Difference between revisions of "ZFS Install Guide"

m (Kernel Configuration)
m (Suggested zpool location was wrong.)
 
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to obtain similar benefits (with arguably better data integrity) when
 
to obtain similar benefits (with arguably better data integrity) when
 
dealing with many small files (e.g. the portage tree).
 
dealing with many small files (e.g. the portage tree).
 +
 +
For a quick tour of ZFS and have a big picture of its common operations you can consult the page [[ZFS Fun]].
  
 
=== Disclaimers ===
 
=== Disclaimers ===
Line 38: Line 40:
 
{{fancywarning|This guide is a work in progress. Expect some quirks.}}
 
{{fancywarning|This guide is a work in progress. Expect some quirks.}}
 
{{fancyimportant|'''Since ZFS was really designed for 64 bit systems, we are only recommending and supporting 64 bit platforms and installations. We will not be supporting 32 bit platforms'''!}}
 
{{fancyimportant|'''Since ZFS was really designed for 64 bit systems, we are only recommending and supporting 64 bit platforms and installations. We will not be supporting 32 bit platforms'''!}}
 
== Video Tutorial ==
 
 
As a companion to the install instructions below, a YouTube video ZFS install tutorial is now available:
 
 
{{#widget:YouTube|id=kxEdSXwU0ZI|width=640|height=360}}
 
 
 
== Downloading the ISO (With ZFS) ==
 
== Downloading the ISO (With ZFS) ==
In order for us to install Funtoo on ZFS, you will need an environment that provides the ZFS tools. Therefore we will download a customized version of System Rescue CD with ZFS already included.
+
In order for us to install Funtoo on ZFS, you will need an environment that already provides the ZFS tools. Therefore we will download a customized version of System Rescue CD with ZFS included.  
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
Name: sysresccd-3.7.1_zfs_0.6.2.iso   (492 MB)
+
Name: sysresccd-4.2.0_zfs_0.6.2.iso (545 MB)
Release Date: 2013-08-27
+
Release Date: 2014-02-25
md5sum e6cbebfafb3c32c97be4acd1bb099743
+
md5sum 01f4e6929247d54db77ab7be4d156d85
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
Line 57: Line 52:
 
'''[http://ftp.osuosl.org/pub/funtoo/distfiles/sysresccd/ Download System Rescue CD with ZFS]'''<br />
 
'''[http://ftp.osuosl.org/pub/funtoo/distfiles/sysresccd/ Download System Rescue CD with ZFS]'''<br />
  
== Creating a bootable USB from ISO ==
+
== Creating a bootable USB from ISO (From a Linux Environment) ==
 
After you download the iso, you can do the following steps to create a bootable USB:
 
After you download the iso, you can do the following steps to create a bootable USB:
  
Line 65: Line 60:
  
 
Mount the iso
 
Mount the iso
# ##i##mount -o ro,loop /root/sysresccd-3.7.1_zfs_0.6.2.iso /tmp/loop
+
# ##i##mount -o ro,loop /root/sysresccd-4.2.0_zfs_0.6.2.iso /tmp/loop
  
 
Run the usb installer
 
Run the usb installer
Line 72: Line 67:
  
 
That should be all you need to do to get your flash drive working.
 
That should be all you need to do to get your flash drive working.
 +
 +
== Booting the ISO ==
 +
 +
{{fancywarning|'''When booting into the ISO, Make sure that you select the "Alternate 64 bit kernel (altker64)". The ZFS modules have been built specifically for this kernel rather than the standard kernel. If you select a different kernel, you will get a fail to load module stack error message.'''}}
  
 
== Creating partitions ==
 
== Creating partitions ==
Line 78: Line 77:
 
We will be showing you how to partition it '''manually''' because if you partition it manually you get to create your own layout, you get to have your own separate /boot partition (Which is nice since not every bootloader supports booting from ZFS pools), and you get to boot into RAID10, RAID5 (RAIDZ) pools and any other layouts due to you having a separate /boot partition.
 
We will be showing you how to partition it '''manually''' because if you partition it manually you get to create your own layout, you get to have your own separate /boot partition (Which is nice since not every bootloader supports booting from ZFS pools), and you get to boot into RAID10, RAID5 (RAIDZ) pools and any other layouts due to you having a separate /boot partition.
  
==== fdisk (MBR Style) ====
+
==== gdisk (GPT Style) ====
  
 
'''A Fresh Start''':
 
'''A Fresh Start''':
Line 86: Line 85:
  
 
<console>
 
<console>
# ##i##fdisk /dev/sda
+
# ##i##sgdisk -Z /dev/sda
Command (m for help): ##i##o ↵
+
Building a new DOS disklabel with disk identifier 0xbeead864.
+
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
{{fancywarning|This is a destructive operation. Make sure you really don't want anything on this disk.}}
+
{{fancywarning|This is a destructive operation and the program will not ask you for confirmation! Make sure you really don't want anything on this disk.}}
  
 
Now that we have a clean drive, we will create the new layout.
 
Now that we have a clean drive, we will create the new layout.
  
