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What is a profile? ==
In Gentoo and Funtoo Linux , profiles are used to define base system settings, and have historically had a lot of untapped potential. In Funtoo Linux, I wanted to take advantage of some of this potential to allow Funtoo Linux users to easily tailor their system for various types of roles. Enter the new Funtoo profile system.
Gentoo Funtoo Linux system, of . In Linux, to of Funtoo Linux types of .the profile system.
== What It Is ==
Historically, users have had to add a ton of settings to < code> /etc/[[make. conf]]</code> to customize their Gentoo or Funtoo Linux system, which made setup of the operating system more difficult than it should be.
. , .
In Gentoo Linux, it is possible to only define one ''system profile''. Think of a system profile as the default settings that Portage uses for building everything on your system.
In Funtoo Linux, multiple profiles can be enabled at the same time. These include:
* '''arch''' - one arch profile is enabled, at build time, and is not changed. This defines CPU architecture-specific settings.
* '''build''' - one build profile is enabled, at build time, and is generally not changed. It defines the type of build, such as 'current' or 'stable', and associated settings.
* '''flavor''' - one flavor is enabled per system, and can be changed by the user. This defines the general use of the system, such as 'minimal', 'core', 'workstation' or 'desktop'
* '''mix-in''' - zero or more mix-ins can be enabled that enable settings specific to a particular subset of features, such as 'gnome', 'kde', 'media', 'mate', 'X', 'hardened'
See [[Flavors and Mix- ins]] for a complete list of all flavors and mix-ins available in Funtoo Linux, along with descriptions of what each one does.}}
=== Origins and Benefits ===
This new system is really a completion of the original cascading profile design that was designed by Daniel Robbins and implemented by Seemant Kulleen as part of Portage. Funtoo Profiles designed to leverage the existing cascading profile system and provide something much more useable and maintainable for users and developers alike. Here are some of its benefits:
* Fewer settings in <code>/etc/make.conf</code>. <code>CHOST</code> and <code>ARCH</code> no longer set in < code> /etc/make.conf< /code> .
* Separation of concerns - - arch, build, and flavor- related settings are organized together.
* User flexibility - any number of mix- ins can be enabled to tweak masks or USE settings as needed.
note| See [[Custom Profiles]] for information on how to extend the profile system.}}
Using ego / epro ===
epro is a new personality tool designed to eventually replace eselect profile. If your desired subarch is not listed with "eselect profile list", try using "epro list".
your desired profile, .
For more information, see this news: [http://www.funtoo.org/News:Better_Experiences:_Ego_and_Vim News: Better Experiences: Ego and Vim]
And the ego wiki page itself: [[Package: Ego]]
=== Using epro ===
preferred method of adding and removing profiles is to use [[ epro]]. This will ensure that profiles are added correctly and in the proper order. The order is imperative for things to work right.
The and is [].
the . The is to .
Type the following to view a list of available options for '''epro''':
For a start, let's see what the default configuration has to offer. Get an overview using the '''list''' command:
###i## epro list
arm- 32bit, (pure64*), x86- 32bit, x86- 64bit
=== subarch: ===
amd64-bulldozer-pure64, amd64-jaguar-pure64, amd64-k10-pure64
amd64-k8+sse3-pure64, amd64-k8-pure64, amd64-piledriver-pure64
amd64-steamroller-pure64, atom_64-pure64, btver1_64-pure64
core-avx-i-pure64, core2_64-pure64, corei7-pure64, generic_64-pure64*
intel64-broadwell-pure64, intel64-haswell-pure64, intel64-ivybridge-pure64
intel64-nehalem-pure64, intel64-sandybridge-pure64, intel64-silvermont-pure64
intel64-westmere-pure64, native_64-pure64, nocona-pure64, opteron_64-pure64
(current*), experimental, stable
=== flavor: ===
core, desktop*, hardened, minimal, server, workstation
=== mix-ins: ===
X, audio, cinnamon, console- extras, dvd, gnome, hardened, kde
lxde, lxqt, mate, media, media- pro, mediadevice- audio- consumer
mediadevice- audio- pro, mediadevice-base, mediadevice-video -consumer
mediadevice-video- pro, mediaformat-audio-common , mediaformat-audio-extra
mediaformat-gfx-common , mediaformat-gfx-extra , mediaformat-video-common
mediaformat-video-extra, no-emul-linux-x86, no-systemd, print
python3-only, vmware-guest, xfce*
As in several other Funtoo utilities, a star ('''*''') on the right indicates an active item (your case may differ from the example above).
