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Funtoo Linux Kernels/pt-br

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== Overview {{#widget:AddThis}}<languages/>{{Announce|To help us translate this documentation, {{CreateAccount}}, log in to the wiki. Then go to Actions -> Translate in the menu, or click the "Translate this page" link, above. You will be able to select small parts of Kernels ==the install docs and translate these parts to your native language.}}
=== {{Package|sys-kernel/vanilla-sources}} ===This Section will give you an overview of kernels used in funtoo.Some points of interest:
Isso vai instalar os fontes do kernel * Most Funtoo Linux "vanilla" (não modificado). A versão atual recomendada é a 3.xkernels support the handy {{c|[[#Binary USE|binary]]}} USE flag, described below. * Funtoo Linux que tem suporte totalmente ao offers quality kernels from other Linux 3Distributions, like {{c|debian-sources}}.x. As vantagens desse kernel incluem melhoramentos recentes ao * Advanced users may want to take a look at [[Linux ContainersAdditional Kernel Resources]], uma pilha de rede atual (networking stack) com muitas correções de bug, e alta confiabilidade para desktops e servidores. O lado negativo é que esse kernel deve ser configurado manualmente pelo usuário e não possui built-in ''<code>genkernel</code>'' suporte via a flag USE ''<code>binary</code>'' desta vez.
==Overview of Kernels = {{Package|sys-kernel/gentoo-sources}} === Esse kernel tree é baseado nos kernels stable do [https://www.kernel.org/ kernel.org] com genpatches aplicados [http://dev.gentoo.org/~mpagano/genpatches/about.htm genpatches].o Gentoo patchset visa ter suporte à toda variedade de arquiteturas suportadas pelo Gentoo. A lista de genpatched kernels disponíveis: [http://dev.gentoo.org/~mpagano/genpatches/kernels.htm genpatches-kernels]
=== {{Package|sys-kernel/openvzdebian-rhel6sources-stablelts}} ===
Esse é um This is the Debian kernel baseado no RHEL6 com suporte a OpenVZ. Esse é agora o , long-term stable edition and the default kernel preferido para desenvolvimento de produção OpenVZ (production OpenVZ deployments)for Funtoo Linux. Ele requer gcc-4.4'''These ebuilds now support the {{c|binary}} USE flag.5 para ser construído, que vai usará automaticamente sem que o usuário precise utilizar ''<code>gcc-config</code>''. Utilizamos essa versão de gcc desde que essa é a versão de gcc utilizada pela Red Hat para construir esse kernel.
=== {{Package|sys-kernel/debian-sources}} ===
Esse é o kernel do Debian. '''Esses ebuilds agora possuem suporte This is a flag USE ''<code>binary</code>''.''' Daniel adicionou comando especial <tt>configmore up-extract</tt> que pode ser utilizado para listar todas as configurações disponíveis do kernel oficial do Debian, e geráto-las a partir dos arquivos do date version of the Debian inclusos com o kernel. Esse kernel tem suporte opcional a [[OpenVZ]], mas é bem melhor utilizar o <tt>openvz-rhel6-stable</tt> se quiser um instalação OpenVZ com qualidade de produção (production-quality OpenVZ). Para mais informações sobre como utilizar <tt>debian-sources</tt> e <tt>config-extract</tt>, veja [[#Using Debian-Sources with Genkernel|Utilizando debian-sources com o Genkernel]] abaixobut it less suited for server systems.
== Binary USE ==
Muitos dos Many of the kernel ebuilds no in Funtoo Linux possuem suporte à support the very useful {{c|binary}} USE flag . By enabling this USE <code>binary</code> muito útil. Ao habilitar essa flag USE e emergir o and emerging the kernel, o the ebuild construirá automaticamente uma imagem binária do will automatically build a binary kernelimage, o initramfs e módulos do and kernel e instalá-los em <code>modules and install them to {{c|/boot</code>}}. A imagem binária do The binary kernel e do image and initramfs pode ser utilizadas para inicializar seu sistema can be used to boot your Funtoo Linux sem necessidade qualquer configuração adicionalsystem without requiring any additional configuration. Esse é um ótimo jeito de obter um sistema This is a great way to get a Funtoo Linux no ar e em execução rapidamentesystem up and running quickly. Aqui está como fazer issoHere's how to do it:
<{{console>|body=###i## echo "sys-kernel/openvzdebian-rhel6-stable sources binary" >> /etc/portage/package.use###i## emerge openvz-rhel6debian-stablesources
###i## nano -w /etc/boot.conf
