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<languages/>
<div lang="en" dir="ltr" class="mw-content-ltr">
{{Note|Translators: Thank you for your help! Please use the {{Install|section-by-section guide}} as the basis for your translations. Thanks again!}}
{{DISPLAYTITLE:Funtoo Linux Installation Guide}}
</div>
{{#widget:AddThis}}
{{#widget:AddThis}}
= Install Funtoo Linux =
{{translated_subpage|Install|Introduction}}
__NOTITLE__
{{translated_subpage|Install|Download LiveCD}}
<languages/>
{{translated_subpage|Install|Prepare Disk}}
{{Announce|To help us translate this documentation, {{CreateAccount}}, log in to the wiki. Then go to Actions -> Translate in the menu, or click the "Translate this page" link, above. You will be able to select small parts of the install docs and translate these parts to your native language.}}
{{translated_subpage|Install|MBR Partitioning}}
== 소개 == 
{{translated_subpage|Install|GPT Partitioning}}
{{translated_subpage|Install|Creating Filesystems}}
{{translated_subpage|Install|Mounting Filesystems}}
{{translated_subpage|Install|Setting the Date}}
{{translated_subpage|Install|Download and Extract Stage3}}
{{translated_subpage|Install|Chroot}}
{{translated_subpage|Install|Download Portage Tree}}
{{translated_subpage|Install|Configuration Files}}
{{translated_subpage|Install|Introducing Portage}}
{{translated_subpage|Install|Kernel}}
{{translated_subpage|Install|Bootloader}}
{{translated_subpage|Install|Network}}
{{translated_subpage|Install|Finishing}}
{{translated_subpage|Install|Profiles}}
{{translated_subpage|Install|Done}}


이 문서는 복잡한 시스템 설정을 최소하하면서 여러분이 펀투 리눅스를 PC 호환 시스템에 설치하는 것을 돕기 위해 쓰여졌습니다.
[[Category:HOWTO]]
 
[[Category:Install]]
만약 젠투 리눅스를 설치한 경험이 있다면 많은 단계들이 친숙할 겁니다. 하지만, 몇몇 차이점들이 존재하기 때문에 쭉 읽는 것을 권합니다. 만약 젠투 기반 리눅스, 혹은 리눅스 자체가 처음이시라면... 잘 오셨습니다! 우리는 새로운 사용자도 이 설치 문서를 이해할 수 있도록 노력했습니다.
[[Category:Official Documentation]]
 
{{Note|만약 펀투 리눅스를 [[Funtoo Linux Installation on ARM|ARM]] 아키텍쳐에 설치할 예정이라면, ARM 지원에 관해 [[Funtoo Linux Installation on ARM|ARM에 펀투 리눅스 설치하기]] 문서를 읽어주세요.}}
 
== 설치 개요 ==
 
펀투 리눅스 설치 과정에 대한 기본적인 개요입니다.
 
# [[#Live CD|Live CD를 골라 다운로드하고 부팅하기]]
# [[#하드디스크 준비하기| 하드디스크 준비하기]]
# [[#파일시스템 생성하기|파일시스템을 생성하고]] [[#파일시스템 마운트하기|마운트하기]]
# [[#Stage 3 tarball 설치하기|펀투 Stage tarball을 골라 설치하기]]
# [[#새 시스템으로 루트 디렉토리 변경하기|새 시스템으로 루트 디렉토리 변경하기]]
# [[#Portage tree 다운로드하기|Portage tree 다운로드하기]]
# [[#시스템 설정하기|시스템과]] [[#네트워크 설정하기|네트워크 설정하기]]
# [[#커널|커널 설치하기]]
# [[#부트로더 설치하기|부트로더 설치하기]]
# [[#마무리|설치 마무리하기]]
# [[#시스템으로 재부팅하기|재부팅하고 사용하기]]
 
=== Live CD ===
 
펀투 리눅스를 설치하기 위해, 여러분은 먼저 리눅스 기반의 Live CD나 USB로 부팅해야 합니다. 젠투 기반의 [http://www.sysresccd.org/ 시스템 복구 CD]는 32비트와 64비트 시스템을 모두 지원하고 많은 도구들을 포함하고 있습니다. 때문에 우리는 이를 추천합니다. CD/DVD에 굽거나 USB에 설치가 가능하고 아래에서 다운로드 받을 수 있습니다.
 
* '''[http://ftp.osuosl.org/pub/funtoo/distfiles/sysresccd/sysresccd-4.7.0_zfs_0.6.5.4.iso osuosl.org에서 다운로드]'''
* '''[http://build.funtoo.org/distfiles/sysresccd/sysresccd-4.7.0_zfs_0.6.5.4.iso funtoo.org에서 다운로드]'''
 
{{Important|'''비디오 없음''': 시스템 복구 CD는 UEFI로 부팅할 때 비디오를 제대로 초기화하지 못할 수 있습니다 ({{bug|FL-2030}} 참고). 이런 경우, 시스템 복구 CD의 GRUB 메뉴에서 {{c|e}}를 눌러 메뉴 엔트리를 편집하고 {{c|insmod all_video}}를 GRUB boot line에 추가하여 부팅해야 합니다. 이 버그는 시스템 복구 CD 개발자들에게 보고되었습니다.}}
 
{{Note|If using an older version of System Rescue CD, '''be sure to select the <code>rescue64</code> kernel at the boot menu if you are installing a 64-bit system'''. By default, System Rescue CD used to boot in 32-bit mode though the latest version attempts to automatically detect 64-bit processors.}}
 
==== 네트워크 접속 ====
 
펀투 리눅스를 설치하는 데에는 인터넷 접속이 반드시 필요합니다. 따라서, 일단 시스텐 복구 CD로 부팅하고 나면, 인터넷 접속 여부를 확인해야 합시다.
 
<console>
# ##i##ping www.google.com
PING www.google.com (216.58.217.36) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from den03s10-in-f4.1e100.net (216.58.217.36): icmp_seq=1 ttl=57 time=30.1 ms
</console>
 
만약 ping이 성공적이라면 (위의 <code>64 bytes</code> 문구가 보인다면), 네트워크가 설정되어 있는 것입니다. Control-C를 눌러 ping을 멈춥시다.
 
만약 인터넷 접속에 와이파이 연결이 필요하다면, 시스템 복구 CD의 GUI 환경이 필요합니다. GUI 세션을 시작하기 위해 <code>startx</code>를 실행해 줍시다.
<console>
# ##i##startx
</console>
 
[[File:NetworkManagerIcon.PNG|left|caption]]
 
그리고 나서, NetworkManager applet (작업 표시줄 오른쪽에 있는 아이콘)를 이용해 와이파이 네트워크를 선택해줍니다. 다음으로 터미널을 열어줍니다. 이때, 남은 단계들을 마치는 동안 터미널이 사용 가능해야 합니다.
 
==== 원격으로 설치하기 ====
 
또다른 방법으로, 여러분은 다른 컴퓨터에서 원격으로 설치하기 위해 SSH를 통한 네트워크로 시스템 복구 CD에 로그인 할 수 있습니다. 그리고 이것은 펀투 리눅스를 설치하는 더 편한 방법일 수 있습니다.
 
만약 여러분이 설치를 원격으로 하고 싶다면, 방법을 알려드리겠습니다. 먼저, 여러분은 시스템 복구 CD가 네트워크 접속에 대한 기능을 가지고 있음을 확인해야 합니다. 그리고 나서, 여러분은 시스템 복구 CD에 대한 루트 비밀번호를 설정해야 합니다.
{{console|body=
###i## passwd
New password: ##i##********
Retype new password: ##i##********
passwd: password updated successfully
}}
일단 비밀번호를 입력하고 나면, 여러분은 시스템 복구 CD의 IP를 확인하고 {{c|ssh}}를 통해 접속해야합니다. IP주소를 확인하기 위해서는 {{c|ifconfig}}를 입력합니다.
 
{{console|body=
###i## ifconfig
}}
하나의 인터페이스는 여러분으니 LAN으로부터 하나의 IP 주소를 ({{c|inet addr:}}에 나열되어 있는 것처럼) 가져야 합니다. 이후 여러분의 LAN에 있는 시스템에서 시스템 복구 CD로 원격 접속하고 이미 존재하는 OS에서 편하게 단계들을 해나가면 됩니다. 여러분의 연격 시스템에서 시스템 복구 CD의 IP주소로 {{c|1.2.3.4}}로 바꾸어 입력하도록 합시다. 리눅스나 맥OS 시스템에서 접속한다면 다음과 같이 나타날 겁니다.
 
{{console|body=
(remote system) $ ##i##ssh root@1.2.3.4
Password: ##i##**********}}
{{Note|만약 여러분이 윈도우 시스템에서 원격으로 접속하고 싶다면, [http://www.chiark.greenend.org.uk/~sgtatham/putty/ PuTTY]와 같은 SSH 클라이언트를 다운로드해야 합니다.}}
 
SSH를 통해 로그인한 후에는 시스템 복구 CD에 원격으로 접속하여 설치 단계를 해나갈 수 있습니다.
 
=== 하드디스크 준비하기 ===
 
이 문단에서는 하드디스크에서 펀투 리눅스로 부팅할 수 있는 다양한 방법에 대해 배울 것입니다. "부트"는 여러분의 데스크탑, 노트북이나 서버에 있는 전원 버튼을 눌렀을 때 리눅스가 시작하는 과정을 의미합니다. 여러분은 "부팅"을 여러분 컴퓨터의 펌웨어 (내장 소프트웨어)가 시작하는 과정으로, 그리고 리눅스 커널을 "찾고" 실행하는 과정으로 생각할 수 있습니다. 그 후 리눅스 커널로 넘어가고 여러분의 하드웨어를 인식한 뒤 시작하는 것입니다.
 
==== 배경 지식 ====
 
{{Note|만약 여러분이 완전한 리눅스 초보라면, 그냥 [[#무엇을 사용해야 합니까?|무엇을 사용해야 합니까?]] 문단으로 건너 뛰는 것이 덜 혼란스러울 겁니다.}}
 
초기에는 PC 호환 컴퓨터를 부팅하는 방법이 단 하나였습니다. 모든 데스크탑과 서버는 "PC BIOS"라고 불리는 표준 펌웨어를 가지고 있었습니다. 그리고 모든 하드디스크는 리눅스를 실행할 수 있도록 하는 부트로더 코드(MBR)를 PC BIOS가 찾는 부분인 마스터 부트 레코드를 디스크의 시작에 사용하였습니다. 그리고 우리의 하드 드라이브는 표준 MBR 파티션 스키마를 사용하여 여러 부분으로 파티션되어 있었습니다. 이것이 작동했던 방법이고 우리는 이 방법을 좋아했습니다!
 
그후 부트 시스템을 위한 새로운 방식의 펌웨어인 EFI와 UEFI가 나타나고, 2.2TB보다 큰 다스크들에 파티션을 정의하기 위해  GPT 파티션 테이블이 생겼습니다. 갑자기 리눅스 시스템을 설치하고 부팅하는 다양한 옵션이 생겼고, 한 방법으로 모든 기기에 알맞은 접근 방식이었던 것은 훨씬 더 복잡한 무언가로 변하게 되었습니다.
 
하드 드라이브로 펀투 리눅스를 부팅하도록 설정하는 것에 여러분이 이용가능한 옵션들을 잠시 검토해 보도록 합시다. 이 설치 가이드는 구식인 BIOS 부팅과 MBR을 사용하고 또 권장합니다. 이 방법은 희귀한 경우들을 제외하면 대부분 잘 작동하고 보편적으로 지원됩니다. 이 방식으로 잘못될 것은 없습니다. 만약 여러분의 디스크 용량이 2TB 이하라면 여러분의 디스크 용량을 모두 사용할 수 있습니다.
 
하지만 구식 방법이 알맞지 않은 상황들이 존재합니다. 만약 여러분이 2TB가 넘는 시스템 디스크를 가지고 있다면 MBR 파티션은 여러분의 저장 장치를 완전히 사용하는 것을 막을 것입니다. 이것이 한가지 이유입니다. 또다른 이유는 UEFI로만 부팅할 수 있고 BIOS 부팅은 지원하지 않는 몇몇의 소위 "PC" 시스템들이 존재한다는 것입니다. 그래서, 이러한 곤경에 처한 사람들을 불쌍히 여기는 차원에서 이 설치 가이드는 UEFI 부팅에 대해서도 쓰여 있습니다.
 
우리는 특별한 이유가 없다면 구식 방법으로 진행하는 것을 권장합니다. 우리가 이 가이드에서 리눅스 커널을 부르기 위해 사용할 부트로더는 GRUB이라 불립니다. 그래서 우리는 이 방법을 '''BIOS + GRUB (MBR)''' 방법이라고 부릅니다. 이것은 리눅스로 부팅하기 위한 PC 호환 시스템의 전통적인 방법입니다.
 
만약 부팅하는 데 UEFI가 필요하다면, 몇몇 시스템에서는 지원하기는 하지만 다른 시스템에서는 지원하지 않기 때문에 MBR을 전혀 사용하지 않는 것을 추천합니다. 대신에, 우리는 우리는 리눅스를 부를 GRUB으로 부팅하기 위해 UEFI를 사용하는 것을 추천합니다. 우리는 이 방법을 '''UEFI + GRUB (GPT)''' 방법이라 부릅니다.
 
그리고 네, 훨씬 더 많은 방법들이 존재하고 그중 일부는 [[Boot Method|부팅 방법]] 문서에 적혀 있습니다. 우리는 '''BIOS + GRUB (GPT)''' 방법을 권하고는 했습니다만, 이 방법은 다양한 하드웨어에서 꾸준히 지원되지는 않습니다.
 