'''Create Partition 1''' (boot):
+
First open up the application:
<console>
+
Command: ##i##n ↵
+
Partition type: ##i##↵
+
Partition number: ##i##↵
+
First sector: ##i##↵
+
Last sector: ##i##+250M ↵
+
</console>
+
 
+
'''Create Partition 2''' (ZFS):
+
<console>
+
Command: ##i##n ↵
+
Partition type: ##i##↵
+
Partition number: ##i##↵
+
First sector: ##i##↵
+
Last sector: ##i##↵
+
 
+
Command: ##i##t ↵
+
Partition number: ##i##2 ↵
+
Hex code: ##i##bf ↵
+
 
+
Command: ##i##p ↵
+
 
+
Device Boot      Start        End      Blocks  Id  System
+
/dev/sda1            2048      514047      256000  83  Linux
+
/dev/sda2          514048  1953525167  976505560  bf  Solaris
+
</console>
+
 
+
==== gdisk (GPT Style) ====
+
 
+
'''A Fresh Start''':
+
 
+
First lets make sure that the disk is completely wiped from any previous disk labels and partitions.
+
We will also assume that <tt>/dev/sda</tt> is the target drive.<br />
+
  
 
<console>
 
<console>
 
# ##i##gdisk /dev/sda
 
# ##i##gdisk /dev/sda
 
Command: ##i##x ↵
 
Expert command: ##i##z ↵
 
About to wipe out GPT on /dev/sda. Proceed?: ##i##y ↵
 
GPT data structures destroyed! You may now partition the disk using fdisk or other utilities.
 
Blank out MBR?: ##i##y ↵
 
 
</console>
 
</console>
 
{{fancywarning|This is a destructive operation. Make sure you really don't want anything on this disk.}}
 
 
Now that we have a clean drive, we will create the new layout.
 
  
 
'''Create Partition 1''' (boot):
 
'''Create Partition 1''' (boot):
Line 160: Line 114:
 
Hex Code: ##i##EF02 ↵
 
Hex Code: ##i##EF02 ↵
 
</console>
 
</console>
{{fancyimportant|Only make the above BIOS Boot Partition if you are using GRUB 2 on GPT. If you are using the extlinux bootloader, this partition is not necessary.}}
 
  
 
'''Create Partition 3''' (ZFS):
 
'''Create Partition 3''' (ZFS):
Line 180: Line 133:
  
  
=== Format your boot volume ===
+
=== Format your /boot partition ===
Format your separate /boot partition:
+
<console># ##i##mkfs.ext2 /dev/sda1</console>
+
 
+
 
+
=== Encryption (Optional) ===
+
If you want encryption, then create your encrypted vault(s) now by doing the following:
+
  
 
<console>
 
<console>
# ##i##cryptsetup luksFormat /dev/sda2
+
# ##i##mkfs.ext2 -m 1 /dev/sda1
# ##i##cryptsetup luksOpen /dev/sda2 vault_1
+
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
{{fancyimportant|If you followed the manual GPT partitioning instructions, you should change '''/dev/sda2 to /dev/sda3'''.}}
 
 
=== Create the zpool ===
 
=== Create the zpool ===
We will first create the pool. The pool will be named `rpool` and the disk will be aligned to 4096 (using ashift=12)
+
We will first create the pool. The pool will be named <code>tank</code>. Feel free to name your pool as you want.  We will use <code>ashift=12</code> option  which is used for a hard drives with a 4096 sector size.
<console># ##i##zpool create -f -o ashift=12 -o cachefile= -O compression=on -m none -R /mnt/funtoo rpool /dev/sda2</console>
+
<console># ##i## zpool create -f -o ashift=12 -o cachefile=/tmp/zpool.cache -O normalization=formD -m none -R /mnt/funtoo tank /dev/sda3 </console>
 
+
{{fancyimportant|If you followed the manual GPT partitioning instructions, you should change '''/dev/sda2 to /dev/sda3'''. If you are using encrypted root, then change '''/dev/sda2 to vault_1'''.}}
+
 
+
{{fancynote|'''ashift<nowiki>=</nowiki>12''' should be use if you have a newer, advanced format disk that has a sector size of 4096 bytes. If you have an older disk with 512 byte sectors, you should use '''ashift<nowiki>=</nowiki>9''' or don't add the option for auto detection}}
+
 
+
{{fancynote|If you have a previous pool that you would like to import, you can do a: '''zpool import -f -R /mnt/funtoo <pool_name>'''}}
+
 
+
 
+
{{fancynote|If you used encryption, replace '''/dev/sda2''' with '''/dev/mapper/vault_1''' or '''/dev/mapper/{whatever you named your encrypted device}'''.}}
+
  
 
=== Create the zfs datasets ===
 
=== Create the zfs datasets ===
We will now create some datasets. For this installation, we will create a small but future proof amount of datasets. We will have a dataset for the OS (/), and your swap. We will also show you how to create some optional datasets: /home, /var, /usr/src, and /usr/portage.
+
We will now create some datasets. For this installation, we will create a small but future proof amount of datasets. We will have a dataset for the OS (/), and your swap. We will also show you how to create some optional datasets as examples ones: <code>/home</code>, <code>/usr/src</code>, and <code>/usr/portage</code>.
  
