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LXD is a container "hypervisor" it should provide user with a new and fresh experience using  [[LXC]] technology.
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<languages/>
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{{Subpages|GPU Acceleration,GPU Acceleration (NVIDIA),What are subuids and subgids?,Administration Tutorial,Features and Concepts}}
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<translate>
 +
== Introduction == <!--T:1-->
  
LXD consists of three components:
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<!--T:2-->
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LXD is a container "hypervisor" designed to provide an easy set of tools to manage Linux containers, and its development is currently being led by employees at Canonical. You can learn more about the project in general at https://linuxcontainers.org/lxd/ .
* A system-wide daemon (lxd)
 
* A command line client (lxc)
 
* An OpenStack Nova plugin (nova-compute-lxd)
 
  
A REST API that is accesible both locally and if enabled, over the network is provided from the lxd daemon.
+
<!--T:3-->
 +
LXD is currently used for container infrastructure for [[Special:MyLanguage/Funtoo Containers|Funtoo Containers]] and is also very well-supported under Funtoo Linux. For this reason, it's recommended that you check out LXD and see what it can do for you.
  
The command line tool is designed to be a very simple, yet very powerful tool to manage all your containers. It can handle connections to multiple container hosts and easily give you an overview of all the containers on your network, let you create some more where you want them and even move them around while they're running.
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== Basic Setup on Funtoo == <!--T:4-->
  
The OpenStack plugin then allows you to use your lxd hosts as compute nodes, running workloads on containers rather than virtual machines.
+
<!--T:5-->
 +
The following steps will show you how to set up a basic LXD environment under Funtoo Linux. This environment will essentially use the default LXD setup -- a will be created called {{c|lxdbr0}} which will use NAT to provide Internet access to your containers. In addition, a default storage pool will be created that will simply use your existing filesystem's storage, creating a directory at {{f|/var/lib/lxd/storage-pools/default}} to store any containers you create. More sophisticated configurations are possible that use dedicated network bridges connected to physical interfaces without NAT, as well as dedicated storage pools that use [[Special:MyLanguage/ZFS|ZFS]] and [[Special:MyLanguage/btrfs|btrfs]] -- however, these types of configurations are generally overkill for a developer workstation and should only be attempted by advanced users. So we won't cover them here.
  
The LXD project was founded and is currently led by Canonical Ltd and Ubuntu with contributions from a range of other companies and individual contributors.
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=== Requirements === <!--T:6-->
  
__TOC__
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This section will guide you through setting up the basic requirements for creating an LXD environment.
  
== Features ==
+
<!--T:8-->
Some of the biggest features of LXD are:
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The first step is to emerge LXD and its dependencies. Perform the following:
 
 
* Secure by design (unprivileged containers, resource restrictions and much more)
 
* Scalable (from containers on your laptop to thousand of compute nodes)
 
* Intuitive (simple, clear API and crisp command line experience)
 
* Image based (no more distribution templates, only good, trusted images)
 
* Live migration
 
 
 
=== Unprivileged Containers ===
 
LXD uses unprivileged containers by default. The difference between an unprivileged container and a privileged one is whether the root user in the container is the “real” root user (uid 0 at the kernel level).
 
 
 
The way unprivileged containers are created is by taking a set of normal UIDs and GIDs from the host, usually at least 65536 of each (to be POSIX compliant) and mapping those into the container.
 
 
 
The most common example and what most LXD users will end up with by default is a map of 65536 UIDs and GIDs, with a host base id of 100000. This means that root in the container (uid 0) will be mapped to the host uid 100000 and uid 65535 in the container will be mapped to uid 165535 on the host. UID/GID 65536 and higher in the container aren’t mapped and will return an error if you attempt to use them.
 
 
 
From a security point of view, that means that anything which is not owned by the users and groups mapped into the container will be inaccessible. Any such resource will show up as being owned by uid/gid “-1” (rendered as 65534 or nobody/nogroup in userspace). It also means that should there be a way to escape the container, even root in the container would find itself with just as much privileges on the host as a nobody user.
 
 
 
LXD does offer a number of options related to unprivileged configuration:
 
 
 
* Increasing the size of the default uid/gid map
 
* Setting up per-container maps
 
* Punching holes into the map to expose host users and groups
 
 
 
== Relationship with LXC ==
 
LXD isn't a rewrite of LXC, in fact it's building on top of LXC to provide a new, better user experience. Under the hood, LXD uses LXC through liblxc and its Go binding
 
to create and manage the containers.
 
 
 
It's basically an alternative to LXC's tools and distribution template system with the added features that come from being controllable over the network.
 
 
 
== Licensing ==
 
LXD is free software and is developed under the Apache 2 license.
 