==== 무엇을 사용해야 합니까? ====
 
'''중요한 질문... 여러분은 어떤 방법을 사용해야 할까요?''' 바로 여기에 그 답이 적혀있습니다.
 
;법칙 1 - 구식 방법: 만약 시스템 복구 CD로 확실히 부팅이 되었고, 처음에 밝은 파란색 메뉴가 보인다면, BIOS를 통해 CD로 부팅한 것입니다. 그리고 여러분은 퍼투 리눅스를 BIOS를 사용해 부팅할 수 있는 것입니다. 여러분이 2.2TB가 넘는 시스템 디스크를 가지고 있는 것과 같이 UEFI를 사용할 이유가 없다면 구식 방법을 통해 BIOS 부팅을 사용하시면 됩니다. 단, UEFI를 사용해야하는 경우엔, UEFI부팅을 지원할지도 모르니 법칙 2를 보시면 됩니다.
 
;법칙 2 - 신식 방법: 만약 여러분이 시스템 복구 CD로 확실히 부팅했고 처음에 흑백 화면이 나온다면... 축하드립니다, 여러분의 시스템은 UEFI 부팅을 지원하도록 설정되어 있습니다. 이는 펀투 리눅스를 UEFI를 통해 부팅하도록 설치할 준비가 되어 있다는 뜻입니다. 여러분의 시스템은 BIOS 부팅을 지원할 지도 모릅니다만, 먼저 UEFI를 시도합시다. 여러분은 BIOS 부팅 설정을 그대로 가져다 쓸 수 있습니다.
 
{{Note|'''고급 사용자들은 아마 궁금해 할 겁니다.''' "무엇이 구식과 신식 방법의 큰 차이일까?" 여기에 그 차이가 적혀 있습니다. 만약 여러분이 구식 MBR 파티션을 사용한다면, 여러분의 {{f|/boot}} 파티션은 ext2 파일 시스템일 것이고 MBR 파티션을 만들기 위해 {{c|fdisk}}를 사용할 것입니다. 만약 여러분이 신식 GPT 파티션과 UEFI 부팅을 사용한다면, UEFI 읽을 수 있는 것이 vfat 파일 시스템이기 때문에 여러분의 {{f|/boot}} 파티션은 vfat 파일 시스템일 것입니다. 그리고 GPT 파티션을 만들기 위해 {{c|gdisk}}를 사용할 것입니다. 여러분이 궁금해 했던 경우에, 이것이 근본적인 이유입니다.}}
 
신식 UEFI 방법을 통해 펀투 리눅스를 설치하기 위해서, 여러분은 UEFI를 이용하여 시스템 복구 CD로 부팅해야 합니다. 만약 여러분이 UEFI를 이용하여 시스템 복구 CD로 성공적으로 부팅했다면, 여러분은 처음에 시스템 복구 CD로 부팅할 방법을 고르는 흑백 화면을 보게 될 겁니다. 그렇지 않고 파란 화면과 검은 글씨가 보인다면 UEFI가 활성화되지 않은 상태인 것이고 설치 단계 이후 UEFI 부팅을 위한 설정을 할 수 없을 겁니다.
 
{{Note|'''몇몇 메인보드는 UEFI를 지원하는 것처럼 보이지만, 그렇지 않을 수 있습니다.''' 여러분이 알아보세요. 예를 들어 기가바이트 GA-990FXA-UD7 rev 1.1의 Award BIOS는 CD/DVD에 대한 UEFI 부팅을 지원합니다. '''이것은 하드 드라이브에 대한 UEFI 부팅을 가능하게 하고 펀투 리눅스를 설치하는 것에 부족합니다''' UEFI는 반드시 이동식 매체(시스템 복구 CD)와 고정 매체(하드디스크)를 동시에 지원해야 합니다. 이 보드의 최근 리비전(rev 3.0)은 UEFI 부팅을 완전히 지원하는 새로운 BIOS를 가지고 있는 것으로 알려져 있습니다. 이것이 세번째 법칙에 해당한다 할 수 있습니다... 그대의 하드웨어를 알라.}}
 
==== 구식(BIOS/MBR) 방법 ====
 
{{Note|여러분이 BIOS를 이용하여 부팅할 것이고 시스템 복구 CD의 초기 부팅 메뉴가 밝은 파란색이었다면 이 방법을 사용하세요. 만약 신식 방법을 사용할 것이라면, [[#신식(UEFI/GPT) 방법|이 글을 클릭하여 아래 문단으로 건너 뛰기 바랍니다.]]}}
 
먼저, 여러분이 파티션을 나눌 정확한 하드디스크를 찾았음을 확인하는 것은 훌륭한 생각입니다. 아래 명령어를 사용하여 {{f|/dev/sda}}가 여러분이 파티션을 나눌 디스크임을 확인하세요.
{{console|body=
###i## fdisk -l /dev/sda
 
Disk /dev/sda: 640.1 GB, 640135028736 bytes, 1250263728 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk label type: gpt
 
#        Start          End    Size  Type            Name
1        2048  1250263694  596.2G  Linux filesyste Linux filesystem
}}
부팅할 때 시스템의 BIOS를 혼란시킬 수 있는 디스크의 모든 MBR 혹은 GPT 파티션 테이블은 삭제하는 것이 권장됩니다. 이는 {{c|sgdisk}}를 통해 이루어질 수 있습니다. {{Warning|이것은 기존에 존재했던 모든 파티션에 접근할 수 없도록 만들 겁니다! 우리는 여러분에게 '''강력하게''' 경고하고 작업을 진행하기 전 모든 중요한 자료들을 백업하기로 충고하는 바입니다.}}
 
{{console|body=
###i## sgdisk --zap-all /dev/sda
 
Creating new GPT entries.
GPT data structures destroyed! You may now partition the disk using fdisk or
other utilities.
}}
아래 출력문은 걱정할 거리는 아니고 명령은 성공한 것입니다.
 
{{console|body=
***************************************************************
Found invalid GPT and valid MBR; converting MBR to GPT format
in memory.
***************************************************************
}}이제 우리는 MBR 파티션 테이블을 생성하고 파티션을 나구기 위해 {{c|fdisk}}를 사용할 것입니다.
{{console|body=
###i## fdisk /dev/sda
}}
{{c|fdisk}} 내에서, 아래 단계들을 따라가세요.
 
'''파티션 테이블 비우기'''
{{console|body=
Command (m for help): ##i##o ↵
}}
'''파티션 1 생성''' (boot)
 
{{console|body=
Command (m for help): ##i##n ↵
Partition type (default p): ##i##↵
Partition number (1-4, default 1): ##i##↵
First sector: ##i##↵
Last sector: ##i##+128M ↵
}}
'''파티션 2 생성''' (swap)
 
{{console|body=
Command (m for help): ##i##n ↵
Partition type (default p): ##i##↵
Partition number (2-4, default 2): ##i##↵
First sector: ##i##↵
Last sector: ##i##+2G ↵
Command (m for help): ##i##t ↵
Partition number (1,2, default 2): ##i## ↵
Hex code (type L to list all codes): ##i##82 ↵
}}
'''루트 파티션 생성'''
 
{{console|body=
Command (m for help): ##i##n ↵
Partition type (default p): ##i##↵
Partition number (3,4, default 3): ##i##↵
First sector: ##i##↵
Last sector: ##i##↵
}}
'''파티션 테이블 확인'''
 
{{console|body=
Command (m for help): ##i##p
 
Disk /dev/sda: 298.1 GiB, 320072933376 bytes, 625142448 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disklabel type: dos
Disk identifier: 0x82abc9a6
 
Device    Boot    Start      End    Blocks  Id System
/dev/sda1          2048    264191    131072  83 Linux
/dev/sda2        264192  4458495  2097152  82 Linux swap / Solaris
/dev/sda3        4458496 625142447 310341976  83 Linux
}}
'''디스크에 파티션 테이블 쓰기'''
 
{{console|body=Command (m for help): ##i##w}}
여러분의 새 MBR 파티션 테이블이 이제 시스템 디스크에 쓰여질 것입니다.
 
{{Note|여러분은 파티션 나구기를 끝냈습니다! 이제, [[#파일시스템 생성하기|파일시스템 생성하기]]로 건너 뛰세요.}}
 
==== 신식(UEFI/GPT) 방법 ====
 
{{Note|Use this method if you are interested in booting using UEFI, and if your System Rescue CD initial boot menu was black and white. If it was light blue, this method will not work.}}
 
{{c|gdisk}} 명령어는 아래처럼 GPT 파티션 테이블을 만듭니다. 아래 값들이 대부분의 사용자에게 작동할 것입니다만, 필요에 따라 용량을 조정하세요. {{c|gdisk}}를 실행합니다.
{{console|body=###i## gdisk /dev/sda}}
{{c|gdisk}} 내에서, 아래 단계들을 따라가세요.
 
'''새로운 비어 있는 파티션 테이블 생성''' (이는 디스크에 저장된 된 모든 자료를 '''삭제'''할 것입니다.)
{{console|body=
Command: ##i##o ↵
This option deletes all partitions and creates a new protective MBR.
Proceed? (Y/N): ##i##y ↵
}}
'''파티션 1 생성''' (boot)
 
{{console|body=
Command: ##i##n ↵
Partition Number: ##i##1 ↵
First sector: ##i##↵
Last sector: ##i##+500M ↵
Hex Code: ##i##EF00 ↵
}}
'''파티션 2 생성''' (swap)
 
{{console|body=
Command: ##i##n ↵
Partition Number: ##i##2 ↵
First sector: ##i##↵
Last sector: ##i##+4G ↵
Hex Code: ##i##8200 ↵
}}
'''파티션 3 생성''' (루트)
 
{{console|body=
Command: ##i##n ↵
Partition Number: ##i##3 ↵
First sector: ##i##↵
Last sector: ##i##↵##!i## (for rest of disk)
Hex Code: ##i##↵
}}
다음을 따라, 여러분은 "{c|p}"를 입력하고 엔터키를 쳐 여러분의 현재 파티션 테이블을 볼 수 있습니다. 만약 여러분이 실수를 했다면, 여러분은 생성된 파티션을 지우기 위해 "{{c|d}}"를 입력할 수 있습니다. 여러분의 파티션 설정에 만족했을 때, "{{c|w}}"를 입력하여 설정을 디스크에 쓰세요.
 
'''디스크에 파티션 테이블 쓰기'''
{{console|body=
Command: ##i##w ↵
Do you want to proceed? (Y/N): ##i##Y ↵
}}파티션 테이블은 이제 디스크에 쓰여질 것이고 {{c|gdisk}}는 종료될 것입니다.
 
이제, 여러분의 GPT/GUID 파티션들이 생성되었고 아래 "블록 장치들"처럼 리눅스 하에서 보여지게 될 것입니다.
 
* {{c|/boot}}로 잡기 위해 사용될 {{c|/dev/sda1}}
 
* 스왑 공간으로 사용될 {{c|/dev/sda2}}
 
* 루트 파일 시스템을 잡게 될 {{c|/dev/sda3}}
 
{{Tip|여러분은 {{c|lsblk}} 명령어를 실행시켜 위의 블록 장치들이 정확하게 생성되었는지 확인할 수 있습니다.}}
 
{{Note|이 문단은 BIOS와 UEFI 설치 모두 해당합니다. 절대 넘기지 마세요.}}
 
여러분의 새롭게 생성된 파티션들이 사용되기 전, 이전 단계에서 생성된 블록 장치들은 파일시스템 "메타데이터"로 초기화될 필요가 있습니다. 이 과정은 블록 장치에 "파일시스템 생성"으로 알려져 있습니다. 블록 장치에 파일시스템이 생성되고 나면, 마운트되어 파일을 저장하는 것에 쓰일 수 있습니다.
 
간단하게 하도록 합시다. 여러분은 구식 MBR 파티션을 사용했습니까? 만약 그렇다면, {{f|/dev/sda1}}에 ext2 파일 시스템을 생성합시다.
{{console|body=###i## mkfs.ext2 /dev/sda1}}
만약 여러분이 UEFI를 위한 신식 GPT 파티션을 사용했다면, 여러분은 {{c|/dev/sda1}}에 vfat 파일시스템을 생성하고 싶으실 겁니다. 이것이 UEFI가 읽을 수 있는 파일시스템이기 때문이죠.
{{console|body=###i## mkfs.vfat -F 32 /dev/sda1}}
이제, 스왑 파티션을 만듭시다. 이 파티션은 여러분의 펀투 리눅스 시스템을 위한 디스크 기반의 가상 메모리로 사용될 것입니다.
 
You will not create a filesystem on your swap partition, since it is not used to store files. But it is necessary to initialize it using the {{c|mkswap}} command. Then we'll run the {{c|swapon}} command to make your newly-initialized swap space immediately active within the live CD environment, in case it is needed during the rest of the install process:
{{console|body=
# ##i##mkswap /dev/sda2
# ##i##swapon /dev/sda2
}}Now, we need to create a root filesystem. This is where Funtoo Linux will live. We generally recommend ext4 or XFS root filesystems. If you're not sure, choose ext4. Here's how to create a root ext4 filesystem:
 
{{console|body=###i## mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda3}}
...and here's how to create an XFS root filesystem, if you prefer to use XFS instead of ext4:
 
{{console|body=###i## mkfs.xfs /dev/sda3}}
Your filesystems (and swap) have all now been initialized, so that that can be mounted (attached to your existing directory heirarchy) and used to store files. We are ready to begin installing Funtoo Linux on these brand-new filesystems.
 