###i## ego boot-update</console> Mais informações podem ser encontradas no Guia de [[Funtoo_Linux_Installation|Instalação do Funtoo Linux]]. == Funtoo Linux Genkernel == O Funtoo Linux contem uma versão forked/enhanced do genkernel com as novas compatibilidades: * genkernel pode utilizar um diretório build que é separado do diretório kernel source. Isso é habilitado utilizando a nova opção <tt>--build-dst</tt>.* <code>--build-src</code> é uma nova opção que é equivalente a opção <tt>--kerneldir</tt>.* <code>--fullname</code> pode ser utilizado para especificar o nome inteiro das imagens do kernel e do initramfs -- Tudo depois <tt>kernel-</tt> e de <tt>initramfs-</tt>.* <code>--firmware-src</code> - uma nova opção que funciona identic ao <tt>--firmware-dir</tt>.* <code>--firmware-dst</code> - uma nova compatibilidade - você pode agora definir onde o genkernel instala o firmware.* Genkernel utiliza o Funtoo Linux <code>lvm2</code> ao invés de construir o seu próprio.* Algumas correções de compilação. == Estabilidade do Kernel e visão geral da estabilidade == {{Fancywarning|'''SPARC64''': Todos os kernels além das séries 3.9 e antes do 3.14-rc8 estão sujeitos a um [http://www.spinics.net/lists/sparclinux/msg11805.html bug] que abriga o kernel nas máquinas sun4v '''somente'''. Esses últimos são fornecidos com UltraSPARC T1 e mais recentes CPUs (ex. SunFire T1000, SunFire T2000, SunFire T52x0/T54x0 series...), todas as máquinas sun4u (UltraSPARC IV e CPUs antecedentes) não estão sujeitos a esse problema e qualquer versão de kernel funcional. }} {| {{table}} !Nome do Kernel!Versão!USE flags!Estabilidade!Recursos Extras!Req'd udev!Notas|-|<tt>{{Package|sys-kernel/vanilla-sources}}</tt>|3.17.0|N/A|'''Excelente''' - recomendado para desktops e servidores.|N/A|Qualquer|Recomendado para networking stack atuais, hardware e suporte a [[Linux Containers]]. Esse kernel deve ser manualmente configurado pelo usuário. Novos Recursos: [http://kernelnewbies.org/Linux_3.12 kernelnewbies.org/linux_3.12] Novos Drivers: [http://kernelnewbies.org/Linux_3.12-DriversArch kernelnewbies/Linux_3.12-DriversArch]|-|<tt>{{Package|sys-kernel/gentoo-sources}}</tt>|3.17.0|N/A|'''Excelente''' - recomendado para desktops e workstations|N/A|Qualquer|Recomendado para networking stack atuais, hardware e suporte a [[Linux Containers]]. Esse kernel deve ser configurado manualmente pelo usuário. Novos Recursos: [http://kernelnewbies.org/Linux_3.12 kernelnewbies.org/linux_3.12] Novos Drivers: [http://kernelnewbies.org/Linux_3.12-DriversArch kernelnewbies/Linux_3.12-DriversArch]|-|<tt>{{Package|sys-kernel/openvz-rhel6-stable}}</tt>|2.6.32.042.092.2|<tt>binary</tt>|'''Excelente''' - recomendado para servidores de produção|N/A|Qualquer|Esse kernel é construído com o gcc-4.4.5. <tt>emerge broadcom-netxtreme2</tt> para confiável suporte a BCM5709+ (NIC integrado) |-|<tt>{{Package|sys-kernel/debian-sources}}</tt>|3.16.2, 3.16.7, 3.19.3|<tt>openvz</tt>|''Bom'' - kernel padrão recomendado pelo Funtoo|OpenVZ (opcional)|Qualquer|Veja [[#Using debian-sources with Genkernel]], abaixo.|-|} == Using Debian-Sources with Genkernel == {{fancyimportant|Debian-sources is now fully compatible with the ''binary'' USE flag and recommended for desktop users. The below example is valid for manual installation. At least 12G of ''/var/tmp'' required to build }} This section describes how to build a binary kernel with ''<code>debian-sources</code>'' and ''<code>genkernel</code>'', and it also explains how to use Funtoo Linux's ''<code>config-extract</code>'' tool to list and create official Debian kernel configurations. === First step: emerging the required packages === The first step is to emerge: # The Debian sources# Genkernel itself This is achieved by running the following: <console>###i## emerge -av sys-kernel/debian-sources sys-kernel/genkernel</console> Once the Debian kernel sources are deployed, you should find a directory named '''linux-debian-''version''''' (e.g. linux-debian-2.6.32.30) under '''<code>/usr/src</code>'''. Update your the '''<code>linux</code>''' symlink to point on this directory:<console>###i## cd /usr/src###i## rm linux###i## ln -s linux-debian-2.6.32.30 linux</console> Alternatively, emerge the debian-sources with the ''<code>symlink</code>'' USE flag. === Second step: Grabbing a configuration file === If is now time to download the kernel configuration file. For this tutorial we will use a configuration file for AMD64 (several others architectures like MIPS or SPARC64 are available.) To view a complete list of available kernel configurations, type <code>./config-extract -l</code> '''in the Debian kernel source directory''': <pre>ninja1 linux-debian-2.6.32.30 # ./config-extract -l ====== standard featureset ======  alpha: alpha-generic, alpha-legacy, alpha-smp amd64 armel: iop32x, ixp4xx, kirkwood, orion5x, versatile hppa: parisc, parisc-smp, parisc64, parisc64-smp i386: 486, 686, 686-bigmem, amd64 ia64: itanium, mckinley m68k: amiga, atari, bvme6000, mac, mvme147, mvme16x mips: 4kc-malta, 5kc-malta, r4k-ip22, r5k-ip32, sb1-bcm91250a, sb1a-bcm91480b mipsel: 4kc-malta, 5kc-malta, r5k-cobalt, sb1-bcm91250a, sb1a-bcm91480b powerpc: powerpc, powerpc-smp, powerpc64 s390: s390x, s390x-tape sh4: sh7751r, sh7785lcr sparc: sparc64, sparc64-smp sparc64: sparc64, sparc64-smp ====== vserver