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== Overview of Kernels ==
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=== {{Package|sys-kernel/vanilla-sources}} ===
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This Section will give you an overview of kernels used in funtoo.
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Some points of interest:
  
This will install the "vanilla" (unmodified) Linux kernel sources. Current recommended version is 3.x. Funtoo Linux fully supports Linux 3.x. The advantages of this kernel include recent improvements to [[Linux Containers]], a very modern networking stack with lots of bug fixes, and high reliability for desktops and servers. The downside is that this kernel must be manually configured by the user and does not have built-in ''<code>genkernel</code>'' support via the ''<code>binary</code>'' USE flag at this time.
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* Most Funtoo Linux kernels support the handy {{c|[[#Binary USE|binary]]}} USE flag, described below.
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* Funtoo Linux offers quality kernels from other Linux Distributions, like {{c|debian-sources}}.
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* Advanced users may want to take a look at [[Additional Kernel Resources]].
  
=== {{Package|sys-kernel/gentoo-sources}} ===
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== Overview of Kernels ==
 
 
This kernel tree is based on stable kernels from [https://www.kernel.org/ kernel.org] with genpatches applied [http://dev.gentoo.org/~mpagano/genpatches/about.htm genpatches].
 
Gentoo patchset aims to support the entire range of Gentoo-supported architectures. List of available genpatched kernels: [http://dev.gentoo.org/~mpagano/genpatches/kernels.htm genpatches-kernels]
 
  
=== {{Package|sys-kernel/openvz-rhel6-stable}} ===
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=== {{Package|sys-kernel/debian-sources-lts}} ===
  
This is a RHEL6-based kernel with OpenVZ support. This kernel is now the preferred kernel for production OpenVZ deployments. It requires gcc-4.4.5 to build, which it will use automatically without the user needing to use ''<code>gcc-config</code>''. We use this version of gcc since this is the version of gcc used by Red Hat to build this kernel.
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This is the Debian kernel, long-term stable edition and the default kernel for Funtoo Linux. '''These ebuilds now support the {{c|binary}} USE flag.'''
  
 
=== {{Package|sys-kernel/debian-sources}} ===
 
=== {{Package|sys-kernel/debian-sources}} ===
  
This is the Debian kernel. '''These ebuilds now support the ''<code>binary</code>'' USE flag.''' Daniel has added a special <tt>config-extract</tt> command which can be used to list all available official Debian kernel configurations, and generate them from the Debian files included with the kernel. This kernel has optional [[OpenVZ]] support, but it is much better to use <tt>openvz-rhel6-stable</tt> if you want a production-quality OpenVZ installation. For more information about how to use <tt>debian-sources</tt> and <tt>config-extract</tt>, see [[#Using Debian-Sources with Genkernel|Using debian-sources with Genkernel]] below.
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This is a more up-to-date version of the Debian kernel but it less suited for server systems.
  
 
== Binary USE ==
 
== Binary USE ==
  
Many of the kernel ebuilds in Funtoo Linux support the very useful <code>binary</code> USE flag. By enabling this USE flag and emerging the kernel, the ebuild will automatically build a binary kernel image, initramfs and kernel modules and install them to <code>/boot</code>. The binary kernel image and initramfs can be used to boot your Funtoo Linux system without requiring any additional configuration. This is a great way to get a Funtoo Linux system up and running quickly. Here's how to do it:
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Many of the kernel ebuilds in Funtoo Linux support the very useful {{c|binary}} USE flag. By enabling this USE flag and emerging the kernel, the ebuild will automatically build a binary kernel image, initramfs and kernel modules and install them to {{c|/boot}}. The binary kernel image and initramfs can be used to boot your Funtoo Linux system without requiring any additional configuration. This is a great way to get a Funtoo Linux system up and running quickly. Here's how to do it:
  
<console>
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{{console|body=
###i## echo "sys-kernel/openvz-rhel6-stable binary" >> /etc/portage/package.use
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###i## echo "sys-kernel/debian-sources binary" >> /etc/portage/package.use
###i## emerge openvz-rhel6-stable
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###i## emerge debian-sources
 
###i## nano -w /etc/boot.conf
 
###i## nano -w /etc/boot.conf
###i## boot-update
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###i## ego boot update
</console>
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}}
  
 
More information can be found in the [[Funtoo Linux Installation]] Guide.
 