 
<console>
 
<console>
 
Create some empty containers for organization purposes, and make the dataset that will hold /
 
Create some empty containers for organization purposes, and make the dataset that will hold /
# ##i##zfs create rpool/ROOT
+
# ##i##zfs create -p tank/funtoo
# ##i##zfs create -o mountpoint=/ rpool/ROOT/funtoo
+
# ##i##zfs create -o mountpoint=/ tank/funtoo/root
  
 
Optional, but recommended datasets: /home
 
Optional, but recommended datasets: /home
# ##i##zfs create -o mountpoint=/home rpool/HOME
+
# ##i##zfs create -o mountpoint=/home tank/funtoo/home
  
Optional, portage tree, distfiles, and binary packages:
+
Optional datasets: /usr/src, /usr/portage/{distfiles,packages}
# ##i##zfs create rpool/FUNTOO
+
# ##i##zfs create -o mountpoint=/usr/src tank/funtoo/src
# ##i##zfs create -o mountpoint=/usr/portage -o compression=off rpool/FUNTOO/portage
+
# ##i##zfs create -o mountpoint=/usr/portage -o compression=off tank/funtoo/portage
# ##i##zfs create -o mountpoint=/usr/portage/distfiles rpool/FUNTOO/portage/distfiles
+
# ##i##zfs create -o mountpoint=/usr/portage/distfiles tank/funtoo/portage/distfiles
# ##i##zfs create -o mountpoint=/usr/portage/packages rpool/FUNTOO/portage/packages
+
# ##i##zfs create -o mountpoint=/usr/portage/packages tank/funtoo/portage/packages
 
+
Optional datasets: /usr/src
+
# ##i##zfs create -o mountpoint=/usr/src rpool/FUNTOO/src
+
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
=== Create your swap zvol ===
+
== Installing Funtoo ==
'''Make your swap +1G greater than your RAM. An 8G machine would have 9G of SWAP (This is kinda big though). For machines with this much memory, You could just make it 2G if you don't have any problems.'''
+
<console>
+
# ##i##zfs create -o sync=always -o primarycache=metadata -o secondarycache=none -o volblocksize=4K -V 1G rpool/swap
+
</console>
+
  
=== Format your swap zvol ===
+
=== Pre-Chroot ===
<console>
+
# ##i##mkswap -f /dev/zvol/rpool/swap
+
# ##i##swapon /dev/zvol/rpool/swap
+
</console>
+
  
 
=== Last minute checks and touches ===
 
Check to make sure everything appears fine. Your output may differ depending on the choices you made above:
 
 
<console>
 
<console>
# ##i##zpool status
+
Go into the directory that you will chroot into
  pool: rpool
+
# ##i##cd /mnt/funtoo
state: ONLINE
+
  scan: none requested
+
config:
+
  
        NAME        STATE    READ WRITE CKSUM
+
Make a boot folder and mount your boot drive
        rpool      ONLINE      0    0    0
+
# ##i##mkdir boot
          sda2      ONLINE      0    0    0
+
# ##i##mount /dev/sda1 boot
 
+
errors: No known data errors
+
 
+
# ##i##zfs list
+
rpool              3.10G  15.5G  136K  none
+
rpool/HOME          136K  15.5G  136K  /mnt/funtoo/home
+
rpool/ROOT          308K  15.5G  136K  none
+
rpool/ROOT/funtoo  172K  15.5G  172K  /mnt/funtoo
+
rpool/swap        3.09G  18.6G    76K  -
+
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
Now we will continue to install funtoo.
+
[[Funtoo_Linux_Installation|Now download and extract the Funtoo stage3 ...]]
  
== Installing Funtoo ==
+
Once you've extracted the stage3, do a few more preparations and chroot into your new funtoo environment:
[[Funtoo_Linux_Installation|Download and extract the Funtoo stage3 and continue installation as normal.]]
+
  
Then once you've extracted the stage3, chroot into your new funtoo environment:
 
 
<console>
 
<console>
Go into the directory that you will chroot into
 
# ##i##cd /mnt/funtoo
 
 
Mount your boot drive
 
# ##i##mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/funtoo/boot
 
 
 
Bind the kernel related directories
 
Bind the kernel related directories
# ##i##mount -t proc none /mnt/funtoo/proc
+
# ##i##mount -t proc none proc
# ##i##mount --rbind /dev /mnt/funtoo/dev
+
# ##i##mount --rbind /dev dev
# ##i##mount --rbind /sys /mnt/funtoo/sys
+
# ##i##mount --rbind /sys sys
  
 
Copy network settings
 
Copy network settings
# ##i##cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/funtoo/etc/
+
# ##i##cp -f /etc/resolv.conf etc
  
chroot into your new funtoo environment
+
Make the zfs folder in 'etc' and copy your zpool.cache
# ##i##env -i HOME=/root TERM=$TERM chroot /mnt/funtoo /bin/bash --login
+
# ##i##mkdir etc/zfs
 +
# ##i##cp /tmp/zpool.cache etc/zfs
  