 
 
== Installing LXD in Funtoo ==
 
=== Kernel pre-requisities ===
 
These options should be enable in your kernel to use all of the functions of LXD:
 
<code>
 
  !GRKERNSEC_CHROOT_CAPS
 
  !GRKERNSEC_CHROOT_CHMOD
 
  !GRKERNSEC_CHROOT_DOUBLE
 
  !GRKERNSEC_CHROOT_MOUNT
 
  !GRKERNSEC_CHROOT_PIVOT
 
  !GRKERNSEC_PROC
 
  !GRKERNSEC_SYSFS_RESTRICT
 
  !NETPRIO_CGROUP
 
  BRIDGE
 
  CGROUP_CPUACCT
 
  CGROUP_DEVICE
 
  CGROUP_FREEZER
 
  CGROUP_SCHED
 
  CGROUPS
 
  CHECKPOINT_RESTORE
 
  CPUSETS
 
  DEVPTS_MULTIPLE_INSTANCES
 
  DUMMY
 
  EPOLL
 
  EVENTFD
 
  FHANDLE
 
  IA32_EMULATION
 
  INET_DIAG
 
  INET_TCP_DIAG
 
  INET_UDP_DIAG
 
  INOTIFY_USER
 
  IP_NF_NAT
 
  IP_NF_TARGET_MASQUERADE
 
  IP6_NF_NAT
 
  IP6_NF_TARGET_MASQUERADE
 
  IPC_NS
 
  IPV6
 
  MACVLAN
 
  NAMESPACES
 
  NET_IPGRE
 
  NET_IPGRE_DEMUX
 
  NET_IPIP
 
  NET_NS
 
  NETFILTER_XT_MATCH_COMMENT
 
  NETLINK_DIAG
 
  NF_NAT_MASQUERADE_IPV4
 
  NF_NAT_MASQUERADE_IPV6
 
  PACKET_DIAG
 
  PID_NS
 
  POSIX_MQUEUE
 
  UNIX_DIAG
 
  USER_NS
 
  UTS_NS
 
  VETH
 
  VXLAN
 
</code>
 
 
 
=== Getting LXD ===
 
Installing LXD is pretty straight forward as the ebuild exists in our portage tree. I would recommend putting /var on btrfs or zfs (or at least /var/lib/lxd) as LXD can take advantage of these COW filesytems. LXD doesn’t need any configuration to use btrfs, you just need to make sure that /var/lib/lxd is stored on a btrfs filesystem and LXD will automatically make use of it for you.
 
  
 +
</translate>
 
{{console|body=
 
{{console|body=
###i## emerge -av lxd
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# ##i##emerge -a lxd
 
 
These are the packages that would be merged, in order:
 
 
 
Calculating dependencies... done!
 
[ebuild  N    ] dev-lang/go-1.8-r1:0/1.8::gentoo  USE="-gccgo" 69,062 KiB
 
[ebuild  N    ] dev-go/go-crypto-0_pre20160126:0/0_pre20160126::gentoo  881 KiB
 
[ebuild  N    ] sys-fs/squashfs-tools-4.3-r2::gentoo  USE="xattr xz -debug -lz4 -lzma -lzo -static" 194 KiB
 
[ebuild  N    ] sys-libs/libseccomp-2.3.2::gentoo  USE="-static-libs" 547 KiB
 
[ebuild  N    ] net-libs/libnet-1.2_rc3-r1:1.1::gentoo  USE="-doc -static-libs" 661 KiB
 
[ebuild  N    ] dev-libs/libnl-3.3.0_rc1:3::gentoo  USE="python -static-libs -utils" PYTHON_TARGETS="python2_7 python3_4 -python3_5" 912 KiB
 
[ebuild  N    ] dev-python/ipaddr-2.1.11-r1::gentoo  PYTHON_TARGETS="python2_7 python3_4 -pypy -python3_5" 29 KiB
 
[ebuild  N    ] dev-go/go-text-0_pre20160211:0/0_pre20160211::gentoo  3,922 KiB
 
[ebuild  N    ] sys-libs/libcap-2.25::gentoo  USE="pam -static-libs" 63 KiB
 
[ebuild  N    ] dev-go/go-net-0_pre20160216:0/0_pre20160216::gentoo  724 KiB
 
[ebuild  N    ] net-dns/dnsmasq-2.76-r1::gentoo  USE="dhcp inotify ipv6 nls -auth-dns -conntrack -dbus -dhcp-tools -dnssec -idn -lua -script (-selinux) -static -tftp" LINGUAS="-de -es -fi -fr -id -it -no -pl -pt_BR -ro" 470 KiB
 
[ebuild  N    ] dev-libs/protobuf-c-1.2.1-r1:0/1.0.0::gentoo  USE="-static-libs {-test}" 448 KiB
 
[ebuild  N    ] sys-process/criu-2.12::gentoo  USE="python -setproctitle" PYTHON_TARGETS="python2_7" 632 KiB
 
[ebuild  N    ] app-emulation/lxc-2.0.7::gentoo  USE="python seccomp -cgmanager -doc -examples -lua" PYTHON_TARGETS="python3_4 -python3_5" 774 KiB
 
[ebuild  N    ] app-emulation/lxd-2.11::gentoo  USE="daemon nls {-test}" LINGUAS="-de -el -fr -ja -nl -ru" 2,352 KiB
 
 
 
Total: 15 packages (15 new), Size of downloads: 81,664 KiB
 
 
 
Would you like to add these changes to your config files? [Yes/No]
 
 
}}
 
}}
 +
<translate>
  
=== Running LXD ===
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<!--T:9-->
Once installed you need to start the LXD daemon. By running:
+
Once LXD is done emerging, we will want to enable it to start by default:
  
 +
</translate>
 
{{console|body=
 
{{console|body=
###i## service lxd start
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# ##i##rc-update add lxd default
* Starting lxd server ...
 
