Difference between revisions of "Install/Download and Extract Stage3/zh-cn"

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现在我们已经完成了创建分区以及设置系统时间这两个步骤,下一步便是下载 Stage 3 压缩包。Stage 3 压缩包是一个预编译的,可以作为安装 Funtoo Linux 的出发点的系统。   
现在我们已经完成了创建分区以及设置系统时间这两个步骤,下一步便是下载 Stage 3 压缩包。Stage 3 压缩包是一个预编译的,可以作为安装 Funtoo Linux 的出发点的系统。   


<div class="mw-translate-fuzzy">
请移步至 [[Subarches]] 来为你的系统下载最新版本的 Funtoo Linux。其他平台的分支(例如 arm 等)是为了让 Funtoo Linux 能在某一特定的 CPU 平台上有最好的表现而设计的。它们也对于每个 CPU 的指令集有不同的优势。
请移步至 [[Subarches]] 来为你的系统下载最新版本的 Funtoo Linux。其他平台的分支(例如 arm 等)是为了让 Funtoo Linux 能在某一特定的 CPU 平台上有最好的表现而设计的。它们也对于每个 CPU 的指令集有不同的优势。
</div>


<div lang="en" dir="ltr" class="mw-content-ltr">
==== What Subarch? ====
==== What Subarch? ====
</div>


<div lang="en" dir="ltr" class="mw-content-ltr">
From the subarch list at [[Subarches]], choose your desired level of optimization. A system built specifically for your CPU will run faster than a less-optimized system. For a modern Intel or AMD system, it is safe to pick the exact optimization level for your particular family of CPU. This will offer the best possible performance.
From the subarch list at [[Subarches]], choose your desired level of optimization. A system built specifically for your CPU will run faster than a less-optimized system. For a modern Intel or AMD system, it is safe to pick the exact optimization level for your particular family of CPU. This will offer the best possible performance.
</div>


<div lang="en" dir="ltr" class="mw-content-ltr">
If you are using a virtualization technology to run Funtoo Linux and your VM may be used on different types of hardware, then it's recommended that you use a stage3 that is optimized for the oldest CPU instruction set that your VM will run on, or a more generic image if it may run on both AMD and Intel processors.
If you are using a virtualization technology to run Funtoo Linux and your VM may be used on different types of hardware, then it's recommended that you use a stage3 that is optimized for the oldest CPU instruction set that your VM will run on, or a more generic image if it may run on both AMD and Intel processors.
</div>


<div lang="en" dir="ltr" class="mw-content-ltr">
Once you have found the appropriate subarch at [[Subarches]], you will likely have a few installation images to choose from. This next section will help you understand which one to pick.
Once you have found the appropriate subarch at [[Subarches]], you will likely have a few installation images to choose from. This next section will help you understand which one to pick.
</div>


==== Which Image? ====  
<div lang="en" dir="ltr" class="mw-content-ltr">
==== Which Image? ====
</div>


{{VMwareBlurb/zh-cn}}
{{VMwareBlurb/zh-cn}}


<div lang="en" dir="ltr" class="mw-content-ltr">
You can always manually choose an installation image via [https://build.funtoo.org https://build.funtoo.org] as well as using the [[Subarches]] page. Here is some guidance on choosing the best {{c|.tar.xz}} image for download. When choosing an image:
You can always manually choose an installation image via [https://build.funtoo.org https://build.funtoo.org] as well as using the [[Subarches]] page. Here is some guidance on choosing the best {{c|.tar.xz}} image for download. When choosing an image:
</div>


<div lang="en" dir="ltr" class="mw-content-ltr">
;''Pick {{c|1.4-release-std}}.'': This is release 1.4 of Funtoo Linux, our current release.
;''Pick {{c|1.4-release-std}}.'': This is release 1.4 of Funtoo Linux, our current release.
</div>


<div lang="en" dir="ltr" class="mw-content-ltr">
;''Pick the subarch for the CPU family of the system you are installing on.'': This will provide the best performance.
;''Pick the subarch for the CPU family of the system you are installing on.'': This will provide the best performance.
</div>


<div lang="en" dir="ltr" class="mw-content-ltr">
;Choose ''{{c|stage3}}'' for...: The ''{{c|stage3}}'' is a more traditional, minimal and non-graphical installation of Funtoo. You will then build your system up to your desired state using {{c|emerge}}.
;Choose ''{{c|stage3}}'' for...: The ''{{c|stage3}}'' is a more traditional, minimal and non-graphical installation of Funtoo. You will then build your system up to your desired state using {{c|emerge}}.
</div>


;Choose ''{{c|gnome}}'' for...: The ''{{c|gnome}}'' installation image, if available, includes the full GNOME environment as well as Firefox already optimized for your hardware. You can then continue to further customize your system after installation.
<div lang="en" dir="ltr" class="mw-content-ltr">
;Choose ''{{c|gnome}}'' for...: The ''{{c|gnome}}'' installation image, if available, includes the full GNOME environment as well as Firefox already optimized for your hardware. You can then continue to further customize your system after installation. See the [[Support Matrix#Desktop Environments|Desktop Environments]] section of our [[Support Matrix]] for more desktop options.
</div>