{{Warning|When deploying an OpenVZ host, please use ext4 exclusively. The Parallels development team tests extensively with ext4, and modern versions of {{c|openvz-rhel6-stable}} are '''not''' compatible with XFS, and you may experience kernel bugs.}}
 
==== Mounting filesystems ====
 
Mount the newly-created filesystems as follows, creating {{c|/mnt/funtoo}} as the installation mount point:
{{console|body=
###i## mkdir /mnt/funtoo
###i## mount /dev/sda3 /mnt/funtoo
###i## mkdir /mnt/funtoo/boot
###i## mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/funtoo/boot
}}
Optionally, if you have a separate filesystem for {{f|/home}} or anything else:
 
{{console|body=
###i## mkdir /mnt/funtoo/home
###i## mount /dev/sda4 /mnt/funtoo/home
}}
If you have {{f|/tmp}} or {{f|/var/tmp}} on a separate filesystem, be sure to change the permissions of the mount point to be globally-writeable after mounting, as follows:
{{console|body=###i## chmod 1777 /mnt/funtoo/tmp}}
==== Setting the Date ====
 
{{Important|If your system's date and time are too far off (typically by months or years,) then it may prevent Portage from properly downloading source tarballs. This is because some of our sources are downloaded via HTTPS, which use SSL certificates and are marked with an activation and expiration date. However, if your system time is relatively close to correct, you can probably skip this step for now.}}
 
Now is a good time to verify the date and time are correctly set to UTC. Use the {{c|date}} command to verify the date and time:
{{console|body=
###i## date
Fri Jul 15 19:47:18 UTC 2011
}}
If the date and/or time need to be corrected, do so using {{c|date MMDDhhmmYYYY}}, keeping in mind {{c|hhmm}} are in 24-hour format. The example below changes the date and time to "July 16th, 2011 @ 8:00PM" UTC:
 
{{console|body=
###i## date 071620002011
Fri Jul 16 20:00:00 UTC 2011
}}
Once you have set the system clock, it's a very good idea to copy the time to the hardware clock, so it persists across reboots:
 
{{console|body=###i## hwclock --systohc}}
=== Installing the Stage 3 tarball ===
 
Now that filesystems are created and your hardware and system clock are set, the next step is downloading the initial Stage 3 tarball. The Stage 3 is a pre-compiled system used as a starting point to install Funtoo Linux. 
 
To download the correct build of Funtoo Linux for your system, head over to the [[Subarches]] page. Subarches are builds of Funtoo Linux that are designed to run on a particular type of CPU, to offer the best possible performance. They also take advantage of the instruction sets available for each CPU.
 
The [[Subarches]] page lists all CPU-optimized versions of Funtoo Linux. Find the one that is appropriate for the type of CPU that your system has, and then click on its name in the first column (such as {{c|corei7}}, for example.) You will then go to a page dedicated to that subarch, and the available stage3's available for download will be listed. If you are using a virtualization technology to run Funtoo Linux, and your VM may migrate to different types of hardware, then it's recommended that you use a stage3 that is optimized for the oldest CPU instruction set that your VM will run on, or a generic image if it may run on both AMD and Intel processors.
 
For most subarches, you will have several stage3's available to choose from. This next section will help you understand which one to pick.
 
==== Which Build? ====
 
'''If you're not sure, pick {{c|funtoo-current}}.'''
 
Funtoo Linux has various different 'builds':
 
{{TableStart}}
{{2ColHead|Build|Description}}
<tr><td>{{c|funtoo-current}}</td><td>The most commonly-selected build of Funtoo Linux. Receives rapid updates and preferred by desktop users.</td></tr>
<tr><td>{{c|funtoo-stable}}</td><td>Emphasizes less-frequent package updates and trusted, reliable versions of packages over the latest versions.</td></tr>
{{TableEnd}}
 
==== Which Variant? ====
 
'''If you're not sure, pick {{c|standard}}.'''
 
Our "regular" stage3's are listed with a variant of {{c|standard}}. The following variant builds are available:
 
{{TableStart}}
{{2ColHead|Variant|Description}}
<tr><td>{{c|standard}}</td><td>The "standard" version of Funtoo Linux</td></tr>
<tr><td>{{c|pure64}}</td><td>A 64-bit build that drops multilib (32-bit compatibility) support. Can be ideal for server systems.</td></tr>
<tr><td>{{c|hardened}}</td><td>Includes PIE/SSP toolchain for enhanced security. PIE does require the use of PaX in the kernel, while SSP works with any kernel, and provides enhanced security in user-space to avoid stack-based exploits. For expert users.</td></tr>
{{TableEnd}}
 
==== Download the Stage3 ====
 
Once you have found the stage3 that you would like to download, use {{c|wget}} to download the Stage 3 tarball you have chosen to use as the basis for your new Funtoo Linux system. It should be saved to the {{f|/mnt/funtoo}} directory as follows:
{{console|body=
###i## cd /mnt/funtoo
###i## wget http://build.funtoo.org/funtoo-current/x86-64bit/generic_64/stage3-latest.tar.xz
}}
Note that 64-bit systems can run 32-bit or 64-bit stages, but 32-bit systems can only run 32-bit stages. Make sure that you select a Stage 3 build that is appropriate for your CPU. If you are not certain, it is a safe bet to choose the {{c|generic_64}} or {{c|generic_32}} stage. Consult the [[Subarches]] page for more information.
 
Once the stage is downloaded, extract the contents with the following command, substituting in the actual name of your stage 3 tarball:
{{console|body=
###i## tar xpf stage3-latest.tar.xz
}}{{Important|It is very important to use {{c|tar's}} "{{c|'''p'''}}" option when extracting the Stage 3 tarball - it tells {{c|tar}} to ''preserve'' any permissions and ownership that exist within the archive. Without this option, your Funtoo Linux filesystem permissions will be incorrect.}}
 
=== Chroot into Funtoo ===
To install Funtoo Linux, the {{c|chroot}} command is first used. The chroot command will "switch into" the new Funtoo Linux system, so the commands you execute after running "chroot" will run within your newly-extracted Funtoo Linux system.
 
Before chrooting, there are a few things that need to be done to set up the chroot environment. You will need to mount {{f|/proc}}, {{f|/sys}} and {{f|/dev}} inside your new system. Use the following commands to do so:
{{console|body=
# ##i##cd /mnt/funtoo
# ##i##mount -t proc none proc
# ##i##mount --rbind /sys sys
# ##i##mount --rbind /dev dev
}}You'll also want to copy over {{f|resolv.conf}} in order to have proper resolution of Internet hostnames from inside the chroot:
{{console|body=
# ##i##cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/funtoo/etc/
}}Now you can chroot into your new system. Use <code>env</code> before <code>chroot</code> to ensure that no environment settings from the installation media are pulled in to your new system:
 
{{console|body=###i## env -i HOME=/root TERM=$TERM chroot . bash -l}}
{{Note|For users of live CDs with 64-bit kernels installing 32-bit systems: Some software may use {{c|uname -r}} to check whether the system is 32 or 64-bit. You may want append linux32 to the chroot command as a workaround, but it's generally not needed.}}
{{Important|If you receive the error "{{c|chroot: failed to run command `/bin/bash': Exec format error}}", it is most likely because you are running a 32-bit kernel and trying to execute 64-bit code. Make sure that you have selected the proper type of kernel when booting SystemRescueCD.}}
 
It's also a good idea to change the default command prompt while inside the chroot. This will avoid confusion if you have to change terminals. Use this command:
{{console|body=# ##i##export PS1="(chroot) $PS1"}}
Test internet name resolution from within the chroot:
{{console|body=###i## ping -c 5 google.com}}
If you can't ping, make sure {{f|/etc/resolv.conf}} doesn't contain things like {{c|127.0.x.x}} addresses, if it does, change the {{c|127.0.x.x}} entry to {{c|8.8.8.8}} -- Google's public dns address.  Make sure to replace this with your dns of choice once the system is installed.
 
 
Congratulations! You are now chrooted inside a Funtoo Linux system. Now it's time to get Funtoo Linux properly configured so that Funtoo Linux will start successfully, without any manual assistance, when your system is restarted.
=== Downloading the Portage tree ===
 
{{note|For an alternative way to do this, see [[Installing Portage From Snapshot]].}}
Now it's time to install a copy of the Portage repository, which contains package scripts (ebuilds) that tell portage how to build and install thousands of different software packages. To create the Portage repository, simply run <code>emerge --sync</code> from within the chroot. This will automatically clone the portage tree from [https://github.com/funtoo/ports-2012 GitHub]:
 
{{console|body=
(chroot) ###i## emerge --sync
}}
{{important|If you receive the error with initial {{c|emerge --sync}} due to git protocol restrictions, set the {{c|SYNC}} variable in {{c|/etc/portage/make.conf}} to
{{c|"https://github.com/funtoo/ports-2012.git"}}
}}
 
=== Configuring your system ===
As is expected from a Linux distribution, Funtoo Linux has its share of configuration files. The one file you are absolutely required to edit in order to ensure that Funtoo Linux boots successfully is {{f|/etc/fstab}}. The others are optional.
 
==== Using Nano ====
 
The default editor included in the chroot environment is called {{c|nano}}. To edit one of the files below, run nano as follows:
 
{{console|body=
(chroot) ###i## nano /etc/fstab
}}
When in the editor, you can use arrow keys to move the cursor, and common keys like backspace and delete will work as expected. To save the file, press Control-X, and answer {{c|y}} when prompted to save the modified buffer if you would like to save your changes.
 
==== Configuration Files ====
 
Here are a full list of files that you may want to edit, depending on your needs:
{{TableStart}}
{{3ColHead|File|Do I need to change it?|Description}}
<tr  class="danger">
<td>{{c|/etc/fstab}}</td>
<td>'''YES - required'''</td>
<td>Mount points for all filesystems to be used at boot time. This file must reflect your disk partition setup. We'll guide you through modifying this file below.</td>
</tr><tr>
<td>{{c|/etc/localtime}}</td>
<td>''Maybe - recommended''</td>
<td>Your timezone, which will default to UTC if not set. This should be a symbolic link to something located under /usr/share/zoneinfo (e.g. /usr/share/zoneinfo/America/Montreal) </td>
</tr><tr>
<td>{{c|/etc/make.conf}} (symlink) - also known as:<br/>{{c|/etc/portage/make.conf}}</td>
<td>''Maybe - recommended''</td>
<td>Parameters used by gcc (compiler), portage, and make. It's a good idea to set MAKEOPTS. This is covered later in this document. ''Note that it is normal for this file to be empty in Funtoo Linux, as many settings have been migrated to our enhanced profile system.''</td>
</tr><tr>
<td>{{c|/etc/conf.d/hostname}}</td>
<td>''Maybe - recommended''</td>
<td>Used to set system hostname. Set the {{c|hostname}} variable to the fully-qualified (with dots, ie. {{c|foo.funtoo.org}}) name if you have one. Otherwise, set to the local system hostname (without dots, ie. {{c|foo}}). Defaults to {{c|localhost}} if not set.</td>
</tr><tr>
<td>{{c|/etc/hosts}}</td>
<td>''No''</td>
<td> You no longer need to manually set the hostname in this file. This file is automatically generated by {{c|/etc/init.d/hostname}}.</td>
</tr><tr>
<td>{{c|/etc/conf.d/keymaps}}</td>
<td>Optional</td>
<td>Keyboard mapping configuration file (for console pseudo-terminals). Set if you have a non-US keyboard. See [[Funtoo Linux Localization]].</td>
</tr><tr>
<td>{{c|/etc/conf.d/hwclock}}</td>
<td>Optional</td>
<td>How the time of the battery-backed hardware clock of the system is interpreted (UTC or local time). Linux uses the battery-backed hardware clock to initialize the system clock when the system is booted.</td>
</tr><tr>
<td>{{c|/etc/conf.d/modules}}</td>
<td>Optional</td>
<td>Kernel modules to load automatically at system startup. Typically not required. See [[Additional Kernel Resources]] for more info.</td>
</tr><tr>
<td>{{c|/etc/conf.d/consolefont}}</td>
<td>Optional</td>
<td>Allows you to specify the default console font. To apply this font, enable the consolefont service by running rc-update add consolefont.</td>
</tr><tr>
<td>{{c|profiles}}</td>
<td>Optional</td>
<td>Some useful portage settings that may help speed up intial configuration.</td>
</tr>
{{TableEnd}}
 
If you're installing an English version of Funtoo Linux, you're in luck, as most of the configuration files can be used as-is. If you're installing for another locale, don't worry. We will walk you through the necessary configuration steps on the [[Funtoo Linux Localization]] page, and if needed, there's always plenty of friendly, helpful support available. (See [[#Community portal|Community]])
 
Let's go ahead and see what we have to do. Use {{c|nano -w <name_of_file>}} to edit files -- the "{{c|-w}}" argument disables word-wrapping, which is handy when editing configuration files. You can copy and paste from the examples.
 
