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== Overview of Kernels ==
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=== {{Package|sys-kernel/vanilla-sources}} ===
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This Section will give you an overview of kernels used in funtoo.
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Some points of interest:
  
Isso vai instalar os fontes do kernel Linux "vanilla" (não modificado). A versão atual recomendada é a 3.x. Funtoo Linux que tem suporte totalmente ao Linux 3.x. As vantagens desse kernel incluem melhoramentos recentes ao [[Linux Containers]], uma pilha de rede atual (networking stack) com muitas correções de bug, e alta confiabilidade para desktops e servidores. O lado negativo é que esse kernel deve ser configurado manualmente pelo usuário e não possui built-in ''<code>genkernel</code>'' suporte via a flag USE ''<code>binary</code>'' desta vez.
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* Most Funtoo Linux kernels support the handy {{c|[[#Binary USE|binary]]}} USE flag, described below.
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* Funtoo Linux offers quality kernels from other Linux Distributions, like {{c|debian-sources}}.
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* Advanced users may want to take a look at [[Additional Kernel Resources]].
  
=== {{Package|sys-kernel/gentoo-sources}} ===
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== Overview of Kernels ==
 
 
Esse kernel tree é baseado nos kernels stable do [https://www.kernel.org/ kernel.org] com genpatches aplicados [http://dev.gentoo.org/~mpagano/genpatches/about.htm genpatches].
 
o Gentoo patchset visa ter suporte à toda variedade de arquiteturas suportadas pelo Gentoo. A lista de genpatched kernels disponíveis: [http://dev.gentoo.org/~mpagano/genpatches/kernels.htm genpatches-kernels]
 
  
=== {{Package|sys-kernel/openvz-rhel6-stable}} ===
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=== {{Package|sys-kernel/debian-sources-lts}} ===
  
Esse é um kernel baseado no RHEL6 com suporte a OpenVZ. Esse é agora o kernel preferido para desenvolvimento de produção OpenVZ (production OpenVZ deployments). Ele requer gcc-4.4.5 para ser construído, que vai usará automaticamente sem que o usuário precise utilizar ''<code>gcc-config</code>''. Utilizamos essa versão de gcc desde que essa é a versão de gcc utilizada pela Red Hat para construir esse kernel.
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This is the Debian kernel, long-term stable edition and the default kernel for Funtoo Linux. '''These ebuilds now support the {{c|binary}} USE flag.'''
  
 
=== {{Package|sys-kernel/debian-sources}} ===
 
=== {{Package|sys-kernel/debian-sources}} ===
  
Esse é o kernel do Debian. '''Esses ebuilds agora possuem suporte a flag USE ''<code>binary</code>''.''' Daniel adicionou comando especial <tt>config-extract</tt> que pode ser utilizado para listar todas as configurações disponíveis do kernel oficial do Debian, e gerá-las a partir dos arquivos do Debian inclusos com o kernel. Esse kernel tem suporte opcional a [[OpenVZ]], mas é bem melhor utilizar o <tt>openvz-rhel6-stable</tt> se quiser um instalação OpenVZ com qualidade de produção (production-quality OpenVZ). Para mais informações sobre como utilizar <tt>debian-sources</tt> e <tt>config-extract</tt>, veja [[#Using Debian-Sources with Genkernel|Utilizando debian-sources com o Genkernel]] abaixo.
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This is a more up-to-date version of the Debian kernel but it less suited for server systems.
  
 
== Binary USE ==
 
== Binary USE ==
  
Muitos dos kernel ebuilds no Funtoo Linux possuem suporte à flag USE <code>binary</code> muito útil. Ao habilitar essa flag USE e emergir o kernel, o ebuild construirá automaticamente uma imagem binária do kernel, o initramfs e módulos do kernel e instalá-los em <code>/boot</code>. A imagem binária do kernel e do initramfs pode ser utilizadas para inicializar seu sistema Funtoo Linux sem necessidade qualquer configuração adicional. Esse é um ótimo jeito de obter um sistema Funtoo Linux no ar e em execução rapidamente. Aqui está como fazer isso:
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Many of the kernel ebuilds in Funtoo Linux support the very useful {{c|binary}} USE flag. By enabling this USE flag and emerging the kernel, the ebuild will automatically build a binary kernel image, initramfs and kernel modules and install them to {{c|/boot}}. The binary kernel image and initramfs can be used to boot your Funtoo Linux system without requiring any additional configuration. This is a great way to get a Funtoo Linux system up and running quickly. Here's how to do it:
  
<console>
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{{console|body=
###i## echo "sys-kernel/openvz-rhel6-stable binary" >> /etc/portage/package.use
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###i## echo "sys-kernel/debian-sources binary" >> /etc/portage/package.use
###i## emerge openvz-rhel6-stable
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###i## emerge debian-sources
 
###i## nano -w /etc/boot.conf
 
###i## nano -w /etc/boot.conf
###i## boot-update
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###i## ego boot update
</console>
 
 
 
Mais informações podem ser encontradas no Guia de [[Funtoo_Linux_Installation|Instalação do Funtoo Linux]].
 
