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<noincludetranslate>{{InstallPart|Kernel Installation}}</noincludeincludeonly>==Prepare Disk = Configuring and installing the Linux kernel =<!--T:1--></includeonly><noinclude><languages/>=Install Guide: Install a Kernel =
Now it's time to build and install a Linux kernel, which is the heart of any Funtoo Linux system. The kernel is loaded by the boot loader, and interfaces directly with your system's hardware, and allows regular (userspace) programs to run.<!--T:2-->{{InstallNavigation|num=13|prev=Introducing Portage|next=Bootloader}}</noinclude>
A kernel must be configured properly for your system<!--T:32-->Funtoo Linux stage3's hardware, so that it supports your hard drives, file systems, network cards, and so on. More experienced Linux users can choose to install kernel include a pre-built {{c|debian-sources and configure and install their own -lts}} kernel. If you don't know how to do this, we provide ebuilds that will automatically build a "univeral" kernel, modules make installation faster and initramfs for booting your system that supports all hardwareeasier. This To see what kernel version is an extremely simple way of building a kernel that will get your system booted.pre-installed, type:
What is our goal? To build a kernel that will recognize all the hardware in your system necessary <!--T:18-->{{console|body=%chroot% ##i##emerge -s debian-sources-ltsSearching... [ Results for booting, so that you will be greeted by a friendly login prompt after installation is complete. These instructions will guide you through the process of installing a kernel the "easy" way search key : ##b##debian-sources- without requiring user configuration, by using a "universal" kernel.lts##!b## ][ Applications found : ##b##1##!b## ]
==== Package Sets ====<!--T:19-->* ##b##sys-kernel/debian-sources-lts##!b## ##g##Latest version available:##!g## 4.9.130 ##g##Latest version installed:##!g## 4.9.130 ##g##Size of files:##!g## 95,022 kB ##g##Homepage:##!g## ##g##Description:##!g## Debian Sources (and optional binary kernel) ##g##License:##!g## GPL-2}}
Before we install a kernel, we're going to cover a feature of Portage called package sets. Portage, the package manager/ports system for Funtoo Linux, will keep track of system packages as well as packages you have installed by calling === Firmware === <code!--T:33-->emerge</code> directly. These packages that are part of the base system are considered part of the "system" package set, while packages that you have installed by typing them on the command line (such as "gnome" in <code>emerge gnome</code>) will be added to the "world" package set. This provides an easy way to update your entire system.
However, sometimes <!--T:34-->At this point it's nice is wise to be able to update emerge the latest {{c|sys-kernel all by itself/linux-firmware}} package, because various drivers rely on firmware blobs and instructions. Hardware like Wi-Fi cards, graphic cards, network cards, and others will not work properly or leave a kernel update out of your regular whole system updateat all if firmware is not available. To do thisIf using the ''{{c|stage3}}'' image, we perform the following to install it. {{c|linux-firmware}} will create a new package set called "kernel".be already installed if using the ''{{c|gnome}}'' image:
<!--T:35-->{{console|body==== Kernel Package Set ====%chroot% ##i##emerge -av linux-firmware}}
To create the kernel package set, perform the following steps=== Modern Intel Chipsets === <!--T:36-->
<console!--T:37-->If you have a modern Intel system (chroot) # ##i##mkdir /etc/portage/sets(chrootSkylake, Coffee Lake or newer) # ##i##echo sys-kernel/then you may be better served by the newer {{c|debian-sources > /etc/portage/sets/}} kernel</console>as it will have support for more modern Intel WiFi and integrated graphics chipsets. To use this kernel, you will want to perform the following steps:
Now, we'll want to set a USE variable to tell <code!--T:38-->{{console|body=%chroot% ##i##echo "sys-kernel/debian-sources</code> to build a "universalbinary" kernel and initramfs for us, to take the guess-work out of getting Funtoo Linux booted. To do this, we're going to set the <code>binary</code> USE variable for <code>etc/portage/package.use%chroot% ##i##emerge -av debian-sources</code>, as follows:}}
<console>(chroot) # ##i##echo "sys!--T:39-kernel/debian-sources binary" >> /etc/portage/package.use</console> If USE variables are new to youThen, when you'll be getting a lot more familiar with them as you use Funtoo Linux. At their essence, they are "switches" that you can set to configure options that can be built in to various packages. They're used to customize your Funtoo Linux system to meet your exact needs. We added support for a <code>binary<{{c|/code> USE flag to the <code>debian-sources<etc/code> ebuilds, as well as a few other of our kernel ebuilds, to make it easier for new users to get Funtoo Linux up and runningbootNowconf}} in the next section, when we just want to update our system's packages, we'll type <code>emerge -auDN @world</code>, and it you will update our world set, leaving out the kernel. Likewise, when we just want to update our kernel, we'll type <code>emerge -au @kernel</code>, and it will update our kernel, leaving out the world set. ==== Building the Kernel ==== ensure that {{Fancynotec|1=See [[Funtoo Linux Kernels]] for a full list of kernels supported in Funtoo Linux. We recommend <code>debian-sources</code> for new users.}} (not {{fancyimportantc|1=<code>debian-sources</code> with <code>binary</code> USE flag requires at least 14GB free in <code>/var/tmp</code> and takes around 1 hour to build on a Intel Core i7 Processor.-lts}} Let's emerge our kernel: <console>(chroot) # ##i##emerge -1 @kernel</console> {{Important|Right now, the <code>-1</code> option is required to not add our <code>@kernel</code> set to <code>world-sets</code>. This allows you to emerge it independently from @world. If you accidentally forget this option, edit <code>/var/lib/portage/world-sets</code> and remove the <code>@selected as your default kernel</code> line. This will prevent kernel updates from being included in @world updates.}} Note that while use of the <code>binary</codetranslate> USE flag makes installing a working kernel extremely simple, it is one part of Funtoo Linux that takes a ''very'' long time to build from source, because it is building a kernel that supports ''all'' hardware that Linux supports! So, get the build started, and then let your machine compile. Slower machines can take up to several hours to build the kernel, and you'll want to make sure that you've set <code>MAKEOPTS</code> in <code>/etc/make.conf</codenoinclude> to the number of processing cores/threads (plus one) in your system before starting to build it as quickly as possible -- see the [[#/etc/make.conf|/etc/make.conf section]] if you forgot to do this. {{fancynoteInstallNavigation|NVIDIA card users: the <code>binary</code> USE flag installs the Nouveau drivers which cannot be loaded at the same time as the proprietary drivers, and cannot be unloaded at runtime because of KMS. You need to blacklist it under <code>/etc/modprobe.d/</code>.}} {{fancynotenum=13|prev=Introducing Portage|For an overview of other kernel options for Funtoo Linux, see [[Funtoo Linux Kernels]]. There may be modules that the Debian kernel doesn't include, a situation where [ genkernel] would be useful. Also be sure to see [[:Category:Hardware Compatibilitynext=Bootloader|hardware compatibility]] information.align=right}} Once <code>emerge</code> completes, you'll have a brand new kernel and initramfs installed to <code>/boot</codenoinclude>, plus kernel headers installed in <code>/usr/src/linux</code>, and you'll be ready to configure the boot loader to load these to boot your Funtoo Linux system.
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