{{Warning|It's important to edit your {{c|/etc/fstab}} file before you reboot! You will need to modify both the "fs" and "type" columns to match the settings for your partitions and filesystems that you created with {{c|gdisk}} or {{c|fdisk}}. Skipping this step may prevent Funtoo Linux from booting successfully.}}
 
==== /etc/fstab ====
 
{{f|/etc/fstab}} is used by the {{c|mount}} command which is run when your system boots. Lines in this file inform {{c|mount}} about filesystems to be mounted and how they should be mounted. In order for the system to boot properly, you must edit {{f|/etc/fstab}} and ensure that it reflects the partition configuration you used earlier in the install process. If you can't remember the partition configuration that you used earlier, the {{c|lsblk}} command may be of help to you:
{{console|body=
(chroot) ###i## nano -w /etc/fstab
}}
{{file|name=/etc/fstab|desc=An example fstab file|body=
# The root filesystem should have a pass number of either 0 or 1.
# All other filesystems should have a pass number of 0 or greater than 1.
#
# NOTE: If your BOOT partition is ReiserFS, add the notail option to opts.
#
# See the manpage fstab(5) for more information.
#
# <fs>     <mountpoint>  <type>  <opts>        <dump/pass>
 
/dev/sda1    /boot        ext2    noauto,noatime 1 2
/dev/sda2    none          swap    sw            0 0
/dev/sda3    /            ext4    noatime        0 1
#/dev/cdrom  /mnt/cdrom    auto    noauto,ro      0 0
}}
{{Note|Currently, our default {{f|/etc/fstab}}file  has the root filesystem as {{c|/dev/sda4}} and the swap partition as {{c|/dev/sda3}}. These will need to be changed to {{c|/dev/sda3}} and {{c|/dev/sda2}}, respectively.}}
 
{{Note|If you're using UEFI to boot, change the {{f|/dev/sda1}} line so that it says {{c|vfat}} instead of {{c|ext2}}. Similarly, make sure that the {{f|/dev/sda3}} line specifies either {{c|xfs}} or {{c|ext4}}, depending on which filesystem you chose earlier on in the installation process when you created filesystems.}}
 
==== /etc/localtime ====
 
{{f|/etc/localtime}} is used to specify the timezone that your machine is in, and defaults to UTC. If you would like your Funtoo Linux system to use local time, you should replace {{f|/etc/localtime}} with a symbolic link to the timezone that you wish to use.
 
{{console|body=
(chroot) ###i## ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/MST7MDT /etc/localtime
}}
The above sets the timezone to Mountain Standard Time (with daylight savings). Type {{c|ls /usr/share/zoneinfo}} to list available timezones. There are also sub-directories containing timezones described by location.
 
==== /etc/portage/make.conf ====
 
{{c|MAKEOPTS}} can be used to define how many parallel compilations should occur when you compile a package, which can speed up compilation significantly. A rule of thumb is the number of CPUs (or CPU threads) in your system plus one. If, for example, you have a dual core processor without [[wikipedia:Hyper-threading|hyper-threading]], then you would set {{c|MAKEOPTS}} to 3:
 
<pre>
MAKEOPTS="-j3"
</pre>
 
If you are unsure about how many processors/threads you have, then use {{c|nproc}} to help you.
{{console|body=
(chroot) ###i## nproc
16
}}
Set {{c|MAKEOPTS}} to this number plus one:
 
<pre>
MAKEOPTS="-j17"
</pre>
 
{{c|USE}} flags define what functionality is enabled when packages are built. It is not recommended to add a lot of USE flags during installation; you should wait until you have a working, bootable system before changing your USE flags. A USE flag prefixed with a minus ("{{c|-}}") sign tells Portage not to use the flag when compiling.  A Funtoo guide to USE flags will be available in the future. For now, you can find out more information about USE flags in the [http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/handbook/handbook-amd64.xml?part=2&chap=2 Gentoo Handbook].
 
{{c|LINGUAS}} tells Portage which local language to compile the system and applications in (those who use LINGUAS variable like OpenOffice). It is not usually necessary to set this if you use English. If you want another language such as French (fr) or German (de), set LINGUAS appropriately:
 
<pre>
LINGUAS="fr"
</pre>
 
==== /etc/conf.d/hwclock ====
If you dual-boot with Windows, you'll need to edit this file and change the value of '''clock''' from '''UTC''' to '''local''', because Windows will set your hardware clock to local time every time you boot Windows. Otherwise you normally wouldn't need to edit this file.
{{console|body=
(chroot) ###i## nano -w /etc/conf.d/hwclock
}}
==== Localization ====
 
By default, Funtoo Linux is configured with Unicode (UTF-8) enabled, and for the US English locale and keyboard. If you would like to configure your system to use a non-English locale or keyboard, see [[Funtoo Linux Localization]].
 
=== Introducing Portage ===
 
Portage, the Funtoo Linux package manager has a command called <code>emerge</code> which is used to build and install packages from source. It also takes care of installing all of the package's dependencies. You call emerge like this:
 
<console>
(chroot) # ##i##emerge packagename
</console>
 
When you install a package by specifying its name in the command-line, Portage records its name in the <code>/var/lib/portage/world</code> file. It does so because it assumes that, since you have installed it by name, you want to consider it part of your system and want to keep the package updated in the future. This is a handy feature, since when packages are being added to the <code>world</code> set, we can update our entire system by typing:
 
<console>
(chroot) # ##i##emerge --sync
(chroot) # ##i##emerge -auDN @world
</console>
 
This is the "official" way to update your Funtoo Linux system. Above, we first update our Portage tree using git to grab the latest ebuilds (scripts), and then run an emerge command to update the <code>world</code> set of packages. The options specified tell <code>emerge</code> to:
 
* '''<code>a</code>''' - show us what will be emerged, and '''ask''' us if we want to proceed
* '''<code>u</code>''' - '''update''' the packages we specify -- don't emerge them again if they are already emerged.
* '''<code>D</code>''' - Consider the entire dependency tree of packages when looking for updates. In other words, do a '''deep''' update.
* '''<code>N</code>''' - Update any packages that have changed ('''new''') USE settings.
 
You should also consider passing <code>--with-bdeps=y</code> when emerging @world, at least once in a while. This will update build dependencies as well.
 
Of course, sometimes we want to install a package but not add it to the <code>world</code> file. This is often done because you only want the package installed temporarily or because you know the package in question is a dependnecy of another package. If this behavior is desired, you call emerge like this:
 
<console>
(chroot) # ##i##emerge -1 packagename
</console>
 
Advanced users may be interested in the [[Emerge]] wiki page.
 
==== Updating World ====
 
Now is actually a very good time to update the entire system and it can be a good idea to do so prior to first boot.
 
<console>
(chroot) # ##i##emerge --sync
(chroot) # ##i##emerge -auDN @world
</console>
 
{{fancyimportant|1=
Make sure you read any post emerge messages and follow their instructions. This is especially true if you have upgraded perl or python.}}
 
=== Kernel ===
 
Starting mid-May 2015, Funtoo Linux stage3's include a pre-built {{c|debian-sources}} kernel to make installation faster and easier. To see if debian-sources is installed, type:
{{console|body=
(chroot) # ##i##emerge -s debian-sources
Searching...   
[ Results for search key : ##b##debian-sources##!b## ]
[ Applications found : ##b##1##!b## ]
 
*  ##b##sys-kernel/debian-sources##!b##
      ##g##Latest version available:##!g## 3.19.3
      ##g##Latest version installed:##!g## 3.19.3
      ##g##Size of files:##!g## 81,292 kB
      ##g##Homepage:##!g##      http://www.debian.org
      ##g##Description:##!g##  Debian Sources (and optional binary kernel)
      ##g##License:##!g##      GPL-2
}}
If a version is listed under {{c|Latest version installed}}, then debian-sources is already pre-built for you and you can skip the rest of the Kernel section, and proceed to the [[#Installing a Bootloader|Installing a Bootloader section]].
 
==== Building the Kernel ====
 
If you need to build a kernel for Funtoo Linux, please follow these steps:
 
{{Fancynote|1=
See [[Funtoo Linux Kernels]] for a full list of kernels supported in Funtoo Linux. We recommend <code>debian-sources</code> for new users.}}
 
{{fancyimportant|1=
<code>debian-sources</code> with <code>binary</code> USE flag requires at least 14GB free in <code>/var/tmp</code> and takes around 1 hour to build on a Intel Core i7 Processor.}}
 
Let's emerge our kernel:
 
<console>
(chroot) # ##i##emerge debian-sources
</console>
 
Once <code>emerge</code> completes, you'll have a brand new kernel and initramfs installed to <code>/boot</code>, plus kernel headers installed in <code>/usr/src/linux</code>, and you'll be ready to configure the boot loader to load these to boot your Funtoo Linux system.
 
{{warning|If you have a RAID in your machine, the kernel installation will pull in the <code>mdadm</code> tool as a dependency. It is important to edit the <code>/etc/mdadm.conf</code> file prior to rebooting the machine so the RAID is properly recognised and set up before the kernel attempts to mount it in the tree. Failing to do so can result in an unusable or even unbootable system! For specific details, consult the mdadm man page <code>man mdadm</code> or the [[Package:Mdadm|mdadm]] ebuild page.}}
 
{{fancynote|NVIDIA card users: the <code>binary</code> USE flag installs the Nouveau drivers which cannot be loaded at the same time as the proprietary drivers, and cannot be unloaded at runtime because of KMS. You need to blacklist it under <code>/etc/modprobe.d/</code>.}}
 
{{fancynote|For an overview of other kernel options for Funtoo Linux, see [[Funtoo Linux Kernels]]. There may be modules that the Debian kernel doesn't include, a situation where [http://www.funtoo.org/wiki/Funtoo_Linux_Kernels#Using_Debian-Sources_with_Genkernel genkernel] would be useful. Also be sure to see [[:Category:Hardware Compatibility|hardware compatibility]] information.}}
 
=== Installing a Bootloader ===


These install instructions show you how to use GRUB to boot using BIOS (old-school) or UEFI (new-school). As of boot-update-1.7.2, now in Portage, the steps are very similar.
{{#css:
 
firstHeading {
First, emerge <code>boot-update</code>. This will also cause <code>grub-2</code> and {{c|efibootmgr}} to be merged, since they are dependencies:
  display: none;
 
<console>
(chroot) # ##i##emerge boot-update
</console>
 
Then, edit <code>/etc/boot.conf</code> using {{c|nano}} and specify "<code>Funtoo Linux genkernel</code>" as the <code>default</code> setting at the top of the file, replacing <code>"Funtoo Linux"</code>.
 
<code>/etc/boot.conf</code> should now look like this:
{{file|name=/etc/boot.conf|body=
boot {
generate grub
default "Funtoo Linux genkernel"
timeout 3
}
 
"Funtoo Linux" {
kernel bzImage[-v]
}
 
"Funtoo Linux genkernel" {
kernel kernel[-v]
initrd initramfs[-v]
params += real_root=auto
}
 