Now, let's head over and add some mix- ins. To add, say, the mix- ins '''gnome''' and '''kde''' we'd have to enter:
###i## epro mix- ins +gnome +kde
mix-in , :
If we want to remove a mix-in, for example '''gnome''', simply enter:
###i## epro mix- ins - gnome
fancywarning| Please, do not add anything manually into <code>parent</code> file. This may result in profile breakage.}}
The contents of < code> /etc/portage/make. profile/parent</code> for a basic setup might look like this:
A more rounded setup for a desktop might look like this:
for a desktop might look like this:
== == -
* [[Flavors and Mix- ins]]
This page covers the Funtoo Linux profile system -- how it works, what profiles are available, and how to use
epro to set and change profile settings.
Historically, users have had to add a large number of settings to
/etc/make.conf to customize their Gentoo or Funtoo Linux system, which made setup of the operating system more difficult than it should be. In Gentoo Linux, it is possible to only define one system profile. Think of a system profile as the default settings that Portage uses for building everything on your system. Rather than a single profile, Funtoo Linux uses multiple sub-profiles, and moves many types of settings that are normally stored in
/etc/make.conf into the profile system. The following profile types are available in Funtoo Linux:
x86-64bit, this defines the processor type and support of your system. This is defined when your stage was built and should not be changed.
|Defines whether your system is a |
current systems will have newer packages unmasked than
stable systems. This is defined when your stage is built and is typically not changed.
|Defines CPU optimizations for your system. The subarch is set at the time the stage3 is built, but can be changed later to better settings if necessary. Be sure to pick a setting that is compatible with your CPU.|
|Defines the general type of system, such as |
desktop, and will set default USE flags appropriate for your needs.
|Defines various optional settings that you may be interested in enabling.|
Flavors can (and often do) inherit settings from other flavors and mix-ins. Mix-ins can also inherit settings from other mix-ins. For example,
X is inherited by
epro tool will show both as being enabled so there are no surprises.
epro show will display the current profile settings on your system:
root # epro show
=== Enabled Profiles: ===
=== All inherited flavors from desktop flavor: ===
workstation (from desktop flavor)
core (from workstation flavor)
minimal (from core flavor)
=== All inherited mix-ins from desktop flavor: ===
X (from workstation flavor)
audio (from workstation flavor)
dvd (from workstation flavor)
media (from workstation flavor)
mediadevice-audio-consumer (from media mix-in)
mediadevice-base (from mediadevice-audio-consumer mix-in)
mediadevice-video-consumer (from media mix-in)
mediadevice-base (from mediadevice-video-consumer mix-in)
mediaformat-audio-common (from media mix-in)
mediaformat-gfx-common (from media mix-in)
mediaformat-video-common (from media mix-in)
console-extras (from workstation flavor)
print (from desktop flavor)
To view all available sub-profile settings, use
root # epro list
Enabled profiles will be highlighted in cyan. Directly enabled profiles will be in bold and have an asterisk
* appended. Sub-profiles enabled via inheritance will be highlighted.
|Add the mix-ins |
epro mix-ins +gnome +kde
|Remove a mix-in, for example |
epro mix-ins -gnome
|Change the profile arch to x86-64bit|
epro arch x86-64bit
|Change the subarch to |
epro subarch generic_64
|Change the system flavor|
epro flavor desktop
|Get JSON output of profile settings|
|Get current sub-profile setting in text form|
epro get [profiletype]
After you set your desired profile, sync and update.
root # ego sync
root # emerge -auDN @world
A system can have only one flavor profile enabled at a time. The following flavors are available:
|This contains the bare minimum settings for all Funtoo Linux flavors.|
|The core flavor includes the minimal flavor, plus reasonable settings, and is used for the official stage3 downloads.|
|In the future, the server flavor will include the core flavor, plus specific settings designed for servers. At the moment, it is equivalent to the core flavor.|
|The workstation flavor is a minimal desktop system. It includes the core flavor, plus these mix-ins: |
|The desktop flavor includes the common settings for any full-featured desktop system. It includes the |
workstation flavor plus
printing support. The user is expected to further customize their system with a desktop environment of choice, such as KDE, GNOME, or XFCE, possibly by using a mix-in.