 
}}
 
}}
 +
<translate>
  
== First setup of LXD/Initialisation ==
+
<!--T:10-->
Before using LXD for the first time as a user, you may initialize your LXD environment. As recommended earlier I am using btrfs for this installation.
+
In addition, we will want to set up the following files. {{f|/etc/security/limits.conf}} should be modified to have the following lines in it:
  
{{console|body=
+
</translate>
$##i## lxd init
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{{file|name=/etc/security/limits.conf|body=
Do you want to configure a new storage pool (yes/no) [default=yes]?
+
*      soft    nofile  1048576
Name of the new storage pool [default=default]:
+
*      hard    nofile  1048576
Name of the storage backend to use (dir, btrfs, lvm) [default=dir]: btrfs
+
root    soft    nofile  1048576
Create a new BTRFS pool (yes/no) [default=yes]?
+
root    hard    nofile  1048576
Would you like to use an existing block device (yes/no) [default=no]?
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*      soft    memlock unlimited
Would you like to create a new subvolume for the BTRFS storage pool (yes/no) [default=yes]:
+
*      hard    memlock unlimited
Would you like LXD to be available over the network (yes/no) [default=no]?
+
# End of file
Would you like stale cached images to be updated automatically (yes/no) [default=yes]?
 
Would you like to create a new network bridge (yes/no) [default=yes]?
 
What should the new bridge be called [default=lxdbr0]?
 
What IPv4 address should be used (CIDR subnet notation, “auto” or “none”) [default=auto]?
 
What IPv6 address should be used (CIDR subnet notation, “auto” or “none”) [default=auto]?
 
LXD has been successfully configured.
 
 
}}
 
}}
 +
<translate>
  
What this does is it creates btrfs subvolumes like this:
+
<!--T:11-->
{{console|body=
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In addition, we will want to map a set of user ids and group ids to the root user so they are available for its use. Do this by creating the {{f|/etc/subuid}} and {{f|/etc/subgid}} files with the following identical contents:
$##i## btrfs sub list .
+
 
ID 260 gen 1047 top level 5 path rootfs
+
</translate>
ID 280 gen 1046 top level 260 path var/lib/lxd/storage-pools/default
+
{{file|name=/etc/subuid|body=
ID 281 gen 1043 top level 280 path var/lib/lxd/storage-pools/default/containers
+
root:100000:1000000000
ID 282 gen 1044 top level 280 path var/lib/lxd/storage-pools/default/snapshots
 
ID 283 gen 1045 top level 280 path var/lib/lxd/storage-pools/default/images
 
ID 284 gen 1046 top level 280 path var/lib/lxd/storage-pools/default/custom
 
 
}}
 
}}
 +
<translate>
  
It also creates new network interface for you:
+
</translate>
{{console|body=
+
{{file|name=/etc/subgid|body=
$##i## ip a list dev lxdbr0
+
root:100000:1000000000
8: lxdbr0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN group default qlen 1000
 
    link/ether d2:9b:70:f2:8f:6f brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
 
    inet 10.250.237.1/24 scope global lxdbr0
 
      valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
 
    inet 169.254.59.23/16 brd 169.254.255.255 scope global lxdbr0
 
      valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
 
    inet6 fd42:efd8:662e:3184::1/64 scope global
 
      valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
 
    inet6 fe80::caf5:b7ed:445e:b112/64 scope link
 
      valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
 
 
}}
 
}}
 +
<translate>
  
And last but not least it also generates iptables rules for you:
+
<!--T:12-->
{{console|body=
+
At this point we are ready to initialize and start LXD.
$##i## iptables -L
 
Chain INPUT (policy ACCEPT)
 
target    prot opt source              destination
 
ACCEPT    tcp  -- anywhere            anywhere            tcp dpt:domain /* generated for LXD network lxdbr0 */
 
ACCEPT    udp  -- anywhere            anywhere            udp dpt:domain /* generated for LXD network lxdbr0 */
 
ACCEPT    udp  --  anywhere            anywhere            udp dpt:bootps /* generated for LXD network lxdbr0 */
 
  
Chain FORWARD (policy ACCEPT)
+
=== Initialization === <!--T:13-->
target    prot opt source              destination
 
ACCEPT    all  -- anywhere            anywhere            /* generated for LXD network lxdbr0 */
 
ACCEPT    all  -- anywhere            anywhere            /* generated for LXD network lxdbr0 */
 
  
Chain OUTPUT (policy ACCEPT)
+
<!--T:14-->
target    prot opt source              destination
+
To configure LXD, first we will need to start LXD. This can be done as follows:
ACCEPT    tcp  -- anywhere            anywhere            tcp spt:domain /* generated for LXD network lxdbr0 */
 
ACCEPT    udp  -- anywhere            anywhere            udp spt:domain /* generated for LXD network lxdbr0 */
 
ACCEPT    udp  --  anywhere            anywhere            udp spt:bootps /* generated for LXD network lxdbr0 */
 
  
$##i## iptables -L -t nat
+
</translate>
Chain PREROUTING (policy ACCEPT)
+
{{console|body=
target    prot opt source              destination
+
# ##i##/etc/init.d/lxd start
 