 
 
== Funtoo Linux Genkernel ==
 
 
 
O Funtoo Linux contem uma versão forked/enhanced do genkernel com as novas compatibilidades:
 
 
 
* genkernel pode utilizar um diretório build que é separado do diretório kernel source. Isso é habilitado utilizando a nova opção <tt>--build-dst</tt>.
 
* <code>--build-src</code> é uma nova opção que é equivalente a opção <tt>--kerneldir</tt>.
 
* <code>--fullname</code> pode ser utilizado para especificar o nome inteiro das imagens do kernel e do initramfs -- Tudo depois <tt>kernel-</tt> e de  <tt>initramfs-</tt>.
 
* <code>--firmware-src</code> - uma nova opção que funciona identic ao <tt>--firmware-dir</tt>.
 
* <code>--firmware-dst</code> - uma nova compatibilidade - você pode agora definir onde o genkernel instala o firmware.
 
* Genkernel utiliza o Funtoo Linux <code>lvm2</code> ao invés de construir o seu próprio.
 
* Algumas correções de compilação.
 
 
 
== Estabilidade do Kernel e visão geral da estabilidade ==
 
 
 
{{Fancywarning|'''SPARC64''': Todos os kernels além das séries 3.9 e antes do 3.14-rc8 estão sujeitos a um [http://www.spinics.net/lists/sparclinux/msg11805.html bug] que abriga o kernel nas máquinas sun4v '''somente'''. Esses últimos são fornecidos com UltraSPARC T1 e mais recentes CPUs (ex. SunFire T1000, SunFire T2000, SunFire T52x0/T54x0 series...), todas as máquinas sun4u (UltraSPARC IV e CPUs antecedentes) não estão sujeitos a esse problema e qualquer versão de kernel funcional. }}
 
 
 
{| {{table}}
 
!Nome do Kernel
 
!Versão
 
!USE flags
 
!Estabilidade
 
!Recursos Extras
 
!Req'd udev
 
!Notas
 
|-
 
|<tt>{{Package|sys-kernel/vanilla-sources}}</tt>
 
|3.17.0
 
|N/A
 
|'''Excellent''' - recommended for desktops and servers.
 
|N/A
 
|Any
 
|Recommended for modern networking stack, hardware and [[Linux Containers]] support. This kernel must be manually configured by the user. New Features: [http://kernelnewbies.org/Linux_3.12 kernelnewbies.org/linux_3.12]  New Drivers: [http://kernelnewbies.org/Linux_3.12-DriversArch kernelnewbies/Linux_3.12-DriversArch]
 
|-
 
|<tt>{{Package|sys-kernel/gentoo-sources}}</tt>
 
|3.17.0
 
|N/A
 
|'''Excellent''' - recommended for desktops and workstations
 
|N/A
 
|Any
 
|Recommended for modern networking stack, hardware and [[Linux Containers]] support. This kernel must be manually configured by the user. New Features: [http://kernelnewbies.org/Linux_3.12 kernelnewbies.org/linux_3.12]  New Drivers: [http://kernelnewbies.org/Linux_3.12-DriversArch kernelnewbies/Linux_3.12-DriversArch]
 
|-
 
|<tt>{{Package|sys-kernel/openvz-rhel6-stable}}</tt>
 
|2.6.32.042.092.2
 
|<tt>binary</tt>
 
|'''Excellent''' - recommended for production servers
 
|N/A
 
|Any
 
|This kernel is built with gcc-4.4.5. <tt>emerge broadcom-netxtreme2</tt> for reliable BCM5709+ support (integrated NIC)
 
 
 
|-
 
|<tt>{{Package|sys-kernel/debian-sources}}</tt>
 
|3.16.2, 3.16.7, 3.19.3
 
|<tt>openvz</tt>
 
|''Good'' - default kernel recommended by Funtoo
 
|OpenVZ (optional)
 
|Any
 
|See [[#Using debian-sources with Genkernel]], below.
 
|-
 
|}
 
 
 
== Using Debian-Sources with Genkernel ==
 
 
 
{{fancyimportant|Debian-sources is now fully compatible with the ''binary'' USE flag and recommended for desktop users. The below example is valid for manual installation. At least 12G of ''/var/tmp'' required to build }}
 
 
 
This section describes how to build a binary kernel with ''<code>debian-sources</code>'' and ''<code>genkernel</code>'', and it also explains how to use Funtoo Linux's ''<code>config-extract</code>'' tool to list and create official Debian kernel configurations.
 
