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安装指南:配置文件

Install Guide, Chapter 11 < Prev Next >

正如对任何一个 Linux 发行版期盼的那样,Funtoo Linux 有一套自己的配置文件。为了确保 Funtoo Linux 成功启动,你必须编辑的文件是 /etc/fstab。其他的文件是可选的。

使用 Nano

Chroot 环境下包含的默认文本编辑器是 nano。若要编辑文本,可以按照下述方法使用 Nano:

chroot # nano -w /etc/fstab

在编辑器中,可以使用方向键移动光标,并且退格和删除这一类的按键都会像往常一样工作。可以按 Control-X 并且用 y 来回答是/否将改动保存到文件的提示来保存文件。

配置文件

Here are a full list of files that you may want to edit, depending on your needs:

FileDo I need to change it?Description
/etc/fstab YES - required Mount points for all filesystems to be used at boot time. This file must reflect your disk partition setup. We'll guide you through modifying this file below.
/etc/localtime Maybe - recommended Your timezone, which will default to UTC if not set. This should be a symbolic link to something located under /usr/share/zoneinfo (e.g. /usr/share/zoneinfo/America/Montreal)
/etc/portage/make.conf Maybe - recommended Parameters used by gcc (compiler), portage, and make. Note that it is normal for this file to be empty in Funtoo Linux, as many settings have been migrated to our enhanced profile system.
/etc/conf.d/hostname Maybe - recommended Used to set system hostname. Set the hostname variable to the fully-qualified (with dots, ie. foo.funtoo.org) name if you have one. Otherwise, set to the local system hostname (without dots, ie. foo). Defaults to localhost if not set.
/etc/hosts No You no longer need to manually set the hostname in this file. This file is automatically generated by /etc/init.d/hostname.
/etc/conf.d/keymaps Optional Keyboard mapping configuration file (for console pseudo-terminals). Set if you have a non-US keyboard. See Funtoo Linux Localization.
/etc/conf.d/hwclock Optional How the time of the battery-backed hardware clock of the system is interpreted (UTC or local time). Linux uses the battery-backed hardware clock to initialize the system clock when the system is booted.
/etc/conf.d/modules Optional Kernel modules to load automatically at system startup. Typically not required. See Additional Kernel Resources for more info.
/etc/conf.d/consolefont Optional Allows you to specify the default console font. To apply this font, enable the consolefont service by running rc-update add consolefont.
profiles Optional Some useful portage settings that may help speed up intial configuration.

如果你正在安装一个英文版的 Funtoo Linux,那就可以按照原样使用大部分的配置文件。如果你在安装其他语言的版本,不必担心,我们在 Funtoo Linux 本地化页面上写出了必要的准备步骤。如有需要,还有许多友好的帮助在等着你。(参见 Getting Help

继续安装步骤。使用 nano -w <name_of_file> 来编辑文件 -- "-w" 指令会禁用自动换行,这样让编辑配置配置文件更顺手。你可以从示例文件中复制粘贴。

   Warning

在重启之前编辑 /etc/fstab 是很重要的!你需要修改 fstype 栏,让他们与你使用 gdiskfdisk 创建的文件系统和分区相匹配。跳过这个步骤有可能会让 Funtoo Linux 无法正确启动。

/etc/fstab

在系统启动时 mount 会读取 /etc/fstab。这个文件中每一行都会向 mount 声明需要挂载哪些文件系统以及如何挂载。为了让系统正常启动,需要编辑 /etc/fstab 并且确保其中的配置与之前安装步骤中对分区的修改一致,lsblk 命令可以显示分区:

chroot #  lsblk -f
chroot # nano -w /etc/fstab
   /etc/fstab - An example fstab file
# The root filesystem should have a pass number of either 0 or 1.
# All other filesystems should have a pass number of 0 or greater than 1.
#
# NOTE: If your BOOT partition is ReiserFS, add the notail option to opts.
#
# See the manpage fstab(5) for more information.
#
# <fs>	     <mountpoint>  <type>  <opts>         <dump/pass>

LABEL=BOOT        /boot         vfat    noauto,noatime  1 2
#LABEL=SWAP       none          swap    sw              0 0
LABEL=FUNTOO      /             ext4    noatime         0 1
#/dev/cdrom       /mnt/cdrom    auto    noauto,ro       0 0
#UUID="14D0-1E8A" /var          ext4    noatime         0 2
#tmpfs            /run          tmpfs   rw,nodev,nosuid 0 0
   Note

If you mounted a /var or /home partition, add them to your fstab, or your system may not boot correctly.

   Note

If you're using MBR to boot, change the LABEL=BOOT line so that it says ext2 instead of vfat. Similarly, make sure that the LABEL=FUNTOO line specifies either xfs or ext4, depending on which filesystem you chose earlier on in the installation process when you created filesystems. MBR also requires a swap entry, GPT automatically loads swap, and does not require a fstab swap entry.

/etc/localtime

/etc/localtime 用来明确你的机器处于哪个时区,默认是 UTC。如果想让 Funtoo Linux 系统使用当地时间,你需要将 {{|/etc/localtime}} 用一个符号链接指向你想要使用的时区。

(chroot) # ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/MST7MDT /etc/localtime

上面的命令会将时区设置为 Mountain Standard Time(包括夏令时)。用 ls /usr/share/zoneinfo 命令来显示可用的时区。其中也有子目录包含了以地区描述的时区。

/etc/portage/make.conf

USE 字段指定了在软件包包安装时所启用的功能。在安装的过程中我们不推荐向 USE 标志中加入很多字段;在改变 USE 选项之前,你需要确定你有一个能正常启动、工作的系统。一个前面写着负号 ("-") 的 USE 标志会向 Portage 声明在编译时不要使用该选项。在不久的将来,会有一篇专门介绍 USE 的 Funtoo 指导手册。现在,你可以参考 Gentoo Handbook 来获得关于 USE 的更多信息。

/etc/conf.d/hwclock

如果你想让 Funtoo Linux 与 Windows 双系统启动,你需要编辑这个文件,把 clock 的值从 UTC 改为 local,原因是 Windows 在每次启动时都会将硬件时钟设置为本地时钟。其他一般的情况下,是不需要编辑这个文件的。

chroot # nano -w /etc/conf.d/hwclock

本地化

默认情况下,Funtoo Linux 被配置为启用 Unicode (UTF-8) ,并且对应了美国英语的本地化以及键盘布局。如果你想要将你的系统配置为非英语的环境和键盘布局,参见 Funtoo Linux 本地化

Install Guide, Chapter 11 < Prev Next >