 
Chain INPUT (policy ACCEPT)
 
target    prot opt source              destination
 
 
 
Chain OUTPUT (policy ACCEPT)
 
target    prot opt source              destination
 
 
 
Chain POSTROUTING (policy ACCEPT)
 
target    prot opt source              destination
 
MASQUERADE  all  --  10.250.237.0/24    !10.250.237.0/24      /* generated for LXD network lxdbr0 */
 
 
 
$##i## iptables -L -t mangle
 
Chain PREROUTING (policy ACCEPT)
 
target    prot opt source              destination
 
 
 
Chain INPUT (policy ACCEPT)
 
target    prot opt source              destination
 
 
 
Chain FORWARD (policy ACCEPT)
 
target    prot opt source              destination
 
 
 
Chain OUTPUT (policy ACCEPT)
 
target    prot opt source              destination
 
 
 
Chain POSTROUTING (policy ACCEPT)
 
target    prot opt source              destination
 
CHECKSUM  udp  --  anywhere            anywhere            udp dpt:bootpc /* generated for LXD network lxdbr0 */ CHECKSUM fill
 
 
}}
 
}}
 +
<translate>
  
Some other things done by the initialization and starting of the LXD daemon are:  
+
<!--T:15-->
* dnsmasq listening on lxdbr0
+
At this point, we can run {{c|lxd init}} to run a configuration wizard to set up LXD:
* ...
 
 
 
== Finishing up the setup of LXD ==
 
There are still some things that you need to do manually. We need to setup subuid and subgid values for our containers to use. And for using non-systemd containers we will also need app-admin/cgmanager so emerge and start it now.
 
  
 +
</translate>
 
{{console|body=
 
{{console|body=
###i## emerge app-admin/cgmanager
+
# ##i##lxd init
###i## rc-update add lxd
+
Would you like to use LXD clustering? (yes/no) [default=no]: ##i##↵
###i## rc-update add cgmanager && rc
+
Do you want to configure a new storage pool? (yes/no) [default=yes]: ##i##↵
 +
Name of the new storage pool [default=default]: ##i##
 +
Name of the storage backend to use (btrfs, dir, lvm) [default=btrfs]: ##i##dir ↵
 +
Would you like to connect to a MAAS server? (yes/no) [default=no]: ##i##↵
 +
Would you like to create a new local network bridge? (yes/no) [default=yes]: ##i##↵
 +
What should the new bridge be called? [default=lxdbr0]: ##i##↵
 +
What IPv4 address should be used? (CIDR subnet notation, “auto” or “none”) [default=auto]: ##i##↵
 +
What IPv6 address should be used? (CIDR subnet notation, “auto” or “none”) [default=auto]: ##i##none ↵
 +
Would you like LXD to be available over the network? (yes/no) [default=no]: ##i##↵
 +
Would you like stale cached images to be updated automatically? (yes/no) [default=yes] ##i##↵
 +
Would you like a YAML "lxd init" preseed to be printed? (yes/no) [default=no]: ##i##
 +
#
 
}}
 
}}
 +
<translate>
  
== Containers, snapshots and images ==
+
<!--T:16-->
'''Containers''' in LXD are made of:
+
As you can see, we chose all the default ''except'' for:
* A filesystem (rootfs)
+
;storage pool: We opted for using a directory-based container storage rather than [[Special:MyLanguage/btrfs|btrfs]] volumes.  Directory-based may be the default option during LXD configuration -- it depends if you have btrfs-tools installed or not.
* A list of configuration options, including resource limits, environment, security options and more
+
;IPv6 address: It is recommended you turn this off unless you are specifically wanting to play with IPv6 in your containers. It may cause {{c|dhcpcd}} in your container to only retrieve an IPv6 address if you leave it enabled. This is great if you have IPv6 working -- otherwise, you'll get a dud IPv6 address and no IPv4 address, and thus no network.
* A bunch of devices like disks, character/block unix devices and network interfaces
 
* A set of profiles the container inherits configuration from (see below)
 
* Some properties (container architecture, ephemeral or persistent and the name)
 
* Some runtime state (when using CRIU for checkpoint/restore)
 
  
Container '''snapshots''' as the name states snapshots of the container in time and cannot be modified in any way. It is worth noting that because snapshots can store the container runtime state, which gives us ability of “stateful” snapshots. That is, the ability to rollback the container including its cpu and memory state at the time of the snapshot.
+
{{Warning|As explained above, turn off IPv6 NAT in LXD unless you specifically intend to use it! It can confuse {{c|dhcpcd}}.}}
  
LXD is '''image''' based, all LXD containers come from an image. Images are typically clean Linux distribution images similar to what you would use for a virtual machine or cloud instance. It is possible to “publish” a container, making an image from it which can then be used by the local or remote LXD hosts.
+
Now, we should be able to run {{c|lxc image list}} and get a response from the LXD daemon:
 
 
=== Our first image ===
 
Let's get our hands even more dirty and create our first image. We will be using a generic 64 bit Funtoo Linux image. Let's grab it, because we will need to modify it a little bit.
 
 
 
==== Modifying the stage3 image ====
 
So the steps that follow will download, extract the stage3 to a directory, and modify etc/rc.conf changing rc_sys value to lxc and comment out consoles in etc/inittab.
 