 
 
=== First step: emerging the required packages ===
 
 
 
The first step is to emerge:
 
 
 
# The Debian sources
 
# Genkernel itself
 
 
 
This is achieved by running the following:
 
 
 
<console>
 
###i## emerge -av sys-kernel/debian-sources sys-kernel/genkernel
 
</console>
 
 
 
Once the Debian kernel sources are deployed, you should find a directory named '''linux-debian-''version''''' (e.g. linux-debian-2.6.32.30) under '''<code>/usr/src</code>'''. Update your the '''<code>linux</code>''' symlink to point on this directory:
 
<console>
 
###i## cd /usr/src
 
###i## rm linux
 
###i## ln -s linux-debian-2.6.32.30 linux
 
</console>
 
 
 
Alternatively, emerge the debian-sources with the ''<code>symlink</code>'' USE flag.
 
 
 
=== Second step: Grabbing a configuration file ===
 
 
 
If is now time to download the kernel configuration file. For this tutorial we will use a configuration file for AMD64 (several others architectures like MIPS or SPARC64 are available.)  To view a complete list of available kernel configurations, type <code>./config-extract -l</code> '''in the Debian kernel source directory''':
 
 
 
<pre>
 
ninja1 linux-debian-2.6.32.30 # ./config-extract -l
 
 
 
====== standard featureset ======
 
 
 
      alpha: alpha-generic, alpha-legacy, alpha-smp
 
      amd64
 
      armel: iop32x, ixp4xx, kirkwood, orion5x, versatile
 
        hppa: parisc, parisc-smp, parisc64, parisc64-smp
 
        i386: 486, 686, 686-bigmem, amd64
 
        ia64: itanium, mckinley
 
        m68k: amiga, atari, bvme6000, mac, mvme147, mvme16x
 
        mips: 4kc-malta, 5kc-malta, r4k-ip22, r5k-ip32, sb1-bcm91250a, sb1a-bcm91480b
 
      mipsel: 4kc-malta, 5kc-malta, r5k-cobalt, sb1-bcm91250a, sb1a-bcm91480b
 
    powerpc: powerpc, powerpc-smp, powerpc64
 
        s390: s390x, s390x-tape
 
        sh4: sh7751r, sh7785lcr
 
      sparc: sparc64, sparc64-smp
 
    sparc64: sparc64, sparc64-smp
 
 
 
====== vserver featureset ======
 
 
 
      amd64
 
        i386: 686, 686-bigmem
 
        ia64: itanium, mckinley
 
    powerpc: powerpc, powerpc64
 
        s390
 
      sparc
 
    sparc64
 
 
 
====== xen featureset ======
 
 
 
      amd64
 
        i386
 
 
 
====== openvz featureset ======
 
 
 
      amd64
 
        i386
 
</pre>
 
 
 
Type <tt>config-extract -h</tt> for extended usage information:
 
 
 
<pre>
 
ninja1 linux-debian-2.6.32.30 # ./config-extract -h
 
This work is free software.
 
 
 
Copyright 2011 Funtoo Technologies. You can redistribute and/or modify it under
 
the terms of the GNU General Public License version 3 as published by the Free
 
Software Foundation. Alternatively you may (at your option) use any other
 
license that has been publicly approved for use with this program by Funtoo
 
Technologies (or its successors, if any.)
 
 
 
usage: config-extract [options] arch [featureset] [subarch]
 
 
 
  -h  --help        print this usage and exit
 
  -l  --list        list all available kernel configurations
 
  -o  --outfile    specify kernel config outfile --
 
                    defaults to .config in current directory
 
  [featureset]      defaults to "none" if not specified
 
  [subarch]        defaults to the only one available; otherwise required
 
 
 
This program was written by Daniel Robbins for Funtoo Linux, for the purpose of
 
easily and conveniently extracting Debian kernel configurations. To see a nice
 
list of all available kernel configurations, use the --list option.
 
 
 
Debian's kernel configs are specified internally in arch_featureset_flavor
 
format, such as: "amd64_openvz_amd64". The featureset typically describes an
 
optional kernel configuration such as "xen" or "openvz", while the flavor in
 
Debian terminology typically refers to the sub-architecture of the CPU.
 
 
 
When using this command, you must specify an arch. A featureset of "none" is
 
assumed unless you specify one, and by default this program will pick the only
 
available subarch if there is only one to choose from. If not, you will need to
 
pick one (and the program will remind you to do this.)
 
