Difference between pages "Install/Partitioning" and "Package:Debian-sources"

< Install(Difference between pages)
(Undo revision 9384 by Lo0na (talk) - I think grammar was okay here.)
 
(Created page with "{{Ebuild |Summary=This is the Debian kernel. This is default recommended kernel to use in http://www.funtoo.org/Funtoo_Linux_Installation |CatPkg=sys-kernel/debian-sources |Ma...")
 
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<noinclude>
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{{Ebuild
{{InstallPart|the process of partitioning and filesystem creation}}
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|Summary=This is the Debian kernel. This is default recommended kernel to use in http://www.funtoo.org/Funtoo_Linux_Installation
</noinclude>
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|CatPkg=sys-kernel/debian-sources
=== Prepare Hard Disk ===
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|Maintainer=Oleg,
 
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|Homepage=http://www.funtoo.org/Funtoo_Linux_Kernels
In this section, we'll learn about the different ways that Funtoo Linux can be installed on -- and boot from -- a hard disk.
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==== Introduction ====
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In earlier times, there was only one way to boot a PC-compatible computer. All of our desktops and servers had a standard PC BIOS, all our hard drives used Master Boot Records to boot the system, and our hard drives were partitioned into different regions using the MBR partition scheme. That was just how it was done. And we liked it that way!
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Then, along came EFI and UEFI, which are new-style firmware designed to boot systems, along with GPT partition tables to define disk partitions on disks larger than 2.2TB. All of the sudden, we had a variety of options for installing and booting Linux systems, turning what once was a one-method-fits-all approach into something a lot more complex.
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Let's take a moment to review the options available to you for configuring a hard drive to boot Funtoo Linux. This Install Guide uses, and recommends, the old-school method of BIOS booting and using an MBR. It works and (except for rare cases) is universally supported. There's nothing wrong with it. If your system disk is 2TB or smaller in size, it won't prevent you from using all of your disk's capacity, either.
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But, there are some situations where the old-school method isn't optimal. If you have a system disk >2TB in size, then MBR partitions won't allow you to access all your storage. So that's one reason. Another reason is that there are some so-called "PC" systems out there that don't support BIOS booting anymore, and force you to use UEFI to boot. So, out of compassion for people who fall into this predicament, this Install Guide documents UEFI booting too.
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Our recommendation is still to go old-school unless you have reason not to. The boot loader we will be using to load the Linux kernel in this guide is called GRUB, so we call this method the '''BIOS + GRUB (MBR)''' method. It's the traditional method of setting up a PC-compatible system to boot Linux.
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If you need to use UEFI to boot, we recommend not using the MBR at all for booting, as some systems support this, but others don't. Instead, we recommend using UEFI to boot GRUB, which in turn will load Linux. We refer to this method as the '''UEFI + GRUB (GPT)''' method.
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And yes, there are even more methods, some of which are documented on the [[Boot Methods]] page. We used to recommend a '''BIOS + GRUB (GPT)''' method but it is not consistently supported across a wide variety of hardware.
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'''The big question is -- which boot method should you use?''' Here's how to tell.
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;Principle 1 - Old School: If you can reliably boot System Rescue CD and it shows you an initial light blue menu, you are booting the CD using the BIOS, and it's likely that you can thus boot Funtoo Linux using the BIOS. So, go old-school and use BIOS booting, ''unless'' you have some reason to use UEFI, such as having a >2.2TB system disk. In that case, see Principle 2, as your system may also support UEFI booting.
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;Principle 2 - New School: If you can reliably boot System Rescue CD and it shows you an initial black and white menu -- congratulations, your system is configured to support UEFI booting. This means that you are ready to install Funtoo Linux to boot via UEFI. Your system may still support BIOS booting, but just be trying UEFI first. You can poke around in your BIOS boot configuration and play with this.
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;What's the Big Difference between Old School and New School?: Here's the deal. If you go with old-school MBR partitions, your <code>/boot</code> partition will be an ext2 filesystem, and you'll use <code>fdisk</code> to create your MBR partitions. If you go with new-school GPT partitions and UEFI booting, your <code>/boot</code> partition will be a vfat filesystem, because this is what UEFI is able to read, and you will use <code>gdisk</code> to create your GPT partitions. And you'll install GRUB a bit differently. That's about all it comes down to, in case you were curious.
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;Also Note: To install Funtoo Linux to boot via the New School UEFI method, you must boot System Rescue CD using UEFI -- and see an initial black and white screen. Otherwise, UEFI will not be active and you will not be able to set it up!
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{{Note|'''Some motherboards may appear to support UEFI, but don't.''' Do your research. For example, the Award BIOS in my Gigabyte GA-990FXA-UD7 rev 1.1 has an option to enable UEFI boot for CD/DVD. '''This is not sufficient for enabling UEFI boot for hard drives and installing Funtoo Linux.''' UEFI must be supported for both removable media (so you can boot System Rescue CD using UEFI) as well as fixed media (so you can boot your new Funtoo Linux installation.) It turns out that later revisions of this board (rev 3.0) have a new BIOS that fully supports UEFI boot.  This may point to a third principle -- know thy hardware.}}
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==== Old-School (BIOS/MBR) Method ====
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{{Note|Use this method if you are booting using your BIOS, and if your System Rescue CD initial boot menu was light blue. If you're going to use the new-school method, [[#New-School (UEFI/GPT) Method|click here to jump down to UEFI/GPT.]]}}
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===== Preparation =====
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First, it's a good idea to make sure that you've found the correct hard disk to partition. Try this command and verify that <code>/dev/sda</code> is the disk that you want to partition:
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<console>
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# ##i##fdisk -l /dev/sda
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Disk /dev/sda: 640.1 GB, 640135028736 bytes, 1250263728 sectors
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Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