Place your mountpoints into your /etc/mtab file
+
Chroot into Funtoo
# ##i##cat /proc/mounts > /etc/mtab
+
# ##i##env -i HOME=/root TERM=$TERM chroot . bash -l
 
+
Sync your tree
+
# ##i##emerge --sync
+
 
</console>
 
</console>
 +
 +
{{:Install/PortageTree}}
  
 
=== Add filesystems to /etc/fstab ===
 
=== Add filesystems to /etc/fstab ===
  
Before we continue to compile and or install our kernel in the next step, we will edit the /etc/fstab file because if we decide to install our kernel through portage, portage will need to know where is your /boot so that it can place the files in there. We also need to update /etc/mtab so our system knows what is mounted
+
Before we continue to compile and or install our kernel in the next step, we will edit the <code>/etc/fstab</code> file because if we decide to install our kernel through portage, portage will need to know where our <code>/boot</code> is, so that it can place the files in there.  
  
<console>
+
Edit <code>/etc/fstab</code>:
# ##i##nano /etc/fstab
+
  
 +
{{file|name=/etc/fstab|desc= |body=
 
# <fs>                  <mountpoint>    <type>          <opts>          <dump/pass>
 
# <fs>                  <mountpoint>    <type>          <opts>          <dump/pass>
# Do not add the /boot line below if you are using whole-disk zfs
+
 
 
/dev/sda1              /boot          ext2            defaults        0 2
 
/dev/sda1              /boot          ext2            defaults        0 2
/dev/zvol/rpool/swap    none            swap            sw              0 0
+
}}
</console>
+
  
 
== Kernel Configuration ==
 
== Kernel Configuration ==
To speed up this step, you can install "bliss-kernel" since it's already properly configured for ZFS and a lot of other configurations. The kernel is also compiled and ready to go. To install 'bliss-kernel' type the following:
+
...wip
  
<console>
+
== Installing the ZFS userspace tools and kernel modules ==
# ##i##emerge bliss-kernel
+
Emerge {{Package|sys-fs/zfs}}. This package will bring in {{Package|sys-kernel/spl}}, and {{Package|sys-fs/zfs-kmod}} as its dependencies:
</console>
+
 
+
Now make sure that your /usr/src/linux symlink is pointing to this kernel by typing the following:
+
  
 
<console>
 
<console>
# ##i##eselect kernel list
+
# ##i##emerge zfs
 
+
Available kernel symlink targets:
+
[1]  linux-3.10.10-FB.01 *
+
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
You should see a star next to the bliss-kernel version you installed. In this case it was 3.10.10-FB.01. If it's not set, you can type '''eselect kernel set #'''.
+
Check to make sure that the zfs tools are working. The <code>zpool.cache</code> file that you copied before should be displayed.
 
+
== Installing the ZFS userspace tools ==
+
 
+
<console># ##i##emerge -av zfs</console>
+
 
+
Check to make sure that the zfs tools are working, the zpool.cache file that you copied before should be displayed.
+
  
 
<console>
 
<console>
Line 338: Line 227:
  
 
If everything worked, continue.
 
If everything worked, continue.
 
== Install the bootloader ==
 
=== GRUB 2 ===
 
Before you do this, make sure this checklist is followed:
 
* Installed kernel and kernel modules
 
* Installed zfs package from the tree
 
* /dev, /proc, /sys are mounted in the chroot environment
 
 
Once all this is checked, let's install grub2. First we need to enable the "libzfs" use flag so zfs support is compiled for grub2.
 
 
<console># ##i##echo "sys-boot/grub libzfs" >> /etc/portage/package.use</console>
 
 
Then we will compile grub2:
 
 
<console># ##i##emerge -av grub</console>
 
 
Once this is done, you can check that grub is version 2.00 by doing the following command:
 
<console>
 
# ##i##grub-install --version
 
grub-install (GRUB) 2.00
 
</console>
 
 
Now try to install grub2:
 
<console># ##i##grub-install --no-floppy /dev/sda</console>
 
 
You should receive the following message
 
<console>Installation finished. No error reported.</console>
 
 
If not, then go back to the above checklist.
 
 
=== LILO ===
 
Before you do this, make sure the following checklist is followed:
 
* /dev/, /proc and /sys are mounted.
 
* Installed the sys-fs/zfs package from the tree.
 
Once the above requirements are met, LILO can be installed.
 
 
Now we will install LILO.
 
<console># ##i##emerge -av sys-boot/lilo</console>
 
Once the installation of LILO is complete we will need to edit the lilo.conf file.
 
<console># ##i##nano /etc/lilo.conf
 
boot=/dev/sda
 
prompt
 
timeout=4
 
default=Funtoo
 
 
image=/boot/bzImage
 
      label=Funtoo
 
      read-only
 
      append="root=rpool/ROOT/funtoo"
 
      initrd=/boot/initramfs
 
</console>
 
All that is left now is to install the bootcode to the MBR.
 