 
 
The kernel configuration will be written to ".config" in the current directory,
 
or the location you specified using the -o/--outfile option.
 
</pre>
 
 
 
Let's use <tt>config-extract</tt> to create a kernel configuration for an amd64 system:
 
 
 
<console>
 
# ##i##cd linux
 
# ##i##./config-extract amd64
 
Wrote amd64_none_amd64 kernel configuration to /usr/src/linux-debian-2.6.32.30/.config.
 
</console>
 
 
 
<tt>config-extract</tt> also allows you to extract special Debian featuresets, such as settings for Xen and [[OpenVZ]] kernels:
 
 
 
<console>
 
# ##i##./config-extract amd64 openvz
 
Wrote amd64_openvz_amd64 kernel configuration to /usr/src/linux-debian-2.6.32.30/.config.
 
</console>
 
 
 
'''It is necessary to name the kernel configuration file something other than ".config" to avoid errors with genkernel.'''
 
 
 
 
 
After using <tt>config-extract</tt>, run <tt>make oldconfig</tt> and accept all default options by hitting Enter at all prompts.
 
 
 
 
 
{{fancynote|if you are using the XFS file system as your root partition: Run <tt>make menuconfig</tt> and ensure that "File Systems --> XFS filesystem support" and "Library Routines --> CRC32c (Castagnoli, et al) Cyclic Redundancy-Check" are both set to * (and not [m]).}}
 
This is needed to ensure that your system can boot up correctly for kernel versions >= 3.10.11.
 
 
 
=== Third step: Building and installing the kernel ===
 
 
 
This is simply achieved by:
 
 
 
<console>
 
# ##i##genkernel --kernel-config=config-2.6.32-5-amd64 all
 
</console>
 
 
 
* --kernel-config: use the given configfile. If you only give a filename here, it is searched for in your current working dir. You can also use a relative or an absolute path leading to your configfile here (for example: "--kernel-config=/usr/src/linux/configfile").
 
* all: rebuild the kernel image and the initramfs ramdisk image (aside of kernel modules, the ramdisk image contains tools such as BusyBox and some generic startup scripts, depending on options you use on the command line several additional tools like lvm or raid volume management can be incorporated as well).
 
 
 
{{ fancyimportant|Unless explicitly stated via ''--no-clean'' or ''--no-mrproper'', Genkernel will do a '''make mrproper''' in the kernel source tree, thus cleaning a previous build '''and removing the previous kernel configuration file''' in it.
 
 
}}
 
}}
  
If you use Genkernel to rebuild a Linux kernel on SPARC64, remember to either:
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More information can be found in the [[Funtoo Linux Installation]] Guide.
* Set '''sparc64-unknown-linux-gnu-''' in ''General setup --> Cross-compiler tool prefix''
 
* Put '''--kernel-cross-compile=sparc64-unknown-linux-gnu-''' on the Genkernel command line
 
 
 
Once the kernel has been compiled and the ram disk has been generated, the kernel image plus its companion files (initramfs image and System.map) are placed in the /boot directory. You can use your favourite tool to update your bootloader configuration files.
 
  
[[Category:Internals]]
 
 
[[Category:Funtoo features]]
 
[[Category:Funtoo features]]
 
[[Category:Kernel]]
 
[[Category:Kernel]]
 
[[Category:Official Documentation]]
 
[[Category:Official Documentation]]

Latest revision as of 04:58, April 14, 2019

Other languages:
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   {{{title}}}
{{{body}}}

This Section will give you an overview of kernels used in funtoo. Some points of interest:

  • Most Funtoo Linux kernels support the handy binary USE flag, described below.
  • Funtoo Linux offers quality kernels from other Linux Distributions, like debian-sources.
  • Advanced users may want to take a look at Additional Kernel Resources.

Overview of Kernels

sys-kernel/debian-sources-lts

This is the Debian kernel, long-term stable edition and the default kernel for Funtoo Linux. These ebuilds now support the binary USE flag.

sys-kernel/debian-sources

This is a more up-to-date version of the Debian kernel but it less suited for server systems.

Binary USE

Many of the kernel ebuilds in Funtoo Linux support the very useful binary USE flag. By enabling this USE flag and emerging the kernel, the ebuild will automatically build a binary kernel image, initramfs and kernel modules and install them to /boot. The binary kernel image and initramfs can be used to boot your Funtoo Linux system without requiring any additional configuration. This is a great way to get a Funtoo Linux system up and running quickly. Here's how to do it:

root # echo "sys-kernel/debian-sources binary" >> /etc/portage/package.use
root # emerge debian-sources
root # nano -w /etc/boot.conf
root # ego boot update

More information can be found in the Funtoo Linux Installation Guide.