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Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
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I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
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Disk label type: gpt
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#        Start          End    Size  Type            Name
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1        2048  1250263694  596.2G  Linux filesyste Linux filesystem
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</console>
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Now, it's recommended that you erase any existing MBR or GPT partition tables on the disk, which could confuse the system's BIOS at boot time. We do this using <code>sgdisk</code>:
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{{fancywarning|This will make any existing partitions inaccessible! You are '''strongly''' cautioned and advised to backup any critical data before proceeding.}}
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<console>
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# ##i##sgdisk --zap-all /dev/sda
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Creating new GPT entries.
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GPT data structures destroyed! You may now partition the disk using fdisk or
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other utilities.
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</console>
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This output is also nothing to worry about, as the command still succeded:
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<console>
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***************************************************************
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Found invalid GPT and valid MBR; converting MBR to GPT format
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in memory.
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***************************************************************
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</console>
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===== Partitioning =====
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Now we will use <code>fdisk</code> to create the MBR partition table and partitions:
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<console>
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# ##i##fdisk /dev/sda
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</console>
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Within <code>fdisk</code>, follow these steps:
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'''Empty the partition table''':
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<console>
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Command (m for help): ##i##o ↵
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</console>
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'''Create Partition 1''' (boot):
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<console>
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Command (m for help): ##i##n ↵
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Partition type (default p): ##i##↵
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Partition number (1-4, default 1): ##i##↵
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First sector: ##i##↵
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Last sector: ##i##+128M ↵
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</console>
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'''Create Partition 2''' (swap):
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<console>
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Command (m for help): ##i##n ↵
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Partition type (default p): ##i##↵
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Partition number (2-4, default 2): ##i##↵
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First sector: ##i##↵
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Last sector: ##i##+2G ↵
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Command (m for help): ##i##t ↵
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Partition number (1,2, default 2): ##i## ↵
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Hex code (type L to list all codes): ##i##82 ↵
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</console>
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'''Create the root partition:'''
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<console>
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Command (m for help): ##i##n ↵
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Partition type (default p): ##i##↵
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Partition number (3,4, default 3): ##i##↵
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First sector: ##i##↵
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Last sector: ##i##↵
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</console>
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'''Verify the partition table:'''
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<console>
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Command (m for help): ##i##p
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Disk /dev/sda: 298.1 GiB, 320072933376 bytes, 625142448 sectors
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Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
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Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
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I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
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Disklabel type: dos
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Disk identifier: 0x82abc9a6
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Device    Boot    Start      End    Blocks  Id System
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/dev/sda1          2048    264191    131072  83 Linux
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/dev/sda2        264192  4458495  2097152  82 Linux swap / Solaris
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/dev/sda3        4458496 625142447 310341976  83 Linux
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</console>
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'''Write the parition table to disk:'''
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<console>
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Command (m for help): ##i##w
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</console>
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Your new MBR partition table will now be written to your system disk.
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{{Note|You're done with partitioning! Now, jump over to [[#Creating filesystems|Creating filesystems]].}}
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==== New-School (UEFI/GPT) Method ====
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{{Note|Use this method if you are booting using UEFI, and if your System Rescue CD initial boot menu was black and white. If it was light blue, this method will not work.}}
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The <tt>gdisk</tt> commands to create a GPT partition table are as follows. Adapt sizes as necessary, although these defaults will work for most users. Start <code>gdisk</code>:
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<console>
