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Funtoo Linux First Steps

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<translate>If you are brand new to Gentoo Linux or Funtoo Linux<!--T:1-->{{Subpages|Helpful Applications for Daily Usage, this page will help you to get familiar with your new systemInstalling a Graphical Environment, and how it works.Creating a User Account}}
== Intro If you are brand new to Emerge: Installing an Editor ==Gentoo Linux or Funtoo Linux, this page will help you to get familiar with your new system, and how it works.
== Intro to Emerge: Installing an Editor == <!--T:2-->
By default, Funtoo Linux has the {{c|nano}} and {{c|vi}} editors installed. {{c|nano}} is the default editor.
<!--T:4-->If you are new to Funtoo Linux, you have probably heard about {{c|[[emerge]]}}, the Funtoo and Gentoo Linux command for installing packages from the Portage tree. Funtoo Linux has a git-based Portage tree, which is located at {{f|/usrvar/portagegit/meta-repo}} by default. It contains scripts called ''ebuilds'' that describe how to build and install packages from source. {{c|emerge}} is used to run these scripts and install packages, as follows:</translate>
<translate><!--T:5-->An important note about any commands you specify on an {{c|emerge}} command-line -- Portage will automatically add them to your "selected" set, which means that Portage now understands that you want to keep this package updated as part of your system.
Using the {{c|--pretend}} ({{c|-p}}) option, you can see what {{c|emerge}} ''would'' do, without actually doing it:</translate>
<translate><!--T:7-->Another equally handy option is the {{c|-a}}, or {{c|--ask}} option, which will display the packages to be merged, and then ask for confirmation from you as to whether you would like to proceed and merge the packages, or not:</translate>
# ##i##emerge -a emacs
\##g##These are the packages that would be merged, in order:
Calculating dependencies... done!
[##g##ebuild N ##!g##] ##g##virtual/emacs-23
\##b##Would you like to merge these packages? [##g##Yes##!g##/##r##No##!r##]##!b## ##i##y
It is possible to enable USE variables globally in {{f|/etc/portage/make.conf}}, on a per-package basis in {{f|/etc/portage/package.use}}, or as logical sets by using [[Funtoo Profiles]]. It's recommended that you first take a look at [[Funtoo Profiles]] and see if there may be sets of USE variables that you want to enable as a group. You can set your system ''flavor'' to more accurately reflect the intended use of your Funtoo system, and by doing so, many more USE variables will be set (or unset) to reasonable defaults for your intended use.
These USE variables can be set globally by adding a line such as this to {{f|/etc/portage/make.conf}}:
# ##i##ego sync
\##g##Syncing meta-repo
(cd /var/git/meta-repo && git remote set-branches --add origin master)
(cd /var/git/meta-repo && git fetch origin refs/heads/master:refs/remotes/origin/master)
# ##i##emerge -auDN @world
{{c|-u}} tells {{c|emerge}} to update any already-installed but out-of-date packages that we specify on the command-line. The {{c|-D}} option tells {{c|emerge}} to perform a ''deep'' dependency tree graph, so it will include sub-dependencies of packages that we have specified on the command line as well. This allows {{c|emerge}} to perform as thorough an update of your system as possible.
The {{c|-N}} ({{c|--newuse}}) option tells Portage to check for any new USE flags that have been enabled or disabled, and rebuild packages so that all USE flags are set as currently defined in [[Funtoo Profiles]], {{f|/etc/portage/make.conf}} and {{f|/etc/portage/package.use}}.
<tt>world</tt> is a "meta-package" or "package set" which includes every package that you have manually installed plus all packages in the system set. If you want to see a list of all these packages, look at {{f|/var/lib/portage/world}}:
# ##i##emerge -auDN vim emacs
== Useful applications for daily usage ==
Here are some other packages you may want to consider installing via <tt>emerge</tt>:
;<tt>app-misc/screen</tt>: Allows you to have persistent login sessions.
;<tt>app-misc/tmux</tt>: Similar to <tt>screen</tt> -- some people prefer it.
;<tt>app-admin/sudo</tt>: Grant root privileges to selected users and command combinations.
;<tt>sys-process/htop</tt>: Colorful and informative text-based process list.
;<tt>sys-process/glances</tt>: Similar to htop, includes disc I/O and network I/O in display.
;<tt>app-portage/eix</tt>: Quick portage package search
;<tt>app-portage/gentoolkit</tt>: Portage utils
;<tt>app-misc/mc</tt>: GNU Midnight Commander is a text based file manager --- some will recall <tt>MS-DOS XtreeGold</tt>
;<tt>app-text/wgetpaste</tt>: Command-line interface to various pastebins; very useful in providing info along with bugs reports
;<tt>net-irc/irssi</tt>: A modular textUI IRC client with IPv6 support; a powerful tool to get help from Funtoo Community on IRC channel. Nice companion to <tt>app-text/wgetpaste</tt>
# ##i##emerge --jobs app-misc/screen sudo htop eix gentoolkit app-misc/mc wgetpaste net-irc/irssi
=== Creating a user account ===
It's a good idea to create a normal user account that you can use for general Linux tasks. Before rebooting, create a user account for everyday use. Adjust the groups in the example below to match your needs. Some of them may not exist yet on your system. Replace "<tt><user_name></tt>" with the name you're going to use for your everyday user. The "<tt>-m</tt>" option instructs <tt>useradd</tt> to create a home directory for your user. See <tt>man useradd</tt> for more info.
# ##i##useradd -m -G audio,video,cdrom,wheel,users <user_name>
Don't forget to set a password for your new user:
# ##i##passwd <user_name>
== Installing a graphical environment ==
If you intend on using your Funtoo Linux installation for more than system administration, chances are you're going to want to have a GUI (graphical user interface). In the past, setting one up involved wading through text files and man pages. Thanks to modern tools like udev this is no longer the case.
Unlike most operating systems, Funtoo does not ship with a GUI pre-installed. If you've used Windows or Mac OS, you'd also know that their interfaces cannot be replaced easily. With Linux, the opposite is true -- you are free to choose from a huge selection of GUIs. From window managers such as Blackbox, IceWM, and xmonad, to fully-featured desktop environments like GNOME and KDE, the possibilities are vast in number.
The first step in setting up a graphical environment is to set up the [[X Window System]]. Then, you will be able to install the graphical environment of your choice. [[GNOME First Steps|GNOME]] is a popular option for new users. [[KDE Plasma 5|KDE Plasma]] and [ XFCE] are popular alternatives.
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