More information can be found in the [[Funtoo Linux Installation]] Guide.
== Funtoo Linux Genkernel ==
 
 
Funtoo Linux contains a forked/enhanced version of genkernel with the following new capabilities:
 
 
* genkernel can use a build directory that is separate from the kernel source directory. This is enabled using the new <tt>--build-dst</tt> option.
 
* <code>--build-src</code> is a new option that is equivalent to the <tt>--kerneldir</tt> option.
 
* <code>--fullname</code> can be used to specify the entire name of the kernel and initramfs images -- everything after <tt>kernel-</tt> and <tt>initramfs-</tt>.
 
* <code>--firmware-src</code> - a new option that works identically to <tt>--firmware-dir</tt>.
 
* <code>--firmware-dst</code> - a new capability - you can now define where genkernel installs firmware.
 
* Genkernel uses Funtoo Linux <code>lvm2</code> rather than building its own.
 
* Some compile fixes.
 
== Kernel Features and Stability Overview ==
 
 
{{Fancywarning|'''SPARC64''': All kernels beyond 3.9 series and before 3.14-rc8 are subject to a [http://www.spinics.net/lists/sparclinux/msg11805.html bug] that stalls the kernel on sun4v machines '''only'''. Those latter are machines provided with UltraSPARC T1 and later CPUs (e.g. SunFire T1000, SunFire T2000, SunFire T52x0/T54x0 series...), all sun4u machines (UltraSPARC IV and prior CPUs) are not subject to this problem and any kernel version is functional. }}
 
 
{| {{table}}
 
!Kernel Name
 
!Version
 
!USE flags
 
!Stability
 
!Extra Features
 
!Req'd udev
 
!Notes
 
|-
 
|<tt>{{Package|sys-kernel/vanilla-sources}}</tt>
 
|3.17.0
 
|N/A
 
|'''Excellent''' - recommended for desktops and servers.
 
|N/A
 
|Any
 
|Recommended for modern networking stack, hardware and [[Linux Containers]] support. This kernel must be manually configured by the user. New Features: [http://kernelnewbies.org/Linux_3.12 kernelnewbies.org/linux_3.12]  New Drivers: [http://kernelnewbies.org/Linux_3.12-DriversArch kernelnewbies/Linux_3.12-DriversArch]
 
|-
 
|<tt>{{Package|sys-kernel/gentoo-sources}}</tt>
 
|3.17.0
 
|N/A
 
|'''Excellent''' - recommended for desktops and workstations
 
|N/A
 
|Any
 
|Recommended for modern networking stack, hardware and [[Linux Containers]] support. This kernel must be manually configured by the user. New Features: [http://kernelnewbies.org/Linux_3.12 kernelnewbies.org/linux_3.12]  New Drivers: [http://kernelnewbies.org/Linux_3.12-DriversArch kernelnewbies/Linux_3.12-DriversArch]
 
|-
 
|<tt>{{Package|sys-kernel/openvz-rhel6-stable}}</tt>
 
|2.6.32.042.092.2
 
|<tt>binary</tt>
 
|'''Excellent''' - recommended for production servers
 
|N/A
 
|Any
 
|This kernel is built with gcc-4.4.5. <tt>emerge broadcom-netxtreme2</tt> for reliable BCM5709+ support (integrated NIC)
 
 
|-
 
|<tt>{{Package|sys-kernel/debian-sources}}</tt>
 
|3.16.2, 3.16.7, 3.19.3
 
|<tt>openvz</tt>
 
|''Good'' - default kernel recommended by Funtoo
 
|OpenVZ (optional)
 
|Any
 
|See [[#Using debian-sources with Genkernel]], below.
 
|-
 
|}
 
== Using Debian-Sources with Genkernel ==
 
 
{{fancyimportant|Debian-sources is now fully compatible with the ''binary'' USE flag and recommended for desktop users. The below example is valid for manual installation. At least 12G of ''/var/tmp'' required to build }}
 
 
This section describes how to build a binary kernel with ''<code>debian-sources</code>'' and ''<code>genkernel</code>'', and it also explains how to use Funtoo Linux's ''<code>config-extract</code>'' tool to list and create official Debian kernel configurations.
 