"Funtoo Linux better-initramfs" {
kernel vmlinuz[-v]
initrd /initramfs.cpio.gz
}
}
}}
}}
If you are booting a custom or non-default kernel, please read <code>man boot.conf</code> for information on the various options available to you.
==== Old School (BIOS) MBR ====
When using "old school" BIOS booting, run the following command to install GRUB to your MBR, and generate the {{c|/boot/grub/grub.cfg}} configuration file that GRUB will use for booting:
<console>
(chroot) # ##i##grub-install --target=i386-pc --no-floppy /dev/sda
(chroot) # ##i##boot-update
</console>
==== New School (UEFI) Boot Entry ====
If you're using "new school" UEFI booting, run of the following sets of commands, depending on whether you are installing a 64-bit or 32-bit system. This will add GRUB as a UEFI boot entry.
For x86-64bit systems:
<console>
(chroot) # ##i##grub-install --target=x86_64-efi --efi-directory=/boot --bootloader-id="Funtoo Linux [GRUB]" --recheck /dev/sda
(chroot) # ##i##boot-update
</console>
For x86-32bit systems:
<console>
(chroot) # ##i##grub-install --target=i386-efi --efi-directory=/boot --bootloader-id="Funtoo Linux [GRUB]" --recheck /dev/sda
(chroot) # ##i##boot-update
</console>
==== First Boot, and in the future... ====
OK -- you are ready to boot!
You only need to run <code>grub-install</code> when you first install Funtoo Linux, but you need to re-run <code>boot-update</code> every time you modify your <code>/etc/boot.conf</code> file or add new kernels to your system. This will regenerate {{c|/boot/grub/grub.cfg}} so that you will have new kernels available in your GRUB boot menu, the next time you reboot.
=== Configuring your network ===
It's important to ensure that you will be able to connect to your local-area network after you reboot into Funtoo Linux. There are three approaches you can use for configuring your network: NetworkManager, dhcpcd, and the [[Funtoo Linux Networking]] scripts. Here's how to choose which one to use based on the type of network you want to set up.
==== Wi-Fi ====
For laptop/mobile systems where you will be using Wi-Fi, roaming, and connecting to various networks NetworkManager is strongly recommended. 
Since Wi-Fi cards require firmware to operate, it is also recommended that you emerge the linux-firmware ebuild:
{{console|body=(chroot) # ##i##emerge linux-firmware networkmanager
(chroot) ###i## rc-update add NetworkManager default
}}
The above command will ensure that NetworkManager starts after you boot into Funtoo Linux. Once you've completed these installation steps and have booted into Funtoo Linux, you can use the {{c|nmtui}} command (which has an easy-to-use console-based interface) to configure NetworkManager so that it will connect (and automatically reconnect, after reboot) to a Wi-Fi access point:
{{console|body=# ##i##nmtui}}
For more information about NetworkManager, see the [[Package:NetworkManager|NetworkManager package page]].
{{Note|wpa_supplicant is also a good choice for wireless network connections. See the {{package|net-wireless/wpa_supplicant}} package for steps involved in setting up wpa_supplicant.}}
==== Desktop (Wired DHCP) ====
For a home desktop or workstation with wired Ethernet that will use DHCP, the simplest and most effective option to enable network connectivity is to simply add {{c|dhcpcd}} to the default runlevel:
{{console|body=
(chroot) # ##i##rc-update add dhcpcd default}}
When you reboot, {{c|dhcpcd}} will run in the background and manage all network interfaces and use DHCP to acquire network addresses from a DHCP server.
If your upstream DHCP server is dnsmasq, it can be configured to assign addresses via mac address to make servers on DHCP feasible.
==== Server (Static IP) ====
For servers, the [[Funtoo Linux Networking]] scripts are recommended. They are optimized for static configurations and things like virtual ethernet bridging for virtualization setups. See [[Funtoo Linux Networking]] for information on how to use Funtoo Linux's template-based network configuration system.
==== Hostname ====
By default Funtoo uses "localhost" as hostname. Although the system will work perfectly fine using this name, some ebuilds refuse to install when detecting localhost as hostname. It also may create confusion if several systems use the same hostname. Therefore, it is advised to change it to a more meaningful name. The hostname itself is arbitrary, meaning you can choose almost any combination of characters, as long as it makes sense to the system administrator. To change the hostname, edit
{{console|body=
(chroot) # ##i##nano /etc/conf.d/hostname
}}
Look for the line starting with hostname and change the entry between the quotes. Save the file, on the next boot Funtoo will use the new hostname.
{{warning|Do not use special characters in the hostname, as the shell may interpret these, leading to unpredictable results. Use the Latin alphabet: a-z, A-Z, 0-9}}
{{tip|Use short hostnames (up to 8 or 10 characters) to prevent the terminal screen being filled with the hostname, leaving little space for the command itself. This become particularly poignant when coding long command strings in various programming languages like Bash, Python, SQL and Perl}}
=== Finishing Steps ===
==== Set your root password ====
It's imperative that you set your root password before rebooting so that you can log in.
<console>
(chroot) # ##i##passwd
</console>
===Restart your system ===
Now is the time to leave chroot, to unmount Funtoo Linux partitions and files and to restart your computer. When you restart, the GRUB boot loader will start, load the Linux kernel and initramfs, and your system will begin booting.
Leave the chroot, change directory to /mnt, unmount your Funtoo partitions, and reboot.
<console>
(chroot) # ##i##exit
# ##i##cd /mnt
# ##i##umount -lR funtoo
# ##i##reboot
</console>
{{fancynote|System Rescue CD will gracefully unmount your new Funtoo filesystems as part of its normal shutdown sequence.}}
You should now see your system reboot, the GRUB boot loader appear for a few seconds, and then see the Linux kernel and initramfs loading. After this, you should see Funtoo Linux itself start to boot, and you should be greeted with a <code>login:</code> prompt. Funtoo Linux has been successfully installed!
=== Profiles ===
Once you have rebooted into Funtoo Linux, you can further customize your system to your needs by using [[Funtoo Profiles]]. A quick introduction to profiles is included below -- consult the [[Funtoo Profiles]] page for more detailed information. There are five basic profile types: arch, build, subarch, flavors and mix-ins:
{{TableStart}}
{{2ColHead|Sub-Profile Type|Description}}
{{2Col|{{c|arch}}|Typically {{c|x86-32bit}} or {{c|x86-64bit}}, this defines the processor type and support of your system. This is defined when your stage was built and should not be changed.}}
{{2Col|{{c|build}}|Defines whether your system is a {{c|current}}, {{c|stable}} or {{c|experimental}} build. {{c|current}} systems will have newer packages unmasked than {{c|stable}} systems. This is defined when your stage is built and is typically not changed.}}
{{2Col|{{c|subarch}}|Defines CPU optimizations for your system. The subarch is set at the time the stage3 is built, but can be changed later to better settings if necessary. Be sure to pick a setting that is compatible with your CPU.}}
{{2Col|{{c|flavor}}|Defines the general type of system, such as {{c|server}} or {{c|desktop}}, and will set default USE flags appropriate for your needs.}}
{{2Col|{{c|mix-ins}}|Defines various optional settings that you may be interested in enabling.}}
{{TableEnd}}
One arch, build and flavor must be set for each Funtoo Linux system, while mix-ins are optional and you can enable more than one if desired. Often, flavors and mix-ins inherit settings from other sub-profiles. Use {{c|epro show}} to view your current profile settings, in addition to any inheritance information:
{{console|body=
(chroot) # ##i## epro show
=== ##g##Enabled Profiles##!g##: ===
        arch: ##c## x86-64bit
      build: ##c## current
    subarch: ##c## intel64-haswell
      flavor: ##c## desktop
    mix-ins: ##c## gnome
=== ##g##All inherited flavors from desktop flavor##!g##: ===
                    ##c##workstation##!c## (from desktop flavor)
                            ##c##core##!c## (from workstation flavor)
                        ##c##minimal##!c## (from core flavor)
=== ##g##All inherited mix-ins from desktop flavor##!g##: ===
                              ##c##X##!c## (from workstation flavor)
                          ##c##audio##!c## (from workstation flavor)
                            ##c##dvd##!c## (from workstation flavor)
                          ##c##media##!c## (from workstation flavor)
      ##c##mediadevice-audio-consumer##!c## (from media mix-in)
                ##c##mediadevice-base##!c## (from mediadevice-audio-consumer mix-in)
      ##c##mediadevice-video-consumer##!c## (from media mix-in)
                ##c##mediadevice-base##!c## (from mediadevice-video-consumer mix-in)
        ##c##mediaformat-audio-common##!c## (from media mix-in)
          ##c##mediaformat-gfx-common##!c## (from media mix-in)
        ##c##mediaformat-video-common##!c## (from media mix-in)
                  ##c##console-extras##!c## (from workstation flavor)
                          ##c##print##!c## (from desktop flavor)
}}
Here are some basic examples of {{c|epro}} usage:
{{TableStart}}
{{2ColHead|Description|Command}}
{{2Col|View available profiles. Enabled profiles will be highlighted in cyan. Directly enabled profiles will be in bold and have a {{c|*}} appended.|{{console|body=(chroot) # ##i##epro list}}}}
{{2Col|Change the system flavor.|{{console|body=(chroot) # ##i##epro flavor desktop}}}}
{{2Col|Add a mix-in.|{{console|body=(chroot) # ##i##epro mix-in +gnome}}}}
{{TableEnd}}
===Next Steps===
If you are brand new to Funtoo Linux and Gentoo Linux, please check out [[Funtoo Linux First Steps]], which will help get you acquainted with your new system. We also have a category for our [[:Category:Official Documentation|official documentation]], which includes all docs that we officially maintain for installation and operation of Funtoo Linux.
We also have a number of pages dedicated to setting up your system. See [[:Category:First Steps|First Steps]] for a list of these pages.
If your system did not boot correctly, see [[Installation Troubleshooting]] for steps you can take to resolve the problem.
[[Category:HOWTO]]
[[Category:Install]]
[[Category:Official Documentation]]

Latest revision as of 04:06, November 21, 2021

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   Note

Translators: Thank you for your help! Please use the section-by-section guide as the basis for your translations. Thanks again!

소개

root # 펀투 리눅스에 오신 것을 환영합니다!

펀투 리눅스에 오신 것을 환영합니다! 이 문서는 시스템 구성과 관련된 옵션을 최소한으로 유지하면서 PC 호환 시스템에 펀투 리눅스를 설치하는 데 도움을주기 위해 작성되었습니다.

If you're new to installing a Gentoo-based Linux, or new to Linux entirely -- welcome! We have attempted to make these installation instructions understandable to new users as well. We encourage all new users to read Wolf Pack Philosophy to understand some of the distinctives of the Funtoo community.

시작하기 전에 다음 중요 정보를 검토하시기 바랍니다:

Our desktop environment stages (GNOME, Cinnamon, etc.) now support seamless installation on VMware Workstation Pro virtual machines. We highly recommend you enable 3D Accelerated Video for your VM, which is not enabled by default. Click here for more info.
최신 버전
펀투 리눅스 최신 버전은 1.4입니다, 간혹 1.4-release1.4-release-std라고 불리기도 합니다. 1.4 버전은 LTS ("장기 지원 버전")이 아니지만 2.x LTS 버전으로의 업그레이드를 상당히 매끄럽게 진행할 목적으로 1.4버전이 일반적으로 1.3버전을 장기-지원용으로 사용하는 것보다 권장됩니다.
개발 모델
펀투 리눅스는 "커뮤니티가 개발하는" 리눅스 메타 배포판입니다. 펀투 리눅스를 사용한다면 특별한 절차 나 복잡한 승인 절차를 거치지 않고 code.funtoo.org를 통해 개발에 기여할 수 있습니다. 펀투에 기여하는 방법에 대한 자세한 내용은 개발 가이드를 참조하십시오. 여러분이 시작하기 위해 도움을 주기 위한 영상도 있습니다. 유투브 설명 영상
Support Matrix
Please use our Support Matrix to familiarize yourself with the technologies we do -- and do not -- support.
서류화 스타일
이제부터 우리는 read and browse the Install Guide section-by-section도 제공합니다. 온라인 환경 사용자는 이 것을 더 편리하다고 느낄지도 모릅니다.
릴리즈 노트
펀투 리눅스의 가장 최신 변경 사항에 익숙해지기 위해, 펀투리눅스 1.4 릴리즈 노트 를 확인하세요.
업그레이드 설명
만약 펀투 리눅스 1.3 버전이나 그 이전 버전으로부터 업그레이드를 하는거라면, 펀투 리눅스 1.4 업그레이드 설명 를 참조하시기 바랍다.
AWS 이미지
이제 우리는 AWS의 펀투 리눅스의 배포버전을 제공합니다. 이것은 AWS의 장점을 활용하고 싶거나 펀투 리눅스를 자동적으로 배포하고 싶은 사람들에게 유용한 옵션이 될 것입니다. 설명 스타일의 AWS 버전 펀투 사용 방법 문서도 존재합니다.
스팀 실행
최근 공식 스팀 도커 이미지를 출시하였습니다. 이는 펀투의 지원을 받을 뿐만 아니라 펀투 리눅스에서 공식적으로 스팀을 실행하기 위한 방법입니다.
컨테이너
도커 뿐만 아니라 LXD 컨테이너도 공식적으로 지원됩니다. 추가적인 문서를 위한 링크와 아직은 불완전하지만 추가되고 있는 가용한 컨테이너 기술에 대한 리스트를 Chroot and Containers문서를 통해 확인하세요.
새로운 Fchroot 도구
Our new fchroot tool is now available to allow you to run ARM and RISCV environments on PC-compatible hardware. This is a very effective tool for accelerating building of large pieces of software on resource-constrained ARM systems. See the code.funtoo.org page, Frankenchroot and Frankenchroot/Live_NFS_Frankenchroot for set-up information.

Now that we've covered all that important information, it's time to get started installing Funtoo Linux!

Installation Overview

This is a basic overview of the Funtoo installation process:

  1. Get Acquainted with Funtoo's Culture and Support Matrix.
  2. Download and boot the Funtoo LiveCD/LiveUSB.
  3. Prepare your disk.
  4. MBR Partitioning.
  5. GPT Partitioning.
  6. Create and mount filesystems.
  7. Setting the Date.
  8. Install the Funtoo stage tarball of your choice.
  9. Chroot into your new system.
  10. Download the Portage tree.
  11. Configure your system.
  12. Introducing Portage.
  13. Install a kernel.
  14. Install a bootloader.
  15. Configure the Network.
  16. Complete final steps.
  17. Profile Configuration.
  18. All Done! Enjoy!

Download LiveCD

In order to install Funtoo Linux, you will first need to boot your computer using a Linux-based image. This image is called a "LiveCD" for historical reasons, because historically people booted into Linux on new systems by burning an ISO image to a CD or DVD using a CD/DVD writer. This is still possible to do, if you prefer to use this method. However, most people these days will tend to use USB flash media (aka a "USB stick") for convenience, which can be written to using the standard dd command.

When installing Funtoo Linux on x86-64bit, we highly recommend the official Funtoo Linux LiveCD/LiveUSB, which can always be downloaded here:

While any modern bootable Linux image should be sufficient to install Funtoo Linux, the Funtoo LiveCD has several advantages over other options. Because it natively runs Funtoo Linux, and includes our official debian-sources kernel with very good hardware support, the hardware it supports is going to match the hardware that Funtoo Linux supports -- thus allowing you to identify any hardware compatibility issues immediately.

In addition, our LiveCD is regularly updated, and includes NetworkManager which allows the use of the easy nmtui command to configure your network. It also includes our innovative Fchroot tool, which allows you to use QEMU to "chroot" into non-x86 systems such as arm-64bit and riscv-64bit. This allows the Funtoo LiveCD to be used to even rescue and set up systems with different instruction sets!

Once downloaded, to copy it to a USB flash drive for booting, use the following command:

root # dd if=https://build.funtoo.org/livecd/funtoo-livecd-20220521-2138.iso of=/dev/sdX bs=4k status=progress oflag=sync

Of course, you will need to change /dev/sdX to point to the block device of the USB stick on your system.

Network Access

For steps on setting up network access from the LiveCD, please see the Funtoo:New Install Experience/LiveCD page.

Remote Install

Alternatively, you can log into your bootable environment over the network via SSH to perform the install from another computer, and this may be more convenient way to install Funtoo Linux.