<div lang="en" dir="ltr" class="mw-content-ltr">
;The ''{{c|lxd}}'' image for...: The ''{{c|lxd}}'' image is for use with [[LXD]], and is not used for installing directly on a desktop or laptop, so you should not select this option for regular installs. To install, first download and then {{c|lxc image import <name>.tar.xz --alias funtoo}} and then you can {{c|lxc  launch funtoo my_container}}.
;The ''{{c|lxd}}'' image for...: The ''{{c|lxd}}'' image is for use with [[LXD]], and is not used for installing directly on a desktop or laptop, so you should not select this option for regular installs. To install, first download and then {{c|lxc image import <name>.tar.xz --alias funtoo}} and then you can {{c|lxc  launch funtoo my_container}}.
</div>


==== 下载 Stage3 ====  
==== 下载 Stage3 ====  
Line 44: Line 68:


==== 验证下载的压缩包 ====
==== 验证下载的压缩包 ====
Funtoo Linux 阶段的 tarballs 是由构建服务器使用 GPG 签署的。在可能的情况下,验证下载文件的[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_signature#Applications 真实性和完整性]是一个好的做法。关于如何导入和信任 GPG 密钥的说明,请查看[[GPG_Signatures|our wiki page about GPG signatures]]。
Funtoo Linux 的 stage 压缩包是由构建服务器使用 GPG 签署的。在可能的情况下,验证下载文件的[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_signature#Applications 真实性和完整性]是一个好的做法。关于如何导入和信任 GPG 密钥的说明,查看[[GPG_Signatures|our wiki page about GPG signatures]]。


Then, you can download the stage3's GPG signature and use the {{c|gpg --verify}} command in order to verify your tarball:
然后,你可以下载 stage3 GPG 签名,并使用 {{c|gpg --verify}} 命令来验证压缩包:
{{console|body=
{{console|body=
###i## wget https://build.funtoo.org/1.4-release-std/x86-64bit/generic_64/stage3-latest.tar.xz.gpg
###i## wget https://build.funtoo.org/1.4-release-std/x86-64bit/generic_64/stage3-latest.tar.xz.gpg
Line 52: Line 76:
}}
}}


Once the stage is downloaded and verified, extract the contents with the following command, substituting in the actual name of your Stage 3 tarball:
一旦下载并验证了 stage,用下面的命令解压缩内容,并代入 stage 3 压缩包的实际名称:
{{console|body=
{{console|body=
###i## tar --numeric-owner --xattrs --xattrs-include='*' -xpf stage3-latest.tar.xz
###i## tar --numeric-owner --xattrs --xattrs-include='*' -xpf stage3-latest.tar.xz
}}
}}
{{Important|It is very important to use all the options included above. See below for details.}}
{{Important|使用上述所有选项是非常重要的。详情请看下文。}}


Here are what the options to {{c|tar}} do:
下面是 {{c|tar}} 的选项的作用:


<div lang="en" dir="ltr" class="mw-content-ltr">
;{{c|--numeric-owner}}: Without this option, {{c|tar}} will map ownership and group ownership based on the UID to user and GID to group mappings as defined on the LiveCD. We don't want this -- we want the ''numeric values'' of the UIDs and GIDs in the tarball to be preserved on disk, so when your Funtoo Linux system boots, the UIDs and GIDs are set correctly for Funtoo. That is what this option tells {{c|tar}} to do.
;{{c|--numeric-owner}}: Without this option, {{c|tar}} will map ownership and group ownership based on the UID to user and GID to group mappings as defined on the LiveCD. We don't want this -- we want the ''numeric values'' of the UIDs and GIDs in the tarball to be preserved on disk, so when your Funtoo Linux system boots, the UIDs and GIDs are set correctly for Funtoo. That is what this option tells {{c|tar}} to do.
;{{c|1=--xattrs --xattrs-include='*'}}: Funtoo Linux uses filesystem extended attributes to set Linux capabilities, which allow for certain programs such as {{c|ping}} to have enhanced privileges without having to be fully 'suid root'. Even with the {{c|-p}} option, {{c|tar}} will not restore extended attributes we need unless these two options are specified.
;{{c|1=--xattrs --xattrs-include='*'}}: Funtoo Linux uses filesystem extended attributes to set Linux capabilities, which allow for certain programs such as {{c|ping}} to have enhanced privileges without having to be fully 'suid root'. Even with the {{c|-p}} option, {{c|tar}} will not restore extended attributes we need unless these two options are specified.
;{{c|-xpf}}: This instructs {{c|tar}} to extract ({{c|x}}), preserve regular permissions and ownership ({{c|p}}), and use the filename ({{c|f}}) specified.
;{{c|-xpf}}: This instructs {{c|tar}} to extract ({{c|x}}), preserve regular permissions and ownership ({{c|p}}), and use the filename ({{c|f}}) specified.
<noinclude>{{InstallNavigation|num=8|prev=Setting the Date|next=Chroot|align=right}}</noinclude>
<noinclude>{{InstallNavigation|num=8|prev=Setting the Date|next=Chroot|align=right}}</noinclude>
</div>