 
=== First step: emerging the required packages ===
 
 
The first step is to emerge:
 
 
# The Debian sources
 
# Genkernel itself
 
 
This is achieved by running the following:
 
 
<console>
 
###i## emerge -av sys-kernel/debian-sources sys-kernel/genkernel
 
</console>
 
 
Once the Debian kernel sources are deployed, you should find a directory named '''linux-debian-''version''''' (e.g. linux-debian-2.6.32.30) under '''<code>/usr/src</code>'''. Update your the '''<code>linux</code>''' symlink to point on this directory:
 
<console>
 
###i## cd /usr/src
 
###i## rm linux
 
###i## ln -s linux-debian-2.6.32.30 linux
 
</console>
 
 
Alternatively, emerge the debian-sources with the ''<code>symlink</code>'' USE flag.
 
 
=== Second step: Grabbing a configuration file ===
 
 
If is now time to download the kernel configuration file. For this tutorial we will use a configuration file for AMD64 (several others architectures like MIPS or SPARC64 are available.)  To view a complete list of available kernel configurations, type <code>./config-extract -l</code> '''in the Debian kernel source directory''':
 
 
<pre>
 
ninja1 linux-debian-2.6.32.30 # ./config-extract -l
 
 
====== standard featureset ======
 
 
      alpha: alpha-generic, alpha-legacy, alpha-smp
 
      amd64
 
      armel: iop32x, ixp4xx, kirkwood, orion5x, versatile
 
        hppa: parisc, parisc-smp, parisc64, parisc64-smp
 
        i386: 486, 686, 686-bigmem, amd64
 
        ia64: itanium, mckinley
 
        m68k: amiga, atari, bvme6000, mac, mvme147, mvme16x
 
        mips: 4kc-malta, 5kc-malta, r4k-ip22, r5k-ip32, sb1-bcm91250a, sb1a-bcm91480b
 
      mipsel: 4kc-malta, 5kc-malta, r5k-cobalt, sb1-bcm91250a, sb1a-bcm91480b
 
    powerpc: powerpc, powerpc-smp, powerpc64
 
        s390: s390x, s390x-tape
 
        sh4: sh7751r, sh7785lcr
 
      sparc: sparc64, sparc64-smp
 
    sparc64: sparc64, sparc64-smp
 
 
====== vserver featureset ======
 
 
      amd64
 
        i386: 686, 686-bigmem
 
        ia64: itanium, mckinley
 
    powerpc: powerpc, powerpc64
 
        s390
 
      sparc
 
    sparc64
 
 
====== xen featureset ======
 
 
      amd64
 
        i386
 
 
====== openvz featureset ======
 
 
      amd64
 
        i386
 
</pre>
 
 
Type <tt>config-extract -h</tt> for extended usage information:
 
 
<pre>
 
ninja1 linux-debian-2.6.32.30 # ./config-extract -h
 
This work is free software.
 
 
Copyright 2011 Funtoo Technologies. You can redistribute and/or modify it under
 
the terms of the GNU General Public License version 3 as published by the Free
 
Software Foundation. Alternatively you may (at your option) use any other
 
license that has been publicly approved for use with this program by Funtoo
 
Technologies (or its successors, if any.)
 
 
usage: config-extract [options] arch [featureset] [subarch]
 
 
  -h  --help        print this usage and exit
 
  -l  --list        list all available kernel configurations
 
  -o  --outfile    specify kernel config outfile --
 
                    defaults to .config in current directory
 
  [featureset]      defaults to "none" if not specified
 
  [subarch]        defaults to the only one available; otherwise required
 
 
This program was written by Daniel Robbins for Funtoo Linux, for the purpose of
 
easily and conveniently extracting Debian kernel configurations. To see a nice
 
list of all available kernel configurations, use the --list option.
 
 
Debian's kernel configs are specified internally in arch_featureset_flavor
 
format, such as: "amd64_openvz_amd64". The featureset typically describes an
 
optional kernel configuration such as "xen" or "openvz", while the flavor in
 
Debian terminology typically refers to the sub-architecture of the CPU.
 
 
When using this command, you must specify an arch. A featureset of "none" is
 
assumed unless you specify one, and by default this program will pick the only
 
available subarch if there is only one to choose from. If not, you will need to
 
pick one (and the program will remind you to do this.)
 
 
The kernel configuration will be written to ".config" in the current directory,
 
or the location you specified using the -o/--outfile option.
 