First ensure that sshd is running. You will need to start sshd as follows:

root # /etc/init.d/sshd start

If you'd like to complete the install remotely, here's how. First, you will need to ensure that your bootable CD/USB image has a functioning network connection. Then, you will need to set a root password:

root # passwd
New password: ********
Retype new password: ********
passwd: password updated successfully


Once you have typed in a password, you will now need to determine the IP address of the bootable system, and then you can use ssh to connect to it. To determine the IP address currently being used by the LiveCD, type ifconfig:

root # ifconfig

Alternatively, determining of an IP address is possible with iproute2 ip tool:

root # ip addr show

One of the interfaces should have an IP address (listed as inet addr:) from your LAN. You can then connect remotely, from another system on your LAN, your bootable environment, and perform steps from the comfort of an existing OS. On your remote system, type the following, replacing 1.2.3.4 with the IP address of the LiveCD. Connecting from an existing Linux or MacOS system would look something like this:

remote system $ ssh root@1.2.3.4
Password: **********
   Note

If you'd like to connect remotely from an existing Microsoft Windows system, you'll need to download an SSH client for Windows, such as OpenSSH.

After you've logged in via SSH, you're now connected remotely to the LiveCD and can perform the installation steps.

Prepare Disk

In this section, you will need to choose a disk format to use for booting and partitioning -- either MBR or UEFI/GPT. If you are not familiar with the differences between these options, please review our Disk Formats page for an overview of each option and the trade-offs. Generally, it's usually safe to pick the legacy MBR method for system disks under 2TB in size and most modern PC systems support MBR as well as UEFI booting.

But First...

Before doing anything to your disks, make sure you are partitioning the right one. Use the lsblk command to view a list of all block devices on your system, as well as partitions on these block devices:

root # lsblk
NAME          MAJ:MIN RM  SIZE RO TYPE MOUNTPOINT
sda             8:0    0  1.8T  0 disk 
├─sda1          8:1    0  512M  0 part 
├─sda2          8:2    0    8G  0 part [SWAP]
└─sda3          8:3    0  1.8T  0 part 
  ├─main-root 254:0    0  500G  0 lvm  /
  └─main-data 254:1    0  1.3T  0 lvm  /home
   Note

If you're not sure which disks are which, you can use lsblk -o MODEL,NAME,SIZE to show the device models matching the /dev/sd? names.

Make sure you will not be overwriting any important data and that you have chosen the correct /dev/sd? device. Above, you can see that SATA disk sda contains three partitions, sda1, sda2 and sda3, and that sda3 contains LVM volumes. If you are using an NVME disk, then you may see nvme0n1 as your disk, and your partitions (if any exist yet) will be named nvme0n1p1, nvme0n1p2, etc. If you are installing on microSD Card for Raspberry Pi, your disk will likely be mmcblk0 and partitions will have suffixes p1, p2, etc.

Once you've double-checked your target block device and made sure you'll be partitioning the correct disk, proceed to the next step.

MBR Partitioning

Legacy (BIOS/MBR) Method

   Note

Use this method if you are booting using your BIOS, and if your Funtoo LiveCD initial boot menu was light blue. If you're going to use the UEFI/GPT disk format, then please proceed to the next section.

First, it's a good idea to make sure that you've found the correct hard disk to partition. Try this command and verify that /dev/sda is the disk that you want to partition:

root # fdisk -l /dev/sda

Disk /dev/sda: 640.1 GB, 640135028736 bytes, 1250263728 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk label type: gpt

#         Start          End    Size  Type            Name
 1         2048   1250263694  596.2G  Linux filesyste Linux filesystem

Now, it is recommended that you erase any existing MBR or GPT partition tables on the disk, which could confuse the system's BIOS at boot time. We accomplish this using sgdisk:

   Warning

This will make any existing partitions inaccessible! You are strongly cautioned and advised to backup any critical data before proceeding.

root # sgdisk --zap-all /dev/sda

Creating new GPT entries.
GPT data structures destroyed! You may now partition the disk using fdisk or
other utilities.

This output is also nothing to worry about, as the command still succeeded:

***************************************************************
Found invalid GPT and valid MBR; converting MBR to GPT format
in memory. 
***************************************************************

Now we will use fdisk to create the MBR partition table and partitions:

root # fdisk /dev/sda

Within fdisk, follow these steps:

Empty the partition table:

Command (m for help): o ↵

Create Partition 1 (boot):

Command (m for help): n ↵
Partition type (default p): 
Partition number (1-4, default 1): 
First sector: 
Last sector: +128M ↵

Create Partition 2 (swap):

Command (m for help): n ↵
Partition type (default p): 
Partition number (2-4, default 2): 
First sector: 
Last sector: +2G ↵
Command (m for help): t ↵ 
Partition number (1,2, default 2): 
Hex code (type L to list all codes): 82 ↵

Create the root partition:

Command (m for help): n ↵
Partition type (default p): 
Partition number (3,4, default 3): 
First sector: 
Last sector: 

Verify the partition table:

Command (m for help): p

Disk /dev/sda: 298.1 GiB, 320072933376 bytes, 625142448 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disklabel type: dos
Disk identifier: 0x82abc9a6

Device    Boot     Start       End    Blocks  Id System
/dev/sda1           2048    264191    131072  83 Linux
/dev/sda2         264192   4458495   2097152  82 Linux swap / Solaris
/dev/sda3        4458496 625142447 310341976  83 Linux

Write the partition table to disk:

Command (m for help): w

Your new MBR partition table will now be written to your system disk.

   Note

You're done with partitioning! Now, jump over to Creating filesystems.

GPT Partitioning

UEFI/GPT Method

   Note

Use this method if you are interested in booting using UEFI, and if your Funtoo LiveCD initial boot menu was black and white, or the system booted without a boot menu. If it was light blue, this method will not work. Instead, use the instructions in the previous section then skip this section, or reboot LiveCD in UEFI mode first.

   Note

You can build legacy mode into your GPT partition table but it requires a BIOS Boot partition. see Talk:Install/GPT_Partitioning

The gdisk commands to create a GPT partition table are as follows. Adapt sizes as necessary, although these defaults will work for most users. Start gdisk:

root # gdisk /dev/sda

Within gdisk, follow these steps:

Create a new empty partition table (This will erase all data on the disk when saved):

Command: o ↵
This option deletes all partitions and creates a new protective MBR.
Proceed? (Y/N): y ↵

Create Partition 1 (boot):

Command: n ↵
Partition Number: 1 ↵
First sector: 
Last sector: +128M ↵
Hex Code: EF00 ↵

Create Partition 2 (swap):

Command: n ↵
Partition Number: 2 ↵
First sector: 
Last sector: +4G ↵
Hex Code: 8200 ↵

Create Partition 3 (root):

Command: n ↵
Partition Number: 3 ↵
First sector: 
Last sector:  (for rest of disk)
Hex Code: 

Along the way, you can type "p" and hit Enter to view your current partition table. If you make a mistake, you can type "d" to delete an existing partition that you created. When you are satisfied with your partition setup, type "w" to write your configuration to disk:

Write Partition Table To Disk:

Command: w ↵
Do you want to proceed? (Y/N): Y ↵

The partition table will now be written to the disk and gdisk will close.

Now, your GPT/GUID partitions have been created, and will show up as the following block devices under Linux:

  • /dev/sda1, which will be used to hold the /boot filesystem,
  • /dev/sda2, which will be used for swap space, and
  • /dev/sda3, which will hold your root filesystem.
   Tip

You can verify that the block devices above were correctly created by running the command lsblk.

Creating Filesystems

   Note

This section covers both BIOS and UEFI installs. Don't skip it!

Before your newly-created partitions can be used, the block devices that were created in the previous step need to be initialized with filesystem metadata. This process is known as creating a filesystem on the block devices. After filesystems are created on the block devices, they can be mounted and used to store files.

Let's keep this simple. Are you using legacy MBR partitions? If so, let's create an ext2 filesystem on /dev/sda1:

root # mkfs.ext2 /dev/sda1

If you're using GPT partitions for UEFI, or installing for Raspberry Pi, you'll want to create a vfat filesystem on your first partition. This will be mmcblk0p1 in the case of Raspberry Pi:

root # mkfs.vfat -F 32 /dev/sda1

Now, let's create a swap partition. This partition will be used as disk-based virtual memory for your Funtoo Linux system.

You will not create a filesystem on your swap partition, since it is not used to store files. But it is necessary to initialize it using the mkswap command. Then we'll run the swapon command to make your newly-initialized swap space immediately active within the live CD environment, in case it is needed during the rest of the install process:

root # mkswap /dev/sda2
root # swapon /dev/sda2

Root Filesystem

Now, we need to create a root filesystem. This is where Funtoo Linux will live. We generally recommend ext4 or XFS root filesystems. Keep in mind that some filesystems will require additional filesystem tools to be emerged prior to rebooting. Please consult the following table for more information:

FilesystemRecommended as root file system?Additional tools required to emerge
ext4YesNone
XFSYessys-fs/xfsprogs
reiserfsYes -- will likely need to enable kernel supportsys-fs/reiserfsprogs
zfsNo - advanced users onlysys-fs/zfs
btrfsNo - advanced users onlysys-fs/btrfs-progs
   Important

We do not recommend users set up ZFS or BTRFS as their root filesystem. This is much more complex and usually not necessary. Instead, choose XFS or ext4. We do support ZFS or BTRFS as non-root filesystems and this is much, much easier to configure. See ZFS and Btrfs after you are done setting up your Funtoo Linux system to configure ZFS or BTRFS for additional secondary storage.

If you're not sure, choose ext4. Here's how to create a root ext4 filesystem:

root # mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda3

...and here's how to create an XFS root filesystem, if you prefer to use XFS instead of ext4:

root # mkfs.xfs /dev/sda3

Your filesystems (and swap) have all now been initialized, so that that can be mounted (attached to your existing directory heirarchy) and used to store files. We are ready to begin installing Funtoo Linux on these brand-new filesystems.

Additional Filesystems

   Note

This can be very useful for Raspberry Pi systems!

You may want to create additional filesystems for various parts of your Funtoo filesystem tree. It is not uncommon to place /home or /var on separate filesystems.

For Raspberry Pi, you may not have a lot of spare room on the card depending on the capacity of your microSD card, and it may make a lot of sense to put the entire /var filesystem on an external hard drive or solid state disk. This will not only ensure you don't run out of disk space, but can also improve performance since writes to the microSD card typically aren't that fast.

To do this, you will want to use fdisk or gdisk to create a partition on your external drive, and then use the mkfs.xfs or mkfs.ext4 commands to create a filesystem on the new partition. We will mount this new filesystem in the next step prior to extracting the stage3 tarball.

Mounting Filesystems

Mount the newly-created filesystems as follows, creating /mnt/funtoo as the installation mount point:

root # mkdir /mnt/funtoo
root # mount /dev/sda3 /mnt/funtoo
root # mkdir /mnt/funtoo/boot
root # mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/funtoo/boot

If you have any additional filesystems you created earlier (such as /home or /var), you should mount them now, so that when the stage3 is extracted (which we will do in a later step) these filesystems will get populated with the necessary files. This can be done as follows:

root # mkdir /mnt/funtoo/var
root # mount /dev/sdb1 /mnt/funtoo/var

Setting the Date

   Important

If your system's date and time are too far off (typically by months or years), then it may prevent Portage from properly downloading source tarballs. This is because some of our sources are downloaded via HTTPS, which use SSL certificates and are marked with an activation and expiration date. However, if your system time is relatively close to correct, you can probably skip this step for now.

Now is a good time to verify the date and time are correctly set to UTC. Use the date command to verify the date and time:

root # date
Fri Jul 15 19:47:18 UTC 2011

If the date and/or time need to be corrected, do so using date MMDDhhmmYYYY, keeping in mind hhmm are in 24-hour format. The example below changes the date and time to "July 16th, 2011 @ 8:00PM" UTC:

root # date 071620002011
Fri Jul 16 20:00:00 UTC 2011

Once you have set the system clock, it's a very good idea to copy the time to the hardware clock, so it persists across reboots:

root # hwclock --systohc

Download and Extract Stage3

Now that filesystems are created and your hardware and system clock are set, the next step is downloading the initial Stage 3 tarball. The Stage 3 is a pre-compiled system used as a starting point to install Funtoo Linux.

To download the correct build of Funtoo Linux for your system, first familiarize yourself with the Support Matrix, in particular the Desktop Environments section, to help you make a decision about which desktop environment to set up (we recommend GNOME for new users.) Then, head over to the Subarches page. Subarches are builds of Funtoo Linux that are designed to run on a particular type of CPU, to offer the best possible performance. They also take advantage of the instruction sets available for each CPU.

What Subarch?

From the subarch list at Subarches, choose your desired level of optimization. A system built specifically for your CPU will run faster than a less-optimized system. For a modern Intel or AMD system, it is safe to pick the exact optimization level for your particular family of CPU. This will offer the best possible performance.

If you are using a virtualization technology to run Funtoo Linux and your VM may be used on different types of hardware, then it's recommended that you use a stage3 that is optimized for the oldest CPU instruction set that your VM will run on, or a more generic image if it may run on both AMD and Intel processors.

Once you have found the appropriate subarch at Subarches, you will likely have a few installation images to choose from. This next section will help you understand which one to pick.

Which Image?

Our desktop environment stages (GNOME, Cinnamon, etc.) now support seamless installation on VMware Workstation Pro virtual machines. We highly recommend you enable 3D Accelerated Video for your VM, which is not enabled by default. Click here for more info.