 
This can be accomplished by running:
 
<console># ##i##/sbin/lilo</console>
 
If it is successful you should see:
 
<console>
 
Warning: LBA32 addressing assumed
 
Added Funtoo + *
 
One warning was issued
 
</console>
 
  
 
== Create the initramfs ==
 
== Create the initramfs ==
There are two ways to do this, you can use genkernel, or you can use my bliss initramfs creator. I will show you both.
 
 
 
=== genkernel ===
 
=== genkernel ===
 +
Install genkernel and run it:
 
<console>
 
<console>
# ##i##emerge -av sys-kernel/genkernel
+
# ##i##emerge genkernel
# You only need to add --luks if you used encryption
+
 
 +
You only need to add --luks if you used encryption
 
# ##i##genkernel --zfs --luks initramfs
 
# ##i##genkernel --zfs --luks initramfs
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
=== Bliss Initramfs Creator ===
+
== Installing & Configuring the Bootloader ==
If you are encrypting your drives, then add the "luks" use flag to your package.use before emerging:
+
  
 +
=== GRUB 2  ===
 
<console>
 
<console>
# ##i##echo "sys-kernel/bliss-initramfs luks" >> /etc/portage/package.use
+
# ##i##emerge grub
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
Now install the creator:
+
Now install grub to the drive itself (not a partition):
 
+
 
<console>
 
<console>
# ##i##emerge bliss-initramfs
+
# ##i##grub-install /dev/sda
 
</console>
 
</console>
  
 +
=== boot-update ===
 +
boot-update comes as a dependency of grub2, so if you already installed grub, it's already on your system!
  
Then go into the install directory, run the script as root, and place it into /boot:
 
<console># ##i##cd /opt/bliss-initramfs
 
# ##i##./createInit
 
# ##i##mv initrd-<kernel_name> /boot
 
</console>
 
'''<kernel_name>''' is the name of what you selected in the initramfs creator, and the name of the outputted file.
 
 
== Using boot-update ==
 
=== /boot on separate partition ===
 
If you created a separate non-zfs partition for boot then configuring boot-update is almost exactly the same as a normal install except that auto detection for root does not work. You must tell boot-update what your root is.
 
 
==== Genkernel ====
 
==== Genkernel ====
 
If your using genkernel you must add 'real_root=ZFS=<root>' and 'dozfs' to your params.
 
If your using genkernel you must add 'real_root=ZFS=<root>' and 'dozfs' to your params.
Example entry for boot.conf:
+
Example entry for <code>/etc/boot.conf</code>:
<console>
+
 
 +
{{file|name=/etc/boot.conf|desc= |body=
 
"Funtoo ZFS" {
 
"Funtoo ZFS" {
         kernel vmlinuz[-v]
+
         kernel kernel[-v]
 
         initrd initramfs-genkernel-x86_64[-v]
 
         initrd initramfs-genkernel-x86_64[-v]
         params real_root=ZFS=rpool/ROOT/funtoo
+
         params real_root=ZFS=tank/funtoo/root
         params += dozfs
+
         params += dozfs=force
        # Also add 'params += crypt_root=/dev/sda2' if you used encryption
+
        # Adjust the above setting to your system if needed
+
 
}
 
}
</console>
+
}}
 +
 
 +
After editing /etc/boot.conf, you just need to run boot-update to update grub.cfg
  
==== Bliss Initramfs Creator ====
 
If you used the Bliss Initramfs Creator then all you need to do is add 'root=<root>' to your params.
 
Example entry for boot.conf:
 
 
<console>
 
<console>
"Funtoo ZFS" {
+
###i## boot-update
        kernel vmlinuz[-v]
+
        initrd initrd[-v]
+
        params root=rpool/ROOT/funtoo quiet
+
        # If you have an encrypted device with a regular passphrase,
+
        # you can add the following line
+
        params += enc_root=/dev/sda3 enc_type=pass
+
}
+
 
</console>
 
</console>
 
After editing /etc/boot.conf, you just need to run boot-update to update grub.cfg
 
<console># ##i##boot-update</console>
 
 
=== /boot on ZFS ===
 
TBC - pending update to boot-update to support this
 
  
 
== Final configuration ==
 
== Final configuration ==
Line 491: Line 295:
  
 
Turn off the swap
 
Turn off the swap
# ##i##swapoff /dev/zvol/rpool/swap
+
# ##i##swapoff /dev/zvol/tank/swap
  
 
Export the zpool
 
Export the zpool
 
# ##i##cd /
 
# ##i##cd /
# ##i##zpool export rpool
+
# ##i##zpool export tank
  
 
Reboot
 
Reboot
Line 506: Line 310:
  
 
== After reboot ==
 
== After reboot ==
 +
 +
=== Forgot to reset password? ===
 +
==== System Rescue CD ====
 +
If you aren't using bliss-initramfs, then you can reboot back into your sysresccd and reset through there by mounting your drive, chrooting, and then typing passwd.
 +
 +
Example:
 +
<console>
 +
# ##i##zpool import -f -R /mnt/funtoo tank
 +
# ##i##chroot /mnt/funtoo bash -l
 +
# ##i##passwd
 +
# ##i##exit
 +
# ##i##zpool export -f tank
 +
# ##i##reboot
 +
</console>
 +
 
=== Create initial ZFS Snapshot ===
 
=== Create initial ZFS Snapshot ===
 
Continue to set up anything you need in terms of /etc configurations. Once you have everything the way you like it, take a snapshot of your system. You will be using this snapshot to revert back to this state if anything ever happens to your system down the road. The snapshots are cheap, and almost instant.  
 