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# ##i##gdisk /dev/sda
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</console>
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Within <tt>gdisk</tt>, follow these steps:
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'''Create a new empty partition table''' (This ''will'' erase all data on the disk when saved):
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<console>
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Command: ##i##o ↵
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This option deletes all partitions and creates a new protective MBR.
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Proceed? (Y/N): ##i##y ↵
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</console>
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'''Create Partition 1''' (boot):
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<console>
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Command: ##i##n ↵
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Partition Number: ##i##1 ↵
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First sector: ##i##↵
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Last sector: ##i##+500M ↵
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Hex Code: ##i##EF00 ↵
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</console>
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'''Create Partition 2''' (swap):
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<console>
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Command: ##i##n ↵
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Partition Number: ##i##2 ↵
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First sector: ##i##↵
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Last sector: ##i##+4G ↵
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Hex Code: ##i##8200 ↵
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</console>
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'''Create Partition 3''' (root):
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<console>
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Command: ##i##n ↵
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Partition Number: ##i##3 ↵
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First sector: ##i##↵
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Last sector: ##i##↵##!i## (for rest of disk)
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Hex Code: ##i##↵
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</console>
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Along the way, you can type "<tt>p</tt>" and hit Enter to view your current partition table. If you make a mistake, you can type "<tt>d</tt>" to delete an existing partition that you created. When you are satisfied with your partition setup, type "<tt>w</tt>" to write your configuration to disk:
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'''Write Partition Table To Disk''':
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<console>
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Command: ##i##w ↵
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Do you want to proceed? (Y/N): ##i##Y ↵
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</console>
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The partition table will now be written to disk and <tt>gdisk</tt> will close.
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Now, your GPT/GUID partitions have been created, and will show up as the following ''block devices'' under Linux:
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* <tt>/dev/sda1</tt>, which will be used to hold the <tt>/boot</tt> filesystem,
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* <tt>/dev/sda2</tt>, which will be used for swap space, and
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* <tt>/dev/sda3</tt>, which will hold your root filesystem.
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==== Creating filesystems ====
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{{Note|This section covers both BIOS ''and'' UEFI installs. Don't skip it!}}
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Before your newly-created partitions can be used, the block devices need to be initialized with filesystem ''metadata''. This process is known as ''creating a filesystem'' on the block devices. After filesystems are created on the block devices, they can be mounted and used to store files.
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Let's keep this simple. Are you using old-school MBR partitions? If so, let's create an ext2 filesystem on /dev/sda1:
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<console>
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# ##i##mkfs.ext2 /dev/sda1
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</console>
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If you're using new-school GPT partitions for UEFI, you'll want to create a vfat filesystem on /dev/sda1, because this is what UEFI is able to read:
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<console>
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# ##i##mkfs.vfat -F 32 /dev/sda1
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</console>
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Now, let's create a swap partition. This partition will be used as disk-based virtual memory for your Funtoo Linux system.
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You will not create a filesystem on your swap partition, since it is not used to store files. But it is necessary to initialize it using the <code>mkswap</code> command. Then we'll run the <code>swapon</code> command to make your newly-initialized swap space immediately active within the live CD environment, in case it is needed during the rest of the install process:
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<console>
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# ##i##mkswap /dev/sda2
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# ##i##swapon /dev/sda2
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</console>
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Now, we need to create a root filesystem. This is where Funtoo Linux will live. We generally recommend ext4 or XFS root filesystems. If you're not sure, choose ext4. Here's how to create a root ext4 filesystem:
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<console>
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# ##i##mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda3
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</console>
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...and here's how to create an XFS root filesystem, if you choose to use XFS:
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<console>
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# ##i##mkfs.xfs /dev/sda3
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</console>
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Your filesystems (and swap) have all now been initialized, so that that can be mounted (attached to your existing directory heirarchy) and used to store files. We are ready to begin installing Funtoo Linux on these brand-new filesystems.
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{{fancywarning|1=
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When deploying an OpenVZ host, please use ext4 exclusively. The Parallels development team tests extensively with ext4, and modern versions of <code>openvz-rhel6-stable</code> are '''not''' compatible with XFS, and you may experience kernel bugs.
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}}
 