  
 +
</translate>
 
{{console|body=
 
{{console|body=
###i## mkdir lxd-images
+
# ##i##lxc image list
###i## cd lxd-images
+
+-------+-------------+--------+-------------+------+------+-------------+
###i## wget http://build.funtoo.org/funtoo-current/pure64/generic_64-pure64/stage3-latest.tar.xz
+
{{!}} ALIAS {{!}} FINGERPRINT {{!}} PUBLIC {{!}} DESCRIPTION {{!}} ARCH {{!}} SIZE {{!}} UPLOAD DATE {{!}}
###i## mkdir rootfs
+
+-------+-------------+--------+-------------+------+------+-------------+
###i## tar -xaf stage3-latest.tar.xz -C rootfs/
+
#
###i## cd rootfs
 
###i## sed -i 's/^#rc_sys=""/rc_sys="lxc"/' etc/rc.conf
 
###i## sed -i '/^c[1-6]/s/^\(.*\)$/#\1/' etc/inittab
 
 
}}
 
}}
 +
<translate>
 +
<!--T:18-->
 +
If you are able to do this, you have successfully set up the core parts of LXD! Note that we used the command {{c|lxc}} and not {{c|lxd}} like we did for {{c|lxd init}} -- from this point forward, you will use the {{c|lxc}} command. Don't let this
 +
confuse you -- the {{c|lxc}} command is the primary command-line tool for working with LXD containers.
  
==== Metadata and templates ====
+
<!--T:19-->
Now we will create metadata and templates that will be used by the image and later by containers.
+
Above, you can see that no images are installed. Images are installable snapshots of containers that we can use to create new containers ourselves. So, as a first step, let's go ahead and grab an image we can use. You will want to browse https://build.funtoo.org for an LXD image that will work on your computer hardware. For example, I was able to download
 +
the following file using {{c|wget}}:
  
 +
</translate>
 
{{console|body=
 
{{console|body=
###i## cd ..
+
# ##i##wget https://build.funtoo.org/1.3-release-std/x86-64bit/intel64-skylake/lxd-intel64-skylake-1.3-release-std-2019-06-11.tar.xz
###i## mkdir templates
 
###i## <nowiki>echo hostname=\"{{ container.name }}\" > templates/hostname.tpl</nowiki>
 
 
}}
 
}}
 +
<translate>
  
Create a file named metadata.yaml in current directory (lxd-images) with this contents:
+
<!--T:20-->
 +
Once downloaded, this image can be installed using the following command:
 +
</translate>
 
{{console|body=
 
{{console|body=
architecture: x86_64
+
# ##i##lxc image import lxd-intel64-skylake-1.3-release-std-2019-06-11.tar.xz --alias funtoo
creation_date: 20170907
+
Image imported with fingerprint: fe4d27fb31bfaf3bd4f470e0ea43d26a6c05991de2a504b9e0a3b1a266dddc69
properties:
 
  architecture: x86_64
 
  description: Funtoo Current Generic Pure 64-bit
 
  name: funtoo-generic_64-pure64-funtoo-current-2016-12-10
 
  os: funtoo
 
  release: 1.0
 
  variant: current
 
templates:
 
  /etc/conf.d/hostname:
 
    template: hostname.tpl
 
    when:
 
      - create
 
      - copy
 
 
}}
 
}}
 +
<translate>
 +
 +
<!--T:21-->
 +
Now you will see the image available in our image list:
  
==== Prepare the archive ====
+
</translate>
Now we recreate the archive and later use it to import into LXD.
 
 
{{console|body=
 
{{console|body=
###i## tar -caf lxd-image.tar.xz metadata.yaml templates rootfs
+
# ##i##lxc image list
 +
+--------+--------------+--------+--------------------------------------------+--------+----------+------------------------------+
 +
{{!}} ALIAS  {{!}} FINGERPRINT  {{!}} PUBLIC {{!}}                DESCRIPTION                {{!}}  ARCH  {{!}}  SIZE  {{!}}        UPLOAD DATE          {{!}}
 +
+--------+--------------+--------+--------------------------------------------+--------+----------+------------------------------+
 +
{{!}} funtoo {{!}} fe4d27fb31bf {{!}} no    {{!}} 1.3 Release Skylake 64bit [std] 2019-06-14 {{!}} x86_64 {{!}} 279.35MB {{!}} Jun 15, 2019 at 3:09am (UTC) {{!}}
 +
+--------+--------------+--------+--------------------------------------------+--------+----------+------------------------------+
 +
#
 
}}
 
}}
 +
<translate>
  
==== Import the image ====
+
=== First Container === <!--T:24-->
After we have successfully recreated our archive we can now finally import it into LXD and start using it as our "seed" image for all our containers.
 