Continue to set up anything you need in terms of /etc configurations. Once you have everything the way you like it, take a snapshot of your system. You will be using this snapshot to revert back to this state if anything ever happens to your system down the road. The snapshots are cheap, and almost instant.  
  
 
To take the snapshot of your system, type the following:
 
To take the snapshot of your system, type the following:
<console># ##i##zfs snapshot -r rpool@install</console>
+
<console># ##i##zfs snapshot -r tank@install</console>
  
 
To see if your snapshot was taken, type:
 
To see if your snapshot was taken, type:
Line 516: Line 335:
  
 
If your machine ever fails and you need to get back to this state, just type (This will only revert your / dataset while keeping the rest of your data intact):
 
If your machine ever fails and you need to get back to this state, just type (This will only revert your / dataset while keeping the rest of your data intact):
<console># ##i##zfs rollback rpool/ROOT/funtoo@install</console>
+
<console># ##i##zfs rollback tank/funtoo/root@install</console>
  
 
{{fancyimportant|'''For a detailed overview, presentation of ZFS' capabilities, as well as usage examples, please refer to the [[ZFS_Fun|ZFS Fun]] page.'''}}
 
{{fancyimportant|'''For a detailed overview, presentation of ZFS' capabilities, as well as usage examples, please refer to the [[ZFS_Fun|ZFS Fun]] page.'''}}
 +
 +
== Troubleshooting ==
 +
 +
=== Starting from scratch ===
 +
If your installation has gotten screwed up for whatever reason and you need a fresh restart, you can do the following from sysresccd to start fresh:
 +
 +
<console>
 +
Destroy the pool and any snapshots and datasets it has
 +
# ##i##zpool destroy -R -f tank
 +
 +
This deletes the files from /dev/sda1 so that even after we zap, recreating the drive in the exact sector
 +
position and size will not give us access to the old files in this partition.
 +
# ##i##mkfs.ext2 /dev/sda1
 +
# ##i##sgdisk -Z /dev/sda
 +
</console>
 +
 +
Now start the guide again :).
  
 
[[Category:HOWTO]]
 
[[Category:HOWTO]]
 
[[Category:Filesystems]]
 
[[Category:Filesystems]]
 
[[Category:Featured]]
 
[[Category:Featured]]
 +
[[Category:Install]]
  
 
__NOTITLE__
 
__NOTITLE__

Latest revision as of 05:38, January 24, 2015

Introduction

This tutorial will show you how to install Funtoo on ZFS (rootfs). This tutorial is meant to be an "overlay" over the Regular Funtoo Installation. Follow the normal installation and only use this guide for steps 2, 3, and 8.

Introduction to ZFS

Since ZFS is a new technology for Linux, it can be helpful to understand some of its benefits, particularly in comparison to BTRFS, another popular next-generation Linux filesystem:

  • On Linux, the ZFS code can be updated independently of the kernel to obtain the latest fixes. btrfs is exclusive to Linux and you need to build the latest kernel sources to get the latest fixes.
  • ZFS is supported on multiple platforms. The platforms with the best support are Solaris, FreeBSD and Linux. Other platforms with varying degrees of support are NetBSD, Mac OS X and Windows. btrfs is exclusive to Linux.
  • ZFS has the Adaptive Replacement Cache replacement algorithm while btrfs uses the Linux kernel's Last Recently Used replacement algorithm. The former often has an overwhelmingly superior hit rate, which means fewer disk accesses.
  • ZFS has the ZFS Intent Log and SLOG devices, which accelerates small synchronous write performance.
  • ZFS handles internal fragmentation gracefully, such that you can fill it until 100%. Internal fragmentation in btrfs can make btrfs think it is full at 10%. Btrfs has no automatic rebalancing code, so it requires a manual rebalance to correct it.
  • ZFS has raidz, which is like RAID 5/6 (or a hypothetical RAID 7 that supports 3 parity disks), except it does not suffer from the RAID write hole issue thanks to its use of CoW and a variable stripe size. btrfs gained integrated RAID 5/6 functionality in Linux 3.9. However, its implementation uses a stripe cache that can only partially mitigate the effect of the RAID write hole.
  • ZFS send/receive implementation supports incremental update when doing backups. btrfs' send/receive implementation requires sending the entire snapshot.
  • ZFS supports data deduplication, which is a memory hog and only works well for specialized workloads. btrfs has no equivalent.
  • ZFS datasets have a hierarchical namespace while btrfs subvolumes have a flat namespace.
  • ZFS has the ability to create virtual block devices called zvols in its namespace. btrfs has no equivalent and must rely on the loop device for this functionality, which is cumbersome.