}}
 
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== Introduction ==
==== Mounting filesystems ====
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This is the Debian kernel. It is roughly equal to a kernel shipped by Debian Linux in their releases. Ebuild now support the <code>binary</code> USE flag. The aim of this ebuild is to have support for near all possible hardware and users shouldn't really dig into configs, aka "install and forget".  Daniel has added a special config-extract command which can be used to list all available official Debian kernel configurations, and generate them from the Debian files included with the kernel.
 
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== Usage ==
Mount the newly-created filesystems as follows, creating <code>/mnt/funtoo</code> as the installation mount point:
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<console>
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# ##i##mkdir /mnt/funtoo
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# ##i##mount /dev/sda3 /mnt/funtoo
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# ##i##mkdir /mnt/funtoo/boot
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# ##i##mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/funtoo/boot
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</console>
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Optionally, if you have a separate filesystem for <code>/home</code> or anything else:
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<console>
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# ##i##mkdir /mnt/funtoo/home
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# ##i##mount /dev/sda4 /mnt/funtoo/home
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</console>
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If you have <code>/tmp</code> or <code>/var/tmp</code> on a separate filesystem, be sure to change the permissions of the mount point to be globally-writeable after mounting, as follows:
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<console>
 
<console>
# ##i##chmod 1777 /mnt/funtoo/tmp
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###i## echo "sys-kernel/debian-sources binary" >> /etc/portage/package.use
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###i## emerge debian-sources
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###i## nano -w /etc/boot.conf
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###i## boot-update
 
</console>
 
</console>
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{{fancyimportant|1=
 +
<code>debian-sources</code> with <code>binary</code> USE flag also automatically installing a /usr/src/linux symlink pointing to debian kernel.}}
 +
== Advanced use ==
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Additional information about using <code>config-extract</code> tool and genkernel tips can be found here:
 +
http://www.funtoo.org/Funtoo_Linux_Kernels
 +
{{EbuildFooter}}

Revision as of 09:47, March 31, 2015

sys-kernel/debian-sources


Current Maintainer(s):Oleg Vinichenko
Source Repository:Repository:Funtoo Overlay

http://www.funtoo.org/Funtoo_Linux_Kernels

Summary: This is the Debian kernel. This is default recommended kernel to use in http://www.funtoo.org/Funtoo_Linux_Installation

Use Flags

binary
Builds and installs kernel automatically
rt
Applies the CONFIG_PREEMPT_RT patch series

News

Drobbins

Perl Updates

Gentoo has bumped perl from 5.20 to 5.22. Be sure to run perl-cleaner --all after the upgrade.
2015-07-25 by Drobbins
Drobbins

ARM Rebuild

ARM systems will use new stage3's that are not compatible with earlier versions.
2015-06-27 by Drobbins
Drobbins

ABI X86 64 and 32

Funtoo Linux has new 32-bit compatibility libraries inherited from Gentoo. Learn about them here.
2015-06-18 by Drobbins
More...

Debian-sources

Tip

We welcome improvements to this page. To edit this page, Create a Funtoo account. Then log in and then click here to edit this page. See our editing guidelines to becoming a wiki-editing pro.

Introduction

This is the Debian kernel. It is roughly equal to a kernel shipped by Debian Linux in their releases. Ebuild now support the binary USE flag. The aim of this ebuild is to have support for near all possible hardware and users shouldn't really dig into configs, aka "install and forget". Daniel has added a special config-extract command which can be used to list all available official Debian kernel configurations, and generate them from the Debian files included with the kernel.

Usage

# echo "sys-kernel/debian-sources binary" >> /etc/portage/package.use
# emerge debian-sources
# nano -w /etc/boot.conf
# boot-update
Important

debian-sources with binary USE flag also automatically installing a /usr/src/linux symlink pointing to debian kernel.

Advanced use

Additional information about using config-extract tool and genkernel tips can be found here: http://www.funtoo.org/Funtoo_Linux_Kernels