A system can have any number of mix-ins enabled at a time. The following mix-ins are available:
|Enables core audio-related settings, currently related to ALSA.|
|Enables things that are nice to have for console-only systems. Currently enabling gpm in USE.|
|USE settings related to optical drives -- CDR/DVD-ROM/RW use.|
|USE and package.use settings required to merge GNOME. Designed to be used with |
|Enables hardened support.|
|USE and package.use settings required to merge KDE Plasma 4. Designed to be used with |
|USE and package.use settings required to merge KDE Plasma 5. Designed to be used with |
|USE settings related to audio/video media encoding. Can be for desktops or servers.|
|Enables printing capability.|
|Settings related to using Funtoo Linux as a VMware virtual machine guest.|
|Settings related to the X Window System and hardware support.|
|USE settings required for merging XFCE.|
This section is in need of updates.
Media Device Mix-ins
Media device mix-ins have been created to support media devices, including external and portable devices, and associated low-level hardware support and hardware-focused codecs. Media devices have been categorized into audio and video categories, and consumer and professional categories. "Consumer" devices are those devices that regular desktop users might typically use, while "professional" devices are those that professionals, hobbyists or enthusiasts would typically use. Here are the new mix-ins for media devices:
|Media Device Mix-in||Description|
|Common, universally-supported media devices, like IEEE-1394 (Firewire), CDDA, CDIO. Other mediadevice mix-ins have this as a parent.|
|Consumer audio devices, such as personal portable media players (iOS, iPod, etc.)|
|Pro audio support, such as JACK.|
|Consumer video support, such as DVD, Blu Ray, V4L|
|Pro video support, such as dv, dc1394.|
Media Format Mix-ins
Media format mix-ins have been created to support media formats for reading, writing, encoding and decoding images, audio and video. They have been organized into a "common" collection, for popular formats, and an "extra" collection, which is intended to include "everything else". Let's look at the new mix-ins:
|Media Format Mix-in||Description|
|Common (ie. popular) video formats.|
|More esoteric video formats.|
|Common (ie. popular) audio formats.|
|More esoteric audio formats.|
|Common (ie. popular) graphics formats.|
|More esoteric graphics formats.|
How to Use Media Mix-Ins
media mix-in still exists, and is still pulled in by the
workstation flavors automatically. It now includes the following parent mix-ins:
In addition, there is a new
media-pro mix-in which needs to be enabled manually, which pulls in the following mix-ins:
So typically, you would enable the
workstation flavor, and if you need professional hardware support, you'd also enable the
media-pro mix-in. If you needed any additional media formats support, you could enable one or more of the
mediaformat-*-extra mix-ins to add the formats you needed. Of course, it's possible to enable only the specific mix-ins you need, and also complement these mix-ins with specific USE variable settings you might require.
How Profile Settings are Stored
Funtoo Linux stores its profile settings in the
/etc/portage/make.profile/parent file. Typically, users don't need to modify this file, instead using
epro to make changes, but it can be handy to take a look at what the contents of the file look like. A simple server might have profile settings as follows:
Profile settings for a desktop might look like this:
History and Origins
This new system is really a completion of the original cascading profile design that was co-designed by Daniel Robbins and Seemant Kulleen and implemented by Seemant Kulleen as part of Portage. Funtoo Profiles designed to leverage the existing cascading profile system and provide something much more useable and maintainable for users and developers alike. Here are some of its benefits:
- Fewer settings in
ARCH no longer set in
- Separation of concerns -- arch, build, and flavor-related settings are organized together.
- User flexibility - any number of mix-ins can be enabled to tweak masks or USE settings as needed.
See Custom Profiles for information on how to extend the profile system.