</pre>
 
 
Let's use <tt>config-extract</tt> to create a kernel configuration for an amd64 system:
 
 
<console>
 
# ##i##cd linux
 
# ##i##./config-extract amd64
 
Wrote amd64_none_amd64 kernel configuration to /usr/src/linux-debian-2.6.32.30/.config.
 
</console>
 
 
<tt>config-extract</tt> also allows you to extract special Debian featuresets, such as settings for Xen and [[OpenVZ]] kernels:
 
 
<console>
 
# ##i##./config-extract amd64 openvz
 
Wrote amd64_openvz_amd64 kernel configuration to /usr/src/linux-debian-2.6.32.30/.config.
 
</console>
 
 
'''It is necessary to name the kernel configuration file something other than ".config" to avoid errors with genkernel.'''
 
 
 
After using <tt>config-extract</tt>, run <tt>make oldconfig</tt> and accept all default options by hitting Enter at all prompts.
 
 
 
{{fancynote|if you are using the XFS file system as your root partition: Run <tt>make menuconfig</tt> and ensure that "File Systems --> XFS filesystem support" and "Library Routines --> CRC32c (Castagnoli, et al) Cyclic Redundancy-Check" are both set to * (and not [m]).}}
 
This is needed to ensure that your system can boot up correctly for kernel versions >= 3.10.11.
 
 
=== Third step: Building and installing the kernel ===
 
 
This is simply achieved by:
 
 
<console>
 
# ##i##genkernel --kernel-config=config-2.6.32-5-amd64 all
 
</console>
 
 
* --kernel-config: use the given configfile. If you only give a filename here, it is searched for in your current working dir. You can also use a relative or an absolute path leading to your configfile here (for example: "--kernel-config=/usr/src/linux/configfile").
 
* all: rebuild the kernel image and the initramfs ramdisk image (aside of kernel modules, the ramdisk image contains tools such as BusyBox and some generic startup scripts, depending on options you use on the command line several additional tools like lvm or raid volume management can be incorporated as well).
 
 
{{ fancyimportant|Unless explicitly stated via ''--no-clean'' or ''--no-mrproper'', Genkernel will do a '''make mrproper''' in the kernel source tree, thus cleaning a previous build '''and removing the previous kernel configuration file''' in it.
 
}}
 
 
If you use Genkernel to rebuild a Linux kernel on SPARC64, remember to either:
 
* Set '''sparc64-unknown-linux-gnu-''' in ''General setup --> Cross-compiler tool prefix''
 
* Put '''--kernel-cross-compile=sparc64-unknown-linux-gnu-''' on the Genkernel command line
 
 
Once the kernel has been compiled and the ram disk has been generated, the kernel image plus its companion files (initramfs image and System.map) are placed in the /boot directory. You can use your favourite tool to update your bootloader configuration files.
 
  
[[Category:Internals]]
 
 
[[Category:Funtoo features]]
 
[[Category:Funtoo features]]
 
[[Category:Kernel]]
 
[[Category:Kernel]]
 
[[Category:Official Documentation]]
 
[[Category:Official Documentation]]

Latest revision as of 04:58, April 14, 2019

Other languages:
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   {{{title}}}
{{{body}}}

This Section will give you an overview of kernels used in funtoo. Some points of interest:

  • Most Funtoo Linux kernels support the handy binary USE flag, described below.
  • Funtoo Linux offers quality kernels from other Linux Distributions, like debian-sources.
  • Advanced users may want to take a look at Additional Kernel Resources.

Overview of Kernels

sys-kernel/debian-sources-lts

This is the Debian kernel, long-term stable edition and the default kernel for Funtoo Linux. These ebuilds now support the binary USE flag.

sys-kernel/debian-sources

This is a more up-to-date version of the Debian kernel but it less suited for server systems.

Binary USE

Many of the kernel ebuilds in Funtoo Linux support the very useful binary USE flag. By enabling this USE flag and emerging the kernel, the ebuild will automatically build a binary kernel image, initramfs and kernel modules and install them to /boot. The binary kernel image and initramfs can be used to boot your Funtoo Linux system without requiring any additional configuration. This is a great way to get a Funtoo Linux system up and running quickly. Here's how to do it:

root # echo "sys-kernel/debian-sources binary" >> /etc/portage/package.use
root # emerge debian-sources
root # nano -w /etc/boot.conf
root # ego boot update

More information can be found in the Funtoo Linux Installation Guide.