You can always manually choose an installation image via https://build.funtoo.org as well as using the Subarches page. Here is some guidance on choosing the best .tar.xz image for download. When choosing an image:

Pick 1.4-release-std.
This is release 1.4 of Funtoo Linux, our current release.
Pick the subarch for the CPU family of the system you are installing on.
This will provide the best performance.
Choose stage3 for...
The stage3 is a more traditional, minimal and non-graphical installation of Funtoo. You will then build your system up to your desired state using emerge.
Choose gnome for...
The gnome installation image, if available, includes the full GNOME environment as well as Firefox already optimized for your hardware. You can then continue to further customize your system after installation. See the Desktop Environments section of our Support Matrix for more desktop options.
The lxd image for...
The lxd image is for use with LXD, and is not used for installing directly on a desktop or laptop, so you should not select this option for regular installs. To install, first download and then lxc image import <name>.tar.xz --alias funtoo and then you can lxc launch funtoo my_container.

Download the Stage3

Once you have found the stage3 that you would like to download, use wget to download the Stage 3 tarball you have chosen to use as the basis for your new Funtoo Linux system. It should be saved to the /mnt/funtoo directory as follows:

root # cd /mnt/funtoo
root # wget https://build.funtoo.org/1.4-release-std/x86-64bit/generic_64/stage3-latest.tar.xz

Verify downloaded tarball

Funtoo Linux stage tarballs are signed using GPG by the build server they are built on. It's a good practice to verify authenticity and integrity of downloaded files when possible. For instructions how to import and trust GPG keys check our wiki page about GPG signatures.

Then, you can download the stage3's GPG signature and use the gpg --verify command in order to verify your tarball:

root # wget https://build.funtoo.org/1.4-release-std/x86-64bit/generic_64/stage3-latest.tar.xz.gpg
root # gpg --verify stage3-latest.tar.xz.gpg stage3-latest.tar.xz

Once the stage is downloaded and verified, extract the contents with the following command, substituting in the actual name of your Stage 3 tarball:

root # tar --numeric-owner --xattrs --xattrs-include='*' -xpf stage3-latest.tar.xz
   Important

It is very important to use all the options included above. See below for details.

Here are what the options to tar do:

--numeric-owner
Without this option, tar will map ownership and group ownership based on the UID to user and GID to group mappings as defined on the LiveCD. We don't want this -- we want the numeric values of the UIDs and GIDs in the tarball to be preserved on disk, so when your Funtoo Linux system boots, the UIDs and GIDs are set correctly for Funtoo. That is what this option tells tar to do.
--xattrs --xattrs-include='*'
Funtoo Linux uses filesystem extended attributes to set Linux capabilities, which allow for certain programs such as ping to have enhanced privileges without having to be fully 'suid root'. Even with the -p option, tar will not restore extended attributes we need unless these two options are specified.
-xpf
This instructs tar to extract (x), preserve regular permissions and ownership (p), and use the filename (f) specified.

Chroot into Funtoo

To set up your Funtoo Linux system, we need to "enter into" it before we boot. If you are using the Funtoo Linux LiveCD, this can be easily done with the fchroot command:

root # fchroot /mnt/funtoo /bin/bash --login
fchroot #

The fchroot command will take care of all necessary steps to enter into your new Funtoo Linux system, as well as clean up things when you exit the fchroot by typing exit or ctrl-D.

If you are using another LiveCD or USB media to install Funtoo, you can manually chroot by using the following set of commands:

root # cd /mnt/funtoo
root # mount --rbind /proc proc
root # mount --rbind /sys sys
root # mount --rbind /dev dev
root # cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/funtoo/etc/
root # # chroot . /bin/su --login
chroot #
   Note

For users of live CDs with 64-bit kernels installing 32-bit systems: Some software may use uname -r to check whether the system is 32 or 64-bit. You may want to append linux32 to the chroot command as a workaround, but it's generally not needed.

   Important

If you receive the error "chroot: failed to run command `/bin/bash': Exec format error", it is most likely because you are running a 32-bit kernel and trying to execute 64-bit code. Make sure that you have selected the proper type of kernel when booting your live CD.

Test internet name resolution from within the chroot:

chroot # ping -c 5 google.com

If you can't ping, make sure that /etc/resolv.conf specifies a valid IP address for a reachable nameserver in its nameserver setting.

Congratulations! You are now chrooted inside a Funtoo Linux system. Now it's time to get Funtoo Linux properly configured so that Funtoo Linux will start successfully, without any manual assistance, when your system is restarted.

Download Portage Tree

Now it's time to install the Portage repository, which contains package scripts (ebuilds) that tell portage how to build and install thousands of different software packages. To create the Portage repository, simply run ego sync from within the chroot. This will automatically clone the portage tree from GitHub and all kits:

chroot # ego sync

Configuration Files

As is expected from a Linux distribution, Funtoo Linux has its share of configuration files. The one file you are absolutely required to edit in order to ensure that Funtoo Linux boots successfully is /etc/fstab. The others are optional.

Using Nano

The default editor included in the chroot environment is called nano. To edit one of the files below, run nano as follows:

chroot # nano -w /etc/fstab

When in the editor, you can use arrow keys to move the cursor, and common keys like backspace and delete will work as expected. To save the file, press Control-X, and answer y when prompted to save the modified buffer if you would like to save your changes.

Configuration Files

Here are a full list of files that you may want to edit, depending on your needs:

FileDo I need to change it?Description
/etc/fstab YES - required Mount points for all filesystems to be used at boot time. This file must reflect your disk partition setup. We'll guide you through modifying this file below.
/etc/localtime Maybe - recommended Your timezone, which will default to UTC if not set. This should be a symbolic link to something located under /usr/share/zoneinfo (e.g. /usr/share/zoneinfo/America/Montreal)
/etc/make.conf NO - not required or recommended Unlike Gentoo, it is normal and correct for this file to be empty in Funtoo Linux, as settings have been migrated to our enhanced profile system. Adding settings from this file will cause your system to be considered a non-standard setup and not officially supported. If you feel you need to add something to this file, be sure to ask in Discord, Telegram or the Forums for guidance. You probably don't.
/etc/hosts No You no longer need to manually set the hostname in this file. This file is automatically generated by /etc/init.d/hostname.
/etc/conf.d/hostname Maybe - recommended Used to set system hostname. Set the hostname variable to the fully-qualified (with dots, ie. foo.funtoo.org) name if you have one. Otherwise, set to the local system hostname (without dots, ie. foo). Defaults to localhost if not set.
/etc/conf.d/keymaps Optional Keyboard mapping configuration file (for console pseudo-terminals). Set if you have a non-US keyboard. See Funtoo Linux Localization.
/etc/conf.d/hwclock Optional How the time of the battery-backed hardware clock of the system is interpreted (UTC or local time). Linux uses the battery-backed hardware clock to initialize the system clock when the system is booted.
/etc/conf.d/modules Optional Kernel modules to load automatically at system startup. Typically not required. See Additional Kernel Resources for more info.
/etc/conf.d/consolefont Optional Allows you to specify the default console font. To apply this font, enable the consolefont service by running rc-update add consolefont.
/etc/conf.d/swap Optional When using a swap file that is not on the root filesystem, localmount service must be configured to be a dependency of swap service.
profiles Optional Some useful portage settings that may help speed up intial configuration.

If you're installing an English version of Funtoo Linux, you're in luck, as most of the configuration files can be used as-is. If you're installing for another locale, don't worry. We will walk you through the necessary configuration steps on the Funtoo Linux Localization page, and if needed, there's always plenty of friendly, helpful support available. (See Getting Help)

Let's go ahead and see what we have to do. Use nano -w <name_of_file> to edit files -- the "-w" argument disables word-wrapping, which is handy when editing configuration files. You can copy and paste from the examples.

   Warning

It's important to edit your /etc/fstab file before you reboot! You will need to modify both the "fs" and "type" columns to match the settings for your partitions and filesystems that you created with gdisk or fdisk. Skipping this step may prevent Funtoo Linux from booting successfully.

/etc/fstab

/etc/fstab is used by the mount command which is run when your system boots. Lines in this file inform mount about filesystems to be mounted and how they should be mounted. In order for the system to boot properly, you must edit /etc/fstab and ensure that it reflects the partition configuration you used earlier in the install process. If you can't remember the partition configuration that you used earlier:

chroot # lsblk -f
chroot # nano -w /etc/fstab
   /etc/fstab - An example fstab file
/dev/sda1       /boot         vfat    noauto,noatime  1 2
/dev/sda2       none          swap    sw              0 0
/dev/sda3       /             ext4    noatime         0 1
   Note

If you mounted a /var or /home partition, add them to your fstab, or your system may not boot correctly.

/etc/localtime

/etc/localtime is used to specify the timezone that your machine is in, and defaults to UTC. If you would like your Funtoo Linux system to use local time, you should replace /etc/localtime with a symbolic link to the timezone that you wish to use.

chroot # ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/MST7MDT /etc/localtime

The above sets the timezone to Mountain Standard Time (with daylight savings). Type ls /usr/share/zoneinfo to list available timezones. There are also sub-directories containing timezones described by location.

/etc/conf.d/hwclock

If you dual-boot with Windows, you'll need to edit this file and change the value of clock from UTC to local, because Windows will set your hardware clock to local time every time you boot Windows. Otherwise you normally wouldn't need to edit this file.

chroot # nano -w /etc/conf.d/hwclock

Localization

By default, Funtoo Linux is configured with Unicode (UTF-8) enabled, and for the US English locale and keyboard. If you would like to configure your system to use a non-English locale or keyboard, see Funtoo Linux Localization.

Introducing Portage

Portage, the Funtoo Linux package manager has a command called emerge which is used to build and install packages from source. It also takes care of installing all of the package's dependencies. You call emerge like this:

chroot # emerge packagename

When you install a package by specifying its name in the command-line, Portage records its name in the /var/lib/portage/world file. It does so because it assumes that, since you have installed it by name, you want to consider it part of your system and want to keep the package updated in the future. This is a handy feature, since when packages are being added to the world set, we can update our entire system by typing:

chroot # ego sync
chroot # emerge -auDN @world

This is the "official" way to update your Funtoo Linux system. Above, we first update our Portage tree using git to grab the latest ebuilds (scripts), and then run an emerge command to update the world set of packages. The options specified tell emerge to:

  • a - show us what will be emerged, and ask us if we want to proceed
  • u - update the packages we specify -- don't emerge them again if they are already emerged.
  • D - Consider the entire dependency tree of packages when looking for updates. In other words, do a deep update.
  • N - Update any packages that have changed (new) USE settings.

Of course, sometimes we want to install a package but not add it to the world file. This is often done because you only want the package installed temporarily or because you know the package in question is a dependency of another package. If this behavior is desired, you call emerge like this:

chroot # emerge -1 packagename

Advanced users may be interested in the Emerge wiki page.

Updating World

Certain packages in the Funtoo stage3 tarball are compiled with the bindist USE flag enabled by default. (The bindist flag controls enabling or disabling of options for proprietary and/or patented parts of code which is not allowed to be distributed in images due to licensing issues). You may notice a dependency resolution problem with bindist USE flags during updating packages after initial system setup. To avoid potential problems, update the system before first boot or any other package installation as shown below:

chroot # ego sync
chroot # emerge -auDN @world
   Important

Make sure you read any post emerge messages and follow their instructions. This is especially true if you have upgraded perl or python.

   Important

If you choose different file systems then the ones in this guide such as JFS or Btrfs, please remember to install any necessary packages so that your system can perform a file system check at boot. The package is jfsutils for JFS. Similar packages exist for all file systems.

Prepare Disk

Funtoo Linux stage3's include a pre-built debian-sources kernel to make installation faster and easier. To see what kernel version is pre-installed, type:

chroot # emerge -s debian-sources
Searching...    
[ Results for search key : debian-sources ]
[ Applications found : 1 ]

*  sys-kernel/debian-sources
      Latest version available: 5.9.6_p1
      Latest version installed: 5.9.6_p1
      Size of files: 118,723 kB
      Homepage:      https://packages.debian.org/unstable/kernel/
      Description:   Debian Sources (and optional binary kernel)
      License:       GPL-2

Firmware

At this point it is wise to emerge the latest sys-kernel/linux-firmware package, because various drivers rely on firmware blobs and instructions. Hardware like Wi-Fi cards, graphic cards, network cards, and others will not work properly or at all if firmware is not available. If using the stage3 image, perform the following to install it. linux-firmware will be already installed if using the gnome image:

chroot # emerge -av linux-firmware

Bootloader

boot.conf Configuration

These install instructions show you how to use GRUB to boot using BIOS (legacy) or UEFI.

ego boot update (ego boot) is installed by default, but GRUB is not, as it is not required for all Funtoo Linux systems (such as containers, for example.) But for booting on bare metal, it is the recommended and best-supported boot loader, so you will need to emerge it:

chroot # emerge -av grub

boot.conf

/etc/boot.conf controls boot loader configuration in Funtoo. Here is what is in the file by default:

   /etc/boot.conf
boot {
	generate grub
	default "Funtoo Linux"
	timeout 3
}

"Funtoo Linux" {
	kernel kernel[-v]
	initrd initramfs[-v]
	params += real_root=auto rootfstype=auto
}

"Funtoo Linux (nomodeset)" {
	kernel kernel[-v]
	initrd initramfs[-v]
	params += real_root=auto rootfstype=auto nomodeset
}

If you are booting a custom or non-default kernel, please read man boot.conf for information on the various options available to you.

nomodeset

You will notice after booting that you there will be a boot option in the GRUB menu for a "nomodeset" mode. We don't recommend you use this mode by default but it is available to you for a couple of good reasons:

  • For users with HiDPI (4K+) displays, especially laptops: If you have not set up a graphical environment, when the kernel automatically changes graphics modes, the console font can be tiny and unreadable.
  • For users with incompatible graphics cards: Some graphics cards don't handle mode setting properly and this can result in a blank screen after reboot. Use this boot option as a temporary workaround.