Latest revision as of 06:00, November 16, 2021

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安装指南: 下载并解压 Stage3

Install Guide, Chapter 8 < Prev Next >

现在我们已经完成了创建分区以及设置系统时间这两个步骤,下一步便是下载 Stage 3 压缩包。Stage 3 压缩包是一个预编译的,可以作为安装 Funtoo Linux 的出发点的系统。

请移步至 Subarches 来为你的系统下载最新版本的 Funtoo Linux。其他平台的分支(例如 arm 等)是为了让 Funtoo Linux 能在某一特定的 CPU 平台上有最好的表现而设计的。它们也对于每个 CPU 的指令集有不同的优势。

What Subarch?

From the subarch list at Subarches, choose your desired level of optimization. A system built specifically for your CPU will run faster than a less-optimized system. For a modern Intel or AMD system, it is safe to pick the exact optimization level for your particular family of CPU. This will offer the best possible performance.

If you are using a virtualization technology to run Funtoo Linux and your VM may be used on different types of hardware, then it's recommended that you use a stage3 that is optimized for the oldest CPU instruction set that your VM will run on, or a more generic image if it may run on both AMD and Intel processors.

Once you have found the appropriate subarch at Subarches, you will likely have a few installation images to choose from. This next section will help you understand which one to pick.

Which Image?

Our desktop environment stages (GNOME, Cinnamon, etc.) now support seamless installation on VMware Workstation Pro virtual machines. We highly recommend you enable 3D Accelerated Video for your VM, which is not enabled by default. Click here for more info.

You can always manually choose an installation image via https://build.funtoo.org as well as using the Subarches page. Here is some guidance on choosing the best .tar.xz image for download. When choosing an image:

Pick 1.4-release-std.
This is release 1.4 of Funtoo Linux, our current release.
Pick the subarch for the CPU family of the system you are installing on.
This will provide the best performance.
Choose stage3 for...
The stage3 is a more traditional, minimal and non-graphical installation of Funtoo. You will then build your system up to your desired state using emerge.
Choose gnome for...
The gnome installation image, if available, includes the full GNOME environment as well as Firefox already optimized for your hardware. You can then continue to further customize your system after installation. See the Desktop Environments section of our Support Matrix for more desktop options.
The lxd image for...
The lxd image is for use with LXD, and is not used for installing directly on a desktop or laptop, so you should not select this option for regular installs. To install, first download and then lxc image import <name>.tar.xz --alias funtoo and then you can lxc launch funtoo my_container.

下载 Stage3

选择好 Stage3 之后,就可以下载了。使用 wget 命令来下载将要作为基础系统的压缩包。它应当被保存在 /mnt/funtoo ,如下所示:

root # cd /mnt/funtoo
root # wget https://build.funtoo.org/1.4-release-std/x86-64bit/generic_64/stage3-latest.tar.xz

验证下载的压缩包

Funtoo Linux 的 stage 压缩包是由构建服务器使用 GPG 签署的。在可能的情况下,验证下载文件的真实性和完整性是一个好的做法。关于如何导入和信任 GPG 密钥的说明,查看our wiki page about GPG signatures

然后,你可以下载 stage3 的 GPG 签名,并使用 gpg --verify 命令来验证压缩包:

root # wget https://build.funtoo.org/1.4-release-std/x86-64bit/generic_64/stage3-latest.tar.xz.gpg
root # gpg --verify stage3-latest.tar.xz.gpg stage3-latest.tar.xz

一旦下载并验证了 stage,用下面的命令解压缩内容,并代入 stage 3 压缩包的实际名称:

root # tar --numeric-owner --xattrs --xattrs-include='*' -xpf stage3-latest.tar.xz
   Important

使用上述所有选项是非常重要的。详情请看下文。

下面是 tar 的选项的作用:

--numeric-owner
Without this option, tar will map ownership and group ownership based on the UID to user and GID to group mappings as defined on the LiveCD. We don't want this -- we want the numeric values of the UIDs and GIDs in the tarball to be preserved on disk, so when your Funtoo Linux system boots, the UIDs and GIDs are set correctly for Funtoo. That is what this option tells tar to do.
--xattrs --xattrs-include='*'
Funtoo Linux uses filesystem extended attributes to set Linux capabilities, which allow for certain programs such as ping to have enhanced privileges without having to be fully 'suid root'. Even with the -p option, tar will not restore extended attributes we need unless these two options are specified.
-xpf
This instructs tar to extract (x), preserve regular permissions and ownership (p), and use the filename (f) specified.
Install Guide, Chapter 8 < Prev Next >