featureset ======  amd64 i386: 686, 686-bigmem ia64: itanium, mckinley powerpc: powerpc, powerpc64 s390 sparc sparc64 ====== xen featureset ======  amd64 i386 ====== openvz featureset ======  amd64 i386</pre> Type <tt>config-extract -h</tt> for extended usage information: <pre>ninja1 linux-debian-2.6.32.30 # ./config-extract -hThis work is free software. Copyright 2011 Funtoo Technologies. You can redistribute and/or modify it underthe terms of the GNU General Public License version 3 as published by the FreeSoftware Foundation. Alternatively you may (at your option) use any otherlicense that has been publicly approved for use with this program by FuntooTechnologies (or its successors, if any.) usage: config-extract [options] arch [featureset] [subarch]  -h --help print this usage and exit -l --list list all available kernel configurations -o --outfile specify kernel config outfile -- defaults to .config in current directory [featureset] defaults to "none" if not specified [subarch] defaults to the only one available; otherwise required This program was written by Daniel Robbins for Funtoo Linux, for the purpose ofeasily and conveniently extracting Debian kernel configurations. To see a nicelist of all available kernel configurations, use the --list option. Debian's kernel configs are specified internally in arch_featureset_flavorformat, such as: "amd64_openvz_amd64". The featureset typically describes anoptional kernel configuration such as "xen" or "openvz", while the flavor inDebian terminology typically refers to the sub-architecture of the CPU. When using this command, you must specify an arch. A featureset of "none" isassumed unless you specify one, and by default this program will pick the onlyavailable subarch if there is only one to choose from. If not, you will need topick one (and the program will remind you to do this.) The kernel configuration will be written to ".config" in the current directory,or the location you specified using the -o/--outfile option.</pre> Let's use <tt>config-extract</tt> to create a kernel configuration for an amd64 system: <console># ##i##cd linux# ##i##./config-extract amd64Wrote amd64_none_amd64 kernel configuration to /usr/src/linux-debian-2.6.32.30/.config.</console> <tt>config-extract</tt> also allows you to extract special Debian featuresets, such as settings for Xen and [[OpenVZ]] kernels: <console># ##i##./config-extract amd64 openvzWrote amd64_openvz_amd64 kernel configuration to /usr/src/linux-debian-2.6.32.30/.config.</console> '''It is necessary to name the kernel configuration file something other than ".config" to avoid errors with genkernel.'''  After using <tt>config-extract</tt>, run <tt>make oldconfig</tt> and accept all default options by hitting Enter at all prompts.  {{fancynote|if you are using the XFS file system as your root partition: Run <tt>make menuconfig</tt> and ensure that "File Systems --> XFS filesystem support" and "Library Routines --> CRC32c (Castagnoli, et al) Cyclic Redundancy-Check" are both set to * (and not [m]).}}This is needed to ensure that your system can boot up correctly for kernel versions >= 3.10.11. === Third step: Building and installing the kernel === This is simply achieved by: <console># ##i##genkernel --kernel-config=config-2.6.32-5-amd64 all</console> * --kernel-config: use the given configfile. If you only give a filename here, it is searched for in your current working dir. You can also use a relative or an absolute path leading to your configfile here (for example: "--kernel-config=/usr/src/linux/configfile").* all: rebuild the kernel image and the initramfs ramdisk image (aside of kernel modules, the ramdisk image contains tools such as BusyBox and some generic startup scripts, depending on options you use on the command line several additional tools like lvm or raid volume management can be incorporated as well). {{ fancyimportant|Unless explicitly stated via ''--no-clean'' or ''--no-mrproper'', Genkernel will do a '''make mrproper''' in the kernel source tree, thus cleaning a previous build '''and removing the previous kernel configuration file''' in it.
}}
If you use Genkernel to rebuild a Linux kernel on SPARC64, remember to either:* Set '''sparc64-unknown-linux-gnu-''' More information can be found in ''General setup --> Cross-compiler tool prefix'' * Put '''--kernel-cross-compile=sparc64-unknown-linux-gnu-''' on the Genkernel command line Once the kernel has been compiled and the ram disk has been generated, the kernel image plus its companion files (initramfs image and System.map) are placed in the /boot directory. You can use your favourite tool to update your bootloader configuration files[[Funtoo Linux Installation]] Guide.
[[Category:Internals]]
[[Category:Funtoo features]]
[[Category:Kernel]]
[[Category:Official Documentation]]
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