{{console|body=
 
###i## lxc image import lxd-image.tar.xz --alias funtoo
 
Image imported with fingerprint: e279c16d1a801b2bd1698df95e148e0a968846835f4769b24988f2eb3700100f
 
###i## lxc image ls
 
<nowiki>+--------+--------------+--------+------------------------------------+--------+----------+-----------------------------+
 
| ALIAS  | FINGERPRINT  | PUBLIC |            DESCRIPTION            |  ARCH  |  SIZE  |        UPLOAD DATE        |
 
+--------+--------------+--------+------------------------------------+--------+----------+-----------------------------+
 
| funtoo | e279c16d1a80 | no    | Funtoo Current Generic Pure 64-bit | x86_64 | 347.75MB | Sep 8, 2017 at 1:17am (UTC) |
 
+--------+--------------+--------+------------------------------------+--------+----------+-----------------------------+
 
</nowiki>}}
 
And there we have our very first Funtoo Linux image imported inside LXD.  You can reference the image through the alias or through the fingerprint. Aliases can be added also later.
 
 
 
Let me show you some basic usage then.
 
  
=== Creating your first container ===
+
<!--T:25-->
First we have to add some subuid and subgid values for lxd to use. Add these lines to your /etc/subuid and /etc/subgid files on the host.
+
It is now time to launch our first container. This can be done as follows:
  
 +
</translate>
 
{{console|body=
 
{{console|body=
###i## nano -w /etc/subuid
+
# ##i##lxc launch funtoo testcontainer
root:100000:65536
+
Creating testcontainer
lxd:100000:65536
+
Starting testcontainer
###i## nano -w /etc/subgid
 
root:100000:65536
 
lxd:100000:65536
 
 
}}
 
}}
 +
<translate>
  
The maps for “lxd” and “root” should always be kept in sync. LXD itself is restricted by the “root” allocation. The “lxd” entry is used to track what needs to be removed if LXD is uninstalled.
+
<!--T:26-->
 
+
We can now see the container running via {{c|lxc list}}:
This isolates the users inside the container and even if they would escape the container they would get nobody's privileges on the host.
 
 
 
So now we can init our first container. That is done using this command:
 
  
 +
</translate>
 
{{console|body=
 
{{console|body=
###i## lxc init funtoo c1
+
# ##i##lxc list
Creating c1
+
+---------------+---------+------+-----------------------------------------------+------------+-----------+
###i##  lxc ls
+
{{!}} NAME         {{!}} STATE  {{!}} IPV4 {{!}}                    IPV6                     {{!}}   TYPE    {{!}} SNAPSHOTS {{!}}
<nowiki>+------+---------+------+------+------------+-----------+
+
+---------------+---------+------+-----------------------------------------------+------------+-----------+
| NAME | STATE  | IPV4 | IPV6 |   TYPE    | SNAPSHOTS |
+
{{!}} testcontainer {{!}} RUNNING {{!}}     {{!}} fd42:8063:81cb:988c:216:3eff:fe2a:f901 (eth0) {{!}} PERSISTENT {{!}}          {{!}}
+------+---------+------+------+------------+-----------+
+
+---------------+---------+------+-----------------------------------------------+------------+-----------+
| c1  | STOPPED |     |      | PERSISTENT | 0        |
+
#
+------+---------+------+------+------------+-----------+
+
}}
</nowiki>}}
+
<translate>
 +
<!--T:29-->
 +
By default, our new container {{c|testcontainer}} will use the default profile, which will connect an {{c|eth0}} interface in the container to NAT, and will also use our directory-based LXD storage pool. We can now enter the container as follows:
  
==== Profiles intermezzo ====
+
</translate>
LXD has the ability to change quite a few container settings, including resource limitation, control of container startup and a variety of device pass-through options using what is called profiles. Let me show you how can this be used.
 
 
 
This is the default profile that gets inherited by all containers.
 
 
{{console|body=
 
{{console|body=
###i## lxc profile list
+
# ##i##lxc exec testcontainer -- su --login
<nowiki>+---------+---------+
+
%testcontainer%
|  NAME  | USED BY |
 
+---------+---------+
 
| default | 1      |
 
+---------+---------+
 
</nowiki>
 
###i##  lxc profile show default
 
config: {}
 
description: Default LXD profile
 
devices:
 
  eth0:
 
    nictype: bridged
 
    parent: lxdbr0
 
    type: nic
 
  root:
 
    path: /
 
    pool: default
 
    type: disk
 
name: default
 
used_by:
 
- /1.0/containers/c1
 
 
}}
 
}}
 +
<translate>
  
Now let's make a profile specific for our funtoo containers. It will include shared meta-repo and some other goodies.
+
<!--T:30-->
 +
As you might have noticed, we do not yet have any IPv4 networking configured. While LXD has set up a bridge and NAT for us, along with a DHCP server to query, we actually need to use {{c|dhcpcd}} to query for an IP address, so let's get that set up:
  
 +
</translate>
 
{{console|body=
 
{{console|body=
###i## lxc profile create prf-funtoo
+
%testcontainer% ##i##echo "template=dhcpcd" > /etc/conf.d/netif.eth0
Profile prf-funtoo created
+
%testcontainer% ##i##cd /etc/init.d
###i## lxc profile edit prf-funtoo
+
%testcontainer% ##i##ln -s netif.tmpl netif.eth0
### This is a yaml representation of the profile.
+
%testcontainer% ##i##rc-update add netif.eth0 default
### Any line starting with a '# will be ignored.
+
* service netif.eth0 added to runlevel default
###
+
%testcontainer% ##i##rc
### A profile consists of a set of configuration items followed by a set of
+
* rc is deprecated, please use openrc instead.
### devices.
+
* Caching service dependencies ...                            [ ##g##ok ##!g##]
###
+
* Starting DHCP Client Daemon ...                              [ ##g##ok ##!g##]
### An example would look like:
+
* Network dhcpcd eth0 up ...                                   [ ##g##ok ##!g##]
### name: onenic
+
%testcontainer% ##i##
### config:
+
}}
###  raw.lxc: lxc.aa_profile=unconfined
+
<translate>
### devices:
 