The only area where btrfs is ahead of ZFS is in the area of small file efficiency. btrfs supports a feature called block suballocation, which enables it to store small files far more efficiently than ZFS. It is possible to use another filesystem (e.g. reiserfs) on top of a ZFS zvol to obtain similar benefits (with arguably better data integrity) when dealing with many small files (e.g. the portage tree).

For a quick tour of ZFS and have a big picture of its common operations you can consult the page ZFS Fun.

Disclaimers

Warning

This guide is a work in progress. Expect some quirks.

Important

Since ZFS was really designed for 64 bit systems, we are only recommending and supporting 64 bit platforms and installations. We will not be supporting 32 bit platforms!

Downloading the ISO (With ZFS)

In order for us to install Funtoo on ZFS, you will need an environment that already provides the ZFS tools. Therefore we will download a customized version of System Rescue CD with ZFS included.

Name: sysresccd-4.2.0_zfs_0.6.2.iso  (545 MB)
Release Date: 2014-02-25
md5sum 01f4e6929247d54db77ab7be4d156d85


Download System Rescue CD with ZFS

Creating a bootable USB from ISO (From a Linux Environment)

After you download the iso, you can do the following steps to create a bootable USB:

Make a temporary directory
# mkdir /tmp/loop

Mount the iso
# mount -o ro,loop /root/sysresccd-4.2.0_zfs_0.6.2.iso /tmp/loop

Run the usb installer
# /tmp/loop/usb_inst.sh

That should be all you need to do to get your flash drive working.

Booting the ISO

Warning

When booting into the ISO, Make sure that you select the "Alternate 64 bit kernel (altker64)". The ZFS modules have been built specifically for this kernel rather than the standard kernel. If you select a different kernel, you will get a fail to load module stack error message.

Creating partitions

There are two ways to partition your disk: You can use your entire drive and let ZFS automatically partition it for you, or you can do it manually.

We will be showing you how to partition it manually because if you partition it manually you get to create your own layout, you get to have your own separate /boot partition (Which is nice since not every bootloader supports booting from ZFS pools), and you get to boot into RAID10, RAID5 (RAIDZ) pools and any other layouts due to you having a separate /boot partition.

gdisk (GPT Style)

A Fresh Start:

First lets make sure that the disk is completely wiped from any previous disk labels and partitions. We will also assume that /dev/sda is the target drive.

# sgdisk -Z /dev/sda
Warning

This is a destructive operation and the program will not ask you for confirmation! Make sure you really don't want anything on this disk.

Now that we have a clean drive, we will create the new layout.

First open up the application:

# gdisk /dev/sda

Create Partition 1 (boot):

Command: n ↵
Partition Number: 
First sector: 
Last sector: +250M ↵
Hex Code: 

Create Partition 2 (BIOS Boot Partition):

Command: n ↵
Partition Number: 
First sector: 
Last sector: +32M ↵
Hex Code: EF02 ↵

Create Partition 3 (ZFS):

Command: n ↵
Partition Number: 
First sector: 
Last sector: 
Hex Code: bf00 ↵

Command: p ↵

Number  Start (sector)    End (sector)  Size       Code  Name
   1            2048          514047   250.0 MiB   8300  Linux filesystem
   2          514048          579583   32.0 MiB    EF02  BIOS boot partition
   3          579584      1953525134   931.2 GiB   BF00  Solaris root

Command: w ↵


Format your /boot partition

# mkfs.ext2 -m 1 /dev/sda1

Create the zpool

We will first create the pool. The pool will be named tank. Feel free to name your pool as you want. We will use ashift=12 option which is used for a hard drives with a 4096 sector size.

#   zpool create -f -o ashift=12 -o cachefile=/tmp/zpool.cache -O normalization=formD -m none -R /mnt/funtoo tank /dev/sda3 

Create the zfs datasets

We will now create some datasets. For this installation, we will create a small but future proof amount of datasets. We will have a dataset for the OS (/), and your swap. We will also show you how to create some optional datasets as examples ones: /home, /usr/src, and /usr/portage.

Create some empty containers for organization purposes, and make the dataset that will hold /
# zfs create -p tank/funtoo
# zfs create -o mountpoint=/ tank/funtoo/root

Optional, but recommended datasets: /home
# zfs create -o mountpoint=/home tank/funtoo/home

Optional datasets: /usr/src, /usr/portage/{distfiles,packages}
# zfs create -o mountpoint=/usr/src tank/funtoo/src
# zfs create -o mountpoint=/usr/portage -o compression=off tank/funtoo/portage
# zfs create -o mountpoint=/usr/portage/distfiles tank/funtoo/portage/distfiles
# zfs create -o mountpoint=/usr/portage/packages tank/funtoo/portage/packages

Installing Funtoo

Pre-Chroot

Go into the directory that you will chroot into
# cd /mnt/funtoo

Make a boot folder and mount your boot drive
# mkdir boot
# mount /dev/sda1 boot

Now download and extract the Funtoo stage3 ...

