What is a profile?
In Gentoo and Funtoo Linux, profiles are used to define base system settings, and have historically had a lot of untapped potential. In Funtoo Linux, I wanted to take advantage of some of this potential to allow Funtoo Linux users to easily tailor their system for various types of roles. Enter the new Funtoo profile system.
What It Is
Historically, users have had to add a ton of settings to
/etc/make.conf to customize their Gentoo or Funtoo Linux system, which made setup of the operating system more difficult than it should be.
In Gentoo Linux, it is possible to only define one system profile. Think of a system profile as the default settings that Portage uses for building everything on your system.
In Funtoo Linux, multiple profiles can be enabled at the same time. These include:
- arch - one arch profile is enabled, at build time, and is not changed. This defines CPU architecture-specific settings.
- build - one build profile is enabled, at build time, and is generally not changed. It defines the type of build, such as 'current' or 'stable', and associated settings.
- flavor - one flavor is enabled per system, and can be changed by the user. This defines the general use of the system, such as 'minimal', 'core', 'workstation' or 'desktop'
- mix-in - zero or more mix-ins can be enabled that enable settings specific to a particular subset of features, such as 'gnome', 'kde', 'media', 'mate', 'X', 'hardened'
See Flavors and Mix-ins for a complete list of all flavors and mix-ins available in Funtoo Linux, along with descriptions of what each one does.
Origins and Benefits
This new system is really a completion of the original cascading profile design that was designed by Daniel Robbins and implemented by Seemant Kulleen as part of Portage. Funtoo Profiles designed to leverage the existing cascading profile system and provide something much more useable and maintainable for users and developers alike. Here are some of its benefits:
- Fewer settings in
ARCHno longer set in
- Separation of concerns -- arch, build, and flavor-related settings are organized together.
- User flexibility - any number of mix-ins can be enabled to tweak masks or USE settings as needed.
See Custom Profiles for information on how to extend the profile system.
Using ego / epro
epro is a new personality tool designed to eventually replace eselect profile. If your desired subarch is not listed with "eselect profile list", try using "epro list".
For more information, see this news: News: Better Experiences: Ego and Vim
And the ego wiki page itself: Package:Ego
This section is in need of updates.
The preferred method of adding and removing profiles is to use epro. This will ensure that profiles are added correctly and in the proper order. The order is imperative for things to work right.
Type the following to view a list of available options for epro: For a start, let's see what the default configuration has to offer. Get an overview using the list command:
root # epro list === arch: === arm-32bit, (pure64*), x86-32bit, x86-64bit === subarch: === amd64-bulldozer-pure64, amd64-jaguar-pure64, amd64-k10-pure64 amd64-k8+sse3-pure64, amd64-k8-pure64, amd64-piledriver-pure64 amd64-steamroller-pure64, atom_64-pure64, btver1_64-pure64 core-avx-i-pure64, core2_64-pure64, corei7-pure64, generic_64-pure64* intel64-broadwell-pure64, intel64-haswell-pure64, intel64-ivybridge-pure64 intel64-nehalem-pure64, intel64-sandybridge-pure64, intel64-silvermont-pure64 intel64-westmere-pure64, native_64-pure64, nocona-pure64, opteron_64-pure64 xen-pentium4+sse3_64-pure64 === build: === (current*), experimental, stable === flavor: === core, desktop*, hardened, minimal, server, workstation === mix-ins: === X, audio, cinnamon, console-extras, dvd, gnome, hardened, kde lxde, lxqt, mate, media, media-pro, mediadevice-audio-consumer mediadevice-audio-pro, mediadevice-base, mediadevice-video-consumer mediadevice-video-pro, mediaformat-audio-common, mediaformat-audio-extra mediaformat-gfx-common, mediaformat-gfx-extra, mediaformat-video-common mediaformat-video-extra, no-emul-linux-x86, no-systemd, print python3-only, vmware-guest, xfce*
As in several other Funtoo utilities, a star (*) on the right indicates an active item (your case may differ from the example above). Now, let's head over and add some mix-ins. To add, say, the mix-ins gnome and kde we'd have to enter:
root # epro mix-ins +gnome +kde
If we want to remove a mix-in, for example gnome, simply enter:
root # epro mix-ins -gnome
Please, do not add anything manually into
parent file. This may result in profile breakage.
Define the profile sub-sets you will use
So far in Funtoo we have used the exact same profiles as Gentoo thus Funtoo/2008.0 was strictly the same thing as Gentoo/2008.0 or the barely the same 10.0. This (monolithic) profile was set though a symbolic link named
/etc/make.profile pointing on a complex directory architecture located somewhere under
/usr/portage/profiles. This is no longer valid with the Funtoo 1.0 profiles as they are split in several smaller bricks which are then glued together via the
/etc/portage/make.profile/parent file (You do not need to include everything, just use the "bricks" you need). Those bricks belongs to several categories:
- MANDATORY -- An "arch" profile which defines settings for a particular architecture. You'll want to set this to whatever arch your system is and leave it alone. Setting it to a different arch than your system could severely break it.
- MANDATORY -- A "build" profile which should match the tree you wish to use. Stable, Current (~arch), or Experimental (use it if you are brave enough and find current too stable).
- MANDATORY -- A "flavor" profile (what was previously known as profiles is still known as such in Gentoo) which describes the kind of system you want:
- minimal - Be warned, minimal is exactly what it says, the minimal profile stuff you need for a usable system, nothing else. This is really for people who know what they're doing.
- core - This is the core profile. This is for stuff that affects both desktops and servers.
- desktop - Exactly what it says. If you're using a desktop, you should set this as your flavor.
- server - If you're running a server, you should set this as your flavor.
- OPTIONAL -- One or more "mix-ins" profiles which describe optional add-ons. 'mix-ins' are the heart of the Funtoo 1.0 profiles. Unlike the monolithic profiles which sets a massive amount of use flags and options for you, we've split them into logical add-on profiles. For instance if you want support for gnome, you would add the gnome mix-in to your current profiles. That mix-in sets all the proper use flags and such for gnome. Same with others. Want dvd support? Add that one in. Using a rhel5 kernel which requires special versions of packages such as udev? There's a mix-in for that too. Run a mail server? web server? There's mix-ins for those also. Expect this category to grow in the future as new mix-ins are created.
The contents of
/etc/portage/make.profile/parent for a basic setup might look like this:
gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/arch/x86-64bit gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/build/current gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/flavor/core
A more rounded setup for a desktop might look like this:
gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/arch/x86-64bit gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/build/current gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/flavor/desktop gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/dvd gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/media