###   eth0:
 
###    nictype: bridged
 
###    parent: lxdbr0
 
###    type: nic
 
###
 
### Note that the name is shown but cannot be changed
 
  
config: 
+
<!--T:31-->
  raw.lxc: lxc.mount.auto = proc sys cgroup
+
You can now see that {{c|eth0}} has a valid IPv4 address:
description: "LXD profile for Funtoo-based containers"
 
devices: 
 
  portage:
 
    path: var/git
 
    source: /var/git
 
    type: disk
 
name: prf-funtoo
 
used_by: []
 
}}
 
  
 +
</translate>
 
{{console|body=
 
{{console|body=
###i## lxc profile add c1 prf-funtoo
+
%testcontainer% ##i##ifconfig
Profile prf-funtoo added to c1
+
eth0: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
 +
        inet 10.212.194.17  netmask 255.255.255.0  broadcast 10.212.194.255
 +
        inet6 fd42:8063:81cb:988c:25ea:b5bd:603d:8b0d  prefixlen 64  scopeid 0x0<global>
 +
        inet6 fe80::216:3eff:fe2a:f901  prefixlen 64  scopeid 0x20<link>
 +
        ether 00:16:3e:2a:f9:01  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
 +
        RX packets 45  bytes 5385 (5.2 KiB)
 +
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
 +
        TX packets 20  bytes 2232 (2.1 KiB)
 +
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0
 
}}
 
}}
 +
<translate>
  
=== Starting our first container ===
+
What happened is that LXD set up a DHCP server for us (dnsmasq) running on our private container network, and automatically offers IP addresses to our containers. It also configured iptables for us to NAT the connection so that outbound Internet access should magically work.
After we have done all these customizations we can now start our container.
+
You should also be able to see this IPv4 address listed in the container list when you type {{c|lxc list}} on your host system.
  
{{console|body=
+
=== Network Troubleshooting ===
###i## lxc start c1
 
}}
 
  
And now we can gain shell inside our container.
+
Note that if you are having issues with your container getting an IPv4 address via DHCP, make sure that you turn IPv6 off in LXD. Do this
 +
by running:
  
 
{{console|body=
 
{{console|body=
###i## lxc exec c1 bash
+
###i## lxc network edit lxdbr0
 
}}
 
}}
  
Now you should see a different prompt starting with
+
Then, change {{c|ipv6.nat}} to {{c|"false"}} and restart lxd and the container:
  
 
{{console|body=
 
{{console|body=
c1 ~ #
+
###i## /etc/init.d/lxd restart
 +
###i## lxc restart testcontainer
 
}}
 
}}
  
=== Getting information about your containers ===
+
This should resolve the issue.
==== Listing containers ====
 
{{console|body=
 
###i##  lxc ls
 
<nowiki>+------+---------+----------------------+-----------------------------------------------+------------+-----------+
 
| NAME |  STATE  |        IPV4        |                    IPV6                      |    TYPE    | SNAPSHOTS |
 
+------+---------+----------------------+-----------------------------------------------+------------+-----------+
 
| c1  | RUNNING | 10.214.101.79 (eth0) | fd42:156d:4593:a619:8619:546e:43f:2089 (eth0) | PERSISTENT | 0        |
 
|      |        |                      | fd42:156d:4593:a619:216:3eff:fe4a:3d4f (eth0) |            |          |
 
+------+---------+----------------------+-----------------------------------------------+------------+-----------+
 
</nowiki>}}
 
  
==== Container details ====
+
=== Finishing Steps ===
{{console|body=
 
###i## lxc info c1
 
Name: c1
 
Remote: unix://
 
Architecture: x86_64
 
Created: 2017/09/08 02:07 UTC
 
Status: Running
 
Type: persistent
 
Profiles: default, prf-funtoo
 
Pid: 6366
 
Ips:
 
  eth0: inet    10.214.101.79  vethFG4HXG
 
  eth0: inet6  fd42:156d:4593:a619:8619:546e:43f:2089  vethFG4HXG
 
  eth0: inet6  fd42:156d:4593:a619:216:3eff:fe4a:3d4f  vethFG4HXG
 
  eth0: inet6  fe80::216:3eff:fe4a:3d4f        vethFG4HXG
 
  lo:  inet    127.0.0.1
 
  lo:  inet6  ::1
 
Resources:
 
  Processes: 6
 
  CPU usage:
 
    CPU usage (in seconds): 25
 
  Memory usage:
 
    Memory (current): 69.01MB
 
    Memory (peak): 258.92MB
 
  Network usage:
 
    eth0:
 
      Bytes received: 83.65kB
 
      Bytes sent: 9.44kB
 
      Packets received: 188
 
      Packets sent: 93
 
    lo:
 
