scheme. Funtoo portage ebuild is planned to make the migration unattended (repos.conf installed automatically to ease the config steps) with the following file:

/etc/portage/repos.conf/funtoo.conf
[funtoo]
location = /usr/portage
sync-type = git
sync-uri = git://github.com/funtoo/ports-2015.git
auto-sync = yes

The following replacements are provided for existing variables:

PORTDIR
Used to specify main tree location. Replaced by location key in the section corresponding to the default repository ([funtoo] by default).
PORTDIR_OVERLAY
Used to specify locations of overlays. Each of the paths needs to be replaced with a separate repository section, with the path placed in location key. Additionally, priority may be used to force specific ordering of ebuild overrides.
SYNC
Used to specify URI for syncing the main repository, also implied a protocol for doing that. Replaced by the sync-uri and sync-type keys in the default repository section.
SYNC_UMASK
Used to specify umask for syncing repositories. Replaced by sync-umask key in repository configuration. Can be specified in [DEFAULT] section to apply to all repositories.
SYNC_USER
Used to specify user credentials for syncing repositories. Replaced by sync-user key in repository configuration. Can be specified in [DEFAULT] section to apply to all repositories.
/etc/portage/make.conf - Example old make.conf file
# user changed PORTDIR location
PORTDIR="/var/db/repos/funtoo"
PORTDIR_OVERLAY="/var/db/repos/foo /var/db/repos/bar"

SYNC="git://github.com/funtoo/ports-2015.git"
SYNC_USER="oleg"
SYNC_UMASK="022"
/etc/portage/repos.conf - Replacement repos.conf file
[DEFAULT]
sync-user = oleg
sync-umask = 022

[funtoo]
location = /var/db/repos/funtoo
sync-type = git
sync-uri = git://github.com/funtoo/ports-2015.git

[foo]
location = /var/db/repos/foo
priority = 1

[bar]
location = /var/db/repos/bar
priority = 2

The repos.conf configuration can be further extended with sync-type and sync-uri for overlays to get emerge --sync updating them automatically.

let's see a real example of tree and overlays added.

/etc/portage/repos.conf - Replacement repos.conf file
[gentoo]
location = /usr/portage
sync-type = git
sync-uri = git://github.com/funtoo/ports-2012.git
 
[funtoo-overlay]
location = /root/git/funtoo-overlay
 
[funtoo-gnome]
location = /root/git/funtoo-gnome-overlay

funtoo-overlay and funtoo-gnome-overlay are an overlays added on top of regular portage tree.