Difference between pages "Install/es/BootLoader" and "Hostname"

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<noinclude>
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w.i.p
{{InstallPart|boot loader configuration}}
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==Introduction==
</noinclude>
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A hostname is a unique name created to identify a machine on a network. In computer networking, a hostname  is a label that is assigned to a device connected to a computer network and that is used to identify the device in various forms of electronic communication such as the World Wide Web, e-mail or Usenet. Hostnames may be simple names consisting of a single word or phrase, or they may be structured.
=== Instalando el Gestor de Arranque ===
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==Configuration==
 
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In Funtoo Linux <code>/etc/conf.d/hostname</code> is the only configuration file for setting a hostname. In OpenRC framework <code>/etc/conf.d/foo</code> is the configuration file for a corresponding Init script <code>/etc/init.d/foo</code>.  With the case of hostname, default value in <code>/etc/conf.d/hostname</code> is set to ''localhost'', means when system boots and OpenRC's <code>/etc/init.d/hostname</code> script started a hostname getting only ''localhost'' name.  How it looks?  In your shell promt this will look in following way, an example for root:
Estas instrucciones de instalación muestran como usar GRUB para arrancar usando BIOS (vieja escuela) o UEFI (nueva escuela). Desde boot-update-1.7.2, ahora en Portage, los pasos son muy similares.
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Primero, emerge <code>boot-update</code>. Esto causará que <code>grub-2</code> y {{c|efibootmgr}} sean instalados, ya que son dependencias:
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<console>
 
<console>
(chroot) # ##i##emerge boot-update
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localhost ~ # ##i## Hello :)
 
</console>
 
</console>
 
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Let's play a bit with a configuration. Open <code>/etc/conf.d/hostname</code> with your favorite editor and set a hostname of your choice. Below, I will use a real examples  from one of my working test boxes.
Luego, edita <code>/etc/boot.conf</code> usando {{c|nano}} y especifica "<code>Funtoo Linux genkernel</code>" como la configuración <code>default</code>; al tope del archivo; reemplazando <code>"Funtoo Linux"</code>.
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<code>/etc/boot.conf</code> debería lucir así:
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<pre>
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boot {
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generate grub
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default "Funtoo Linux genkernel"
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timeout 3
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}
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"Funtoo Linux" {
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kernel bzImage[-v]
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}
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"Funtoo Linux genkernel" {
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kernel kernel[-v]
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initrd initramfs[-v]
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params += real_root=auto
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}
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"Funtoo Linux better-initramfs" {
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kernel vmlinuz[-v]
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initrd /initramfs.cpio.gz
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}
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</pre>
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Si estás arrancando un núcleo personalizado o no predeterminado, por favor lee <code>man boot.conf</code> para obtener información sobre las múltiples opciones disponibles.
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==== Vieja Escuela (BIOS) MBR ====
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Al usar el arranque BIOS de la "vieja escuela", corre el siguiente comando para instalar GRUB en tu MBR, y se genere el archivo de configuración {{c|/boot/grub/grub.cfg}} que grub usará para arrancar:
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<console>
 
<console>
(chroot) # ##i##grub-install --target=i386-pc --no-floppy /dev/sda
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localhost ~ # ##i## nano /etc/conf.d/hostname
(chroot) # ##i##boot-update
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</console>
 
</console>
 
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Let's set it to hostname="oleg-stable.host.funtoo.org". Save the file and restart  a hostname service:
==== Nueva Escuela (UEFI) Entrada de Arranque ====
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Si estás usando el arranque UEFI de la "nueva escuela", corre el siguiente conjunto de comandos, dependiendo de si estás instalando un sistema de 64-bit o 32-bit. Ésto agregará a GRUB como una entrada de arranque a UEFI.
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Para sistemas x86-64bit:
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<console>
 
<console>
(chroot) # ##i##grub-install --target=x86_64-efi --efi-directory=/boot --bootloader-id="Funtoo Linux [GRUB]" --recheck /dev/sda
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localhost ~ # ##i## service hostname restart
(chroot) # ##i##boot-update
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</console>
 
</console>
 
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Now, let's examine our changes, after a restarting a hostname
Para sistemas x86-32bit:
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<console>
 
<console>
(chroot) # ##i##grub-install --target=i386-efi --efi-directory=/boot --bootloader-id="Funtoo Linux [GRUB]" --recheck /dev/sda
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oleg-stable ~ # ##i## Hello :)
(chroot) # ##i##boot-update
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</console>
 
</console>
 +
== Diving deeper==
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Notice, that in above output we seeing a shortened hostname and not a FQDN (Fully Qualified Domain Name). Don't be frustrated. This is  how  default bash promt <code>PS1</code> set. To get nice promts, please, consult http://www.funtoo.org/Prompt_Magic
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Another way to test our settings is using a '''hostname''' command. Here we will show only  some of it's features. Let's try to execute '''hostname''' command:
 +
<console>
 +
oleg-stable ~ # ##i## hostname
 +
oleg-stable.host.funtoo.org
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</console>
 +
Now we see our fully qualified domain name hostname just how we configured it in <code>/etc/conf.d/hostname</code> in above paragraph. To get a short hostname we need to set '''-s ''' (short) argument to hostname command.
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<console>
 +
oleg-stable ~ # ##i## hostname -s
 +
oleg-stable
 +
</console>
 +
Good! Hostname offers more then just displaying a system host name but can also set one. Let's try:
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<console>
 +
oleg-stable ~ # ##i## hostname foo.bar.baz
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oleg-stable ~ # ##i## hostname
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foo.bar.baz
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</console>
 +
As you can see, we changed a hostname on-the-fly. This is not recommended way.
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{{fancywarning|Please, notice that using '''hostname''' command to configure will work temporary for a current session and will be reverted back to a value set in <code>/etc/conf.d/hostname</code> file with next system restart.}}
  
==== Primer arranque y el futuro... ====
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Now that we got a brief description of a hostname and basic configuration steps, its time to reflect another important case which is directly related to a Funtoo Linux hostname generation, a hosts.
 