Once you've extracted the stage3, do a few more preparations and chroot into your new funtoo environment:

Bind the kernel related directories
# mount -t proc none proc
# mount --rbind /dev dev
# mount --rbind /sys sys

Copy network settings
# cp -f /etc/resolv.conf etc

Make the zfs folder in 'etc' and copy your zpool.cache
# mkdir etc/zfs
# cp /tmp/zpool.cache etc/zfs

Chroot into Funtoo
# env -i HOME=/root TERM=$TERM chroot . bash -l


Downloading the Portage tree

Note

For an alternative way to do this, see Installing Portage From Snapshot.

Now it's time to install a copy of the Portage repository, which contains package scripts (ebuilds) that tell portage how to build and install thousands of different software packages. To create the Portage repository, simply run emerge --sync from within the chroot. This will automatically clone the portage tree from GitHub:

(chroot) # emerge --sync
Important

If you receive the error with initial emerge --sync due to git protocol restrictions, change SYNC variable in /etc/portage/make.conf:

SYNC="https://github.com/funtoo/ports-2012.git"

Add filesystems to /etc/fstab

Before we continue to compile and or install our kernel in the next step, we will edit the /etc/fstab file because if we decide to install our kernel through portage, portage will need to know where our /boot is, so that it can place the files in there.

Edit /etc/fstab:

/etc/fstab
# <fs>                  <mountpoint>    <type>          <opts>          <dump/pass>

/dev/sda1               /boot           ext2            defaults        0 2

Kernel Configuration

...wip

Installing the ZFS userspace tools and kernel modules

Emerge sys-fs/zfs (package not on wiki - please add). This package will bring in sys-kernel/spl (package not on wiki - please add), and sys-fs/zfs-kmod (package not on wiki - please add) as its dependencies:

# emerge zfs

Check to make sure that the zfs tools are working. The zpool.cache file that you copied before should be displayed.

# zpool status
# zfs list

If everything worked, continue.

Create the initramfs

genkernel

Install genkernel and run it:

# emerge genkernel

You only need to add --luks if you used encryption
# genkernel --zfs --luks initramfs

Installing & Configuring the Bootloader

GRUB 2

# emerge grub

Now install grub to the drive itself (not a partition):

# grub-install /dev/sda

boot-update

boot-update comes as a dependency of grub2, so if you already installed grub, it's already on your system!

Genkernel

If your using genkernel you must add 'real_root=ZFS=<root>' and 'dozfs' to your params. Example entry for /etc/boot.conf:

/etc/boot.conf
"Funtoo ZFS" {
        kernel kernel[-v]
        initrd initramfs-genkernel-x86_64[-v]
        params real_root=ZFS=tank/funtoo/root
        params += dozfs=force
}

After editing /etc/boot.conf, you just need to run boot-update to update grub.cfg

# boot-update

Final configuration

Add the zfs tools to openrc

# rc-update add zfs boot

Clean up and reboot

We are almost done, we are just going to clean up, set our root password, and unmount whatever we mounted and get out.

Delete the stage3 tarball that you downloaded earlier so it doesn't take up space.
# cd /
# rm stage3-latest.tar.xz

Set your root password
# passwd
>> Enter your password, you won't see what you are writing (for security reasons), but it is there!

Get out of the chroot environment
# exit

Unmount all the kernel filesystem stuff and boot (if you have a separate /boot)
# umount -l proc dev sys boot

Turn off the swap
# swapoff /dev/zvol/tank/swap

Export the zpool
# cd /
# zpool export tank

Reboot
# reboot
Important

Don't forget to set your root password as stated above before exiting chroot and rebooting. If you don't set the root password, you won't be able to log into your new system.

and that should be enough to get your system to boot on ZFS.

After reboot

Forgot to reset password?

System Rescue CD

If you aren't using bliss-initramfs, then you can reboot back into your sysresccd and reset through there by mounting your drive, chrooting, and then typing passwd.

Example:

# zpool import -f -R /mnt/funtoo tank
# chroot /mnt/funtoo bash -l
# passwd
# exit
# zpool export -f tank
# reboot

Create initial ZFS Snapshot

Continue to set up anything you need in terms of /etc configurations. Once you have everything the way you like it, take a snapshot of your system. You will be using this snapshot to revert back to this state if anything ever happens to your system down the road. The snapshots are cheap, and almost instant.

To take the snapshot of your system, type the following:

# zfs snapshot -r tank@install

To see if your snapshot was taken, type:

# zfs list -t snapshot

If your machine ever fails and you need to get back to this state, just type (This will only revert your / dataset while keeping the rest of your data intact):

# zfs rollback tank/funtoo/root@install
Important

For a detailed overview, presentation of ZFS' capabilities, as well as usage examples, please refer to the ZFS Fun page.

Troubleshooting

Starting from scratch

If your installation has gotten screwed up for whatever reason and you need a fresh restart, you can do the following from sysresccd to start fresh:

Destroy the pool and any snapshots and datasets it has
# zpool destroy -R -f tank

This deletes the files from /dev/sda1 so that even after we zap, recreating the drive in the exact sector
position and size will not give us access to the old files in this partition.
# mkfs.ext2 /dev/sda1
# sgdisk -Z /dev/sda

Now start the guide again :).