To use the nomodeset option, simply select that option from the GRUB menu when your system boots.

rootwait

If you are using a root partition on an nvme device, add the rootwait kernel parameter to force the kernel to wait for it to asynchronously initialize or the kernel will panic on some hardware.

Intel Microcode

ego boot will ensure that you have the most recent Intel CPU microcode installed on your system if you emerge the following packages:

chroot # emerge intel-microcode iucode_tool

This is not necessary for AMD systems.

Old School (BIOS) MBR

When using "old school" BIOS booting, run the following command to install GRUB to your MBR, and generate the /boot/grub/grub.cfg configuration file that GRUB will use for booting:

chroot # grub-install --target=i386-pc --no-floppy /dev/sdX
chroot # ego boot update

New School (UEFI) Boot Entry

If you're using "new school" UEFI booting, run of the following sets of commands, depending on whether you are installing a 64-bit or 32-bit system. This will add GRUB as a UEFI boot entry.

For x86-64bit systems:

chroot # mount -o remount,rw /sys/firmware/efi/efivars
chroot # grub-install --target=x86_64-efi --efi-directory=/boot --bootloader-id="Funtoo Linux [GRUB]" --recheck /dev/sda
chroot # ego boot update

For x86-32bit systems:

chroot # mount -o remount,rw /sys/firmware/efi/efivars
chroot # grub-install --target=i386-efi --efi-directory=/boot --bootloader-id="Funtoo Linux [GRUB]" --recheck /dev/sda
chroot # ego boot update

First Boot, and in the future...

OK -- you are almost ready to boot!

You only need to run grub-install when you first install Funtoo Linux, but you need to re-run ego boot update every time you modify your /etc/boot.conf file or add new kernels to your system. This will regenerate /boot/grub/grub.cfg so that you will have new kernels available in your GRUB boot menu upon your next reboot.

Post reboot UEFI troubleshooting

In case UEFI NVRAM boot entry is missing in BIOS and grub does not start you can try moving an already installed GRUB EFI executable to the default/fallback path

chroot # mv -v '/boot/EFI/Funtoo Linux [GRUB]' /boot/EFI/BOOT
chroot # mv -v /boot/EFI/BOOT/grubx64.efi /boot/EFI/BOOT/BOOTX64.EFI

Network

It's important to ensure that you will be able to connect to your local-area network after you reboot into Funtoo Linux. There are three approaches you can use for configuring your network: NetworkManager, dhcpcd, and the Funtoo Linux Networking scripts. Here's how to choose which one to use based on the type of network you want to set up.

Wi-Fi

   Note

If using the gnome install image, linux-firmware and NetworkManager are already installed and available. You can use nmtui to get Wi-Fi going if you need network connectivity prior to getting X and GNOME fully up and running. In addition, ZeroConf/Bonjour multicast DNS lookups are enabled by default. Both these things will not be set up yet if you are using the stage3 image.

For laptop/mobile systems where you will be using Wi-Fi, roaming, and connecting to various networks, NetworkManager is strongly recommended. Since Wi-Fi cards require firmware to operate, it is also recommended that you emerge the linux-firmware ebuild if you have not done so already:

chroot # emerge linux-firmware networkmanager
chroot # rc-update add NetworkManager default

The above command will ensure that NetworkManager starts after you boot into Funtoo Linux. Once you've completed these installation steps and have booted into Funtoo Linux, you can use the nmtui command (which has an easy-to-use console-based interface) to configure NetworkManager so that it will connect (and automatically reconnect, after reboot) to a Wi-Fi access point:

chroot # nmtui

For more information about NetworkManager, see the NetworkManager package page.

Desktop (Wired DHCP)

For a home desktop or workstation with wired Ethernet that will use DHCP, the simplest and most effective option to enable network connectivity is to simply add dhcpcd to the default runlevel:

chroot # rc-update add dhcpcd default

When you reboot, dhcpcd will run in the background and manage all network interfaces and use DHCP to acquire network addresses from a DHCP server.

If your upstream DHCP server is dnsmasq, it can be configured to assign addresses via mac address to make servers on DHCP feasible.

Server (Static IP)

For servers, the Funtoo Linux Networking scripts are the supported option for network configuration, and they have their own documentation. They are optimized for static configurations and things like virtual Ethernet bridging for virtualization setups. See Funtoo Linux Networking for information on how to use Funtoo Linux's template-based network configuration system.

Hostname

By default Funtoo uses "localhost" as hostname. Although the system will work perfectly fine using this name, some ebuilds refuse to install when detecting localhost as hostname. It also may create confusion if several systems use the same hostname. Therefore, it is advised to change it to a more meaningful name. The hostname itself is arbitrary, meaning you can choose almost any combination of characters, as long as it makes sense to the system administrator. To change the hostname, edit

chroot # nano /etc/conf.d/hostname

Look for the line starting with hostname and change the entry between the quotes. Save the file, on the next boot Funtoo will use the new hostname.

   Warning

Hostnames can be up to 63 characters long and may use the following characters: a-z, 0-9 and hyphens (-). However, the hyphen may not be the first or last character.

Finishing Up

Set your root password

It's imperative that you set your root password before rebooting so that you can log in.

chroot # passwd
New password: **********
Retype new password: **********
passwd: password updated successfully

Create a Regular User

It's also a good idea to create a regular user for daily use. If you're using GNOME, this is a requirement as you cannot log in to GDM (The GNOME Display Manager) as root. This can be accomplished as follows:

chroot # useradd -m drobbins

You will also likely want to add your primary user to one or more supplemental groups. Here is a list of important groups and their effect:

GroupDescription
wheelAllows your user account to 'su' to root. Recommended on your primary user account for easy maintenance. Also used with sudo.
audioAllows your user account to directly access audio devices. Required if using ALSA; otherwise optional.
videoAllows your user account to directly access video devices. Required for certain video drivers and webcams.
plugdevAllows your user account work with various removable devices. Allows adding of a WiFi network in GNOME without providing root password. Recommended for desktop users.
portageAllows extended use of Portage as regular user. Recommended.

To add your user to multiple groups, use the usermod command, specifying a complete group list:

chroot # usermod -G wheel,audio,video,plugdev,portage drobbins

As with your root account, don't forget to set a password:

chroot # passwd drobbins
New password: **********
Retype new password: **********
passwd: password updated successfully

Install an Entropy Generator

The Linux kernel uses various sources such as user input to generate entropy, which is in turn used for generating random numbers. Encrypted communications can use a lot of entropy, and often the amount of entropy generated by your system will not be sufficient. This is commonly an issue on headless server systems, which can also include ARM systems such as Raspberry Pi, and can result in slower than normal ssh connections among other issues.

To compensate for this, a user-space entropy generator can be emerged and enabled at boot time. We will use haveged in this example, although others are available, such as rng-tools.

chroot # emerge haveged
chroot # rc-update add haveged default

Haveged will now start at boot and will augment the Linux kernel's entropy pool.

Restart your system

Now is the time to leave fchroot, to unmount Funtoo Linux partitions and files and to restart your computer. When you restart, the GRUB boot loader will start, load the Linux kernel and initramfs, and your system will begin booting.

To leave the fchroot, simply type exit and you will be returned back to your LiveCD shell.

If you used manual chroot steps, you can use the following sequence of commands prepare to restart:

chroot # exit
root # cd /mnt
root # umount -lR funtoo

Now, you are ready to reboot into Funtoo:

root # reboot

You should now see your system reboot, the GRUB boot loader appear for a few seconds, and then see the Linux kernel and initramfs loading. After this, you should see Funtoo Linux itself start to boot, and you should be greeted with a login: prompt. Funtoo Linux has been successfully installed!

Profiles

Once you have rebooted into Funtoo Linux, you can further customize your system to your needs by using Funtoo Profiles. A quick introduction to profiles is included below -- consult the Funtoo Profiles page for more detailed information. There are five basic profile types: arch, build, subarch, flavors and mix-ins:

Sub-Profile TypeDescription
archTypically x86-32bit or x86-64bit, this defines the processor type and support of your system. This is defined when your stage was built and should not be changed.
buildDefines whether your system is a current, stable or experimental build. At the moment, all Funtoo Linux builds use the funtoo-current build profile.
subarchDefines CPU optimizations for your system. The subarch is set at the time the stage3 is built, but can be changed later to better settings if necessary. Be sure to pick a setting that is compatible with your CPU.
flavorDefines the general type of system, such as server or desktop, and will set default USE flags appropriate for your needs.
mix-insDefines various optional settings that you may be interested in enabling.

One arch, build and flavor must be set for each Funtoo Linux system, while mix-ins are optional and you can enable more than one if desired. Often, flavors and mix-ins inherit settings from other sub-profiles. Use epro show to view your current profile settings, in addition to any inheritance information.

   Note

It's recommended that your run this command now, particularly if you are using the gnome install image, in order to familiarize yourself with the current profile settings on your system.

root # epro show

=== Enabled Profiles: ===

        arch:  x86-64bit
       build:  current
     subarch:  intel64-haswell
      flavor:  desktop
     mix-ins:  gnome


=== All inherited flavors from desktop flavor: ===

                     workstation (from desktop flavor)
                            core (from workstation flavor)
                         minimal (from core flavor)

=== All inherited mix-ins from desktop flavor: ===

                               X (from workstation flavor)
                           audio (from workstation flavor)
                             dvd (from workstation flavor)
                           media (from workstation flavor)
      mediadevice-audio-consumer (from media mix-in)
                mediadevice-base (from mediadevice-audio-consumer mix-in)
      mediadevice-video-consumer (from media mix-in)
                mediadevice-base (from mediadevice-video-consumer mix-in)
        mediaformat-audio-common (from media mix-in)
          mediaformat-gfx-common (from media mix-in)
        mediaformat-video-common (from media mix-in)
                  console-extras (from workstation flavor)
                           print (from desktop flavor)

Here are some basic examples of epro usage:

DescriptionCommand
View available profiles. Enabled profiles will be highlighted in cyan. Directly enabled profiles will be in bold and have a * appended.epro list
Change the system flavor.epro flavor desktop
Add a mix-in.epro mix-in +gnome

Graphics Settings

   Note

The gnome install image will have additional graphic support already enabled for you, but you will still need to set up X and your display manager (covered in the next section.)

Funtoo Linux 1.4 features the following mix-ins to allow simplified configuration of your graphics settings. It's recommended to use these mix-ins rather than manually placing USE and VIDEO_CARDS settings in /etc/make.conf. You can learn more about Funtoo's graphics configuration and the design approach of these settings at the make.conf/VIDEO_CARDS page.

Funtoo Graphics Mix-Ins

gfxcard-intel
This mix-in enables all DRI-based Intel integrated graphics, including support for Vulkan and video acceleration where available. Do an emerge libva-intel-driver afterwards to ensure you have full video acceleration support.
gfxcard-amdgpu
This mix-in enables support for modern Radeon cards, Southern Islands -- GFX Core 6 (see this x.org reference) and greater. Includes Vulkan and video acceleration where available. Drivers are built for both the Gallium framework (modern replacement for DRI framework) and DRI framework. Glamor is used to accelerate 2D operations.
gfxcard-radeon
This mix-in enables support for modern Radeon cards, R600 through Northern Islands -- GFX Core 4 and 5 (see this x.org reference). Drivers are built for the Gallium framework (modern replacement for DRI framework) as well as DRI framework. Glamor is used to accelerate 2D operations.
gfxcard-older-ati
Use this mix-in to enable support for R300 up to (but not including) R600 Radeon cards -- -- GFX Core 3 (see this x.org reference). DRI as well as Gallium-based drivers are enabled.
gfxcard-ancient-ati
Use this mix-in to enable support pre-R300 cards -- GFX Core 1 and 2 (see this x.org reference). These drivers are DRI-based.
gfxcard-nvidia
Use this to enable support for proprietary NVIDIA drivers. You will also need to emerge nvidia-kernel-modules, blacklist nouveau and add yourself to the video group. See this documentation for more details. Note that Funtoo now has two catpkgs for NVIDIA proprietary graphics -- nvidia-drivers and nvidia-kernel-modules -- to aid the use of NVIDIA acceleration on containers.
gfxcard-nvidia-legacy
Proprietary NVIDIA drivers like above, but the legacy version of the driver that supports older hardware. See https://www.nvidia.com/en-us/drivers/unix/ and browse the specific driver version that emerge is installing to get detailed compatibility information.
gfxcard-nouveau
Use this mix-in to enable support for Open Source nouveau drivers.

Enable the appropriate graphics options for your hardware as follows:

root # epro mix-in +gfxcard-intel

Once this has been done, proceed to set up X, KDE, GNOME or another desktop environment on your system, as desired. See the next section for more information on this.

All Done!

If you are brand new to Funtoo Linux and Gentoo Linux, please check out Funtoo Linux First Steps, which will help get you acquainted with your new system.

   Important

If you are using the gnome install image, please see the "A few finishing touches" section of the GNOME setup docs in order to continue setting up your graphical environment.

You may also be interested in the following resources:

  • Chroot_and_Containers setting up 32 bit containers to run wine, and STEAM.
  • Security - tips for securing your system
  • Btrfs - a simple guide for setting up btrfs on your new Funtoo Linux system.
  • official documentation, which includes all docs that we officially maintain for installation and operation of Funtoo Linux.

We also have a number of pages dedicated to setting up your system. See the First Steps Category for a list of these pages.

If your system did not boot correctly, see Installation Troubleshooting for steps you can take to resolve the problem.