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OK; ¡estás listo para arrancar!
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Solo necesitas correr <code>grub-install</code> la primera vez que instalas Funtoo Linux, más necesitas correr <code>boot-update</code> cada vez que modifiques tu archivo <code>/etc/boot.conf</code> o cuando agregues nuevos núcleos a tu sistema. Ésto regenerará {{c|/boot/grub/grub.cfg}} para que tengas los nuevos núcleos disponibles en tu menú de GRUB; la próxima vez que arranques.
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==Hosts case==
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As per man page <code>hosts</code> stands for static table lookup for hostnames and it's configuration file is <code>/etc/hosts</code>. Here is how it looks
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{{file|name=/etc/hosts|body=
 +
# Auto-generated hostname. Please do not remove this comment.
 +
127.0.0.1      oleg-stable.host.funtoo.org oleg-stable localhost localhost.localdomain
 +
::1            oleg-stable.host.funtoo.org oleg-stable localhost localhost.localdomain
 +
}}
 +
As you can see it has entries from our <code>/etc/conf.d/hostname</code>. As you may have guessed, in Funtoo Linux <code>/etc/hosts</code> file entries are auto-generated, when OpenRC hostname service starts. Previously, it is used to edit <code>/etc/hosts</code> manually. In Funtoo Linux there is no such need.

Revision as of 06:37, February 23, 2015

w.i.p

Introduction

A hostname is a unique name created to identify a machine on a network. In computer networking, a hostname is a label that is assigned to a device connected to a computer network and that is used to identify the device in various forms of electronic communication such as the World Wide Web, e-mail or Usenet. Hostnames may be simple names consisting of a single word or phrase, or they may be structured.

Configuration

In Funtoo Linux /etc/conf.d/hostname is the only configuration file for setting a hostname. In OpenRC framework /etc/conf.d/foo is the configuration file for a corresponding Init script /etc/init.d/foo. With the case of hostname, default value in /etc/conf.d/hostname is set to localhost, means when system boots and OpenRC's /etc/init.d/hostname script started a hostname getting only localhost name. How it looks? In your shell promt this will look in following way, an example for root:

localhost ~ #  Hello :)

Let's play a bit with a configuration. Open /etc/conf.d/hostname with your favorite editor and set a hostname of your choice. Below, I will use a real examples from one of my working test boxes.

localhost ~ #  nano /etc/conf.d/hostname

Let's set it to hostname="oleg-stable.host.funtoo.org". Save the file and restart a hostname service:

localhost ~ #  service hostname restart

Now, let's examine our changes, after a restarting a hostname

oleg-stable ~ #  Hello :)

Diving deeper

Notice, that in above output we seeing a shortened hostname and not a FQDN (Fully Qualified Domain Name). Don't be frustrated. This is how default bash promt PS1 set. To get nice promts, please, consult http://www.funtoo.org/Prompt_Magic Another way to test our settings is using a hostname command. Here we will show only some of it's features. Let's try to execute hostname command:

oleg-stable ~ #  hostname
oleg-stable.host.funtoo.org

Now we see our fully qualified domain name hostname just how we configured it in /etc/conf.d/hostname in above paragraph. To get a short hostname we need to set -s (short) argument to hostname command.

oleg-stable ~ #  hostname -s
oleg-stable

Good! Hostname offers more then just displaying a system host name but can also set one. Let's try:

oleg-stable ~ #  hostname foo.bar.baz
oleg-stable ~ #  hostname 
foo.bar.baz

As you can see, we changed a hostname on-the-fly. This is not recommended way.

Warning

Please, notice that using hostname command to configure will work temporary for a current session and will be reverted back to a value set in /etc/conf.d/hostname file with next system restart.

Now that we got a brief description of a hostname and basic configuration steps, its time to reflect another important case which is directly related to a Funtoo Linux hostname generation, a hosts.

Hosts case

As per man page hosts stands for static table lookup for hostnames and it's configuration file is /etc/hosts. Here is how it looks

/etc/hosts
# Auto-generated hostname. Please do not remove this comment.
127.0.0.1       oleg-stable.host.funtoo.org oleg-stable localhost localhost.localdomain
::1             oleg-stable.host.funtoo.org oleg-stable localhost localhost.localdomain

As you can see it has entries from our /etc/conf.d/hostname. As you may have guessed, in Funtoo Linux /etc/hosts file entries are auto-generated, when OpenRC hostname service starts. Previously, it is used to edit /etc/hosts manually. In Funtoo Linux there is no such need.