      Bytes received: 0B
 
      Bytes sent: 0B
 
      Packets received: 0
 
      Packets sent: 0
 
}}
 
  
==== Container configuration ====
+
<!--T:32-->
 +
Assuming your network is now working, you are ready to start using your new Funtoo container. Time to have some fun! Go ahead and run {{c|ego sync}} and then emerge your favorite things:
 +
</translate>
 
{{console|body=
 
{{console|body=
###i## lxc config edit c1
+
%testcontainer% ##i##ego sync
### This is a yaml representation of the configuration.
+
\##g##Syncing meta-repo
### Any line starting with a '# will be ignored.
+
Cloning into '/var/git/meta-repo'...
###
 
### A sample configuration looks like:
 
### name: container1
 
### profiles:
 
### - default
 
### config:
 
###  volatile.eth0.hwaddr: 00:16:3e:e9:f8:7f
 
### devices:
 
###  homedir:
 
###    path: /extra
 
###    source: /home/user
 
###    type: disk
 
### ephemeral: false
 
###
 
### Note that the name is shown but cannot be changed
 
  
architecture: x86_64
 
config:
 
  image.architecture: x86_64
 
  image.description: Funtoo Current Generic Pure 64-bit
 
  image.name: funtoo-generic_64-pure64-funtoo-current-2016-12-10
 
  image.os: funtoo
 
  image.release: "1.0"
 
  image.variant: current
 
  volatile.base_image: e279c16d1a801b2bd1698df95e148e0a968846835f4769b24988f2eb3700100f
 
  volatile.eth0.hwaddr: 00:16:3e:4a:3d:4f
 
  volatile.eth0.name: eth0
 
  volatile.idmap.base: "0"
 
  volatile.idmap.next: '[{"Isuid":true,"Isgid":false,"Hostid":100000,"Nsid":0,"Maprange":65536},{"Isuid":false,"Isgid":true,"Hostid":100000,"Nsid":0,"Maprange":65536}]'
 
  volatile.last_state.idmap: '[{"Isuid":true,"Isgid":false,"Hostid":100000,"Nsid":0,"Maprange":65536},{"Isuid":false,"Isgid":true,"Hostid":100000,"Nsid":0,"Maprange":65536}]'
 
  volatile.last_state.power: RUNNING
 
devices: {}
 
ephemeral: false
 
profiles:
 
- default
 
- prf-funtoo
 
stateful: false
 
description: ""
 
 
}}
 
}}
 
+
<translate>
=== Managing files ===
+
<!--T:121-->
 
+
[[Category:Containers]]
=== Snapshots ===
+
[[Category:LXD]]
 
+
[[Category:Official Documentation]]
=== Cloning, copying and moving containers ===
+
</translate>
 
 
=== Resource control ===
 
==== Disk ====
 
==== CPU ====
 
==== Memory ====
 
==== Network ====
 
==== Block I/O ====
 
 
 
=== Image manipulations ===
 
 
 
=== Remote hosts ===
 
 
 
[[Category:Virtualization]]
 

Latest revision as of 00:59, October 22, 2019

Other languages:
English • ‎português do Brasil

Introduction

LXD is a container "hypervisor" designed to provide an easy set of tools to manage Linux containers, and its development is currently being led by employees at Canonical. You can learn more about the project in general at https://linuxcontainers.org/lxd/ .

LXD is currently used for container infrastructure for Funtoo Containers and is also very well-supported under Funtoo Linux. For this reason, it's recommended that you check out LXD and see what it can do for you.

Basic Setup on Funtoo

The following steps will show you how to set up a basic LXD environment under Funtoo Linux. This environment will essentially use the default LXD setup -- a will be created called lxdbr0 which will use NAT to provide Internet access to your containers. In addition, a default storage pool will be created that will simply use your existing filesystem's storage, creating a directory at /var/lib/lxd/storage-pools/default to store any containers you create. More sophisticated configurations are possible that use dedicated network bridges connected to physical interfaces without NAT, as well as dedicated storage pools that use ZFS and btrfs -- however, these types of configurations are generally overkill for a developer workstation and should only be attempted by advanced users. So we won't cover them here.

Requirements

This section will guide you through setting up the basic requirements for creating an LXD environment.

The first step is to emerge LXD and its dependencies. Perform the following:

root # emerge -a lxd

Once LXD is done emerging, we will want to enable it to start by default:

root # rc-update add lxd default

In addition, we will want to set up the following files. /etc/security/limits.conf should be modified to have the following lines in it:

   /etc/security/limits.conf
*       soft    nofile  1048576
*       hard    nofile  1048576
root    soft    nofile  1048576
root    hard    nofile  1048576
*       soft    memlock unlimited
*       hard    memlock unlimited
# End of file

In addition, we will want to map a set of user ids and group ids to the root user so they are available for its use. Do this by creating the /etc/subuid and /etc/subgid files with the following identical contents:

   /etc/subuid
root:100000:1000000000
   /etc/subgid
root:100000:1000000000

At this point we are ready to initialize and start LXD.

Initialization

To configure LXD, first we will need to start LXD. This can be done as follows:

root # /etc/init.d/lxd start

At this point, we can run lxd init to run a configuration wizard to set up LXD:

root # lxd init
Would you like to use LXD clustering? (yes/no) [default=no]: 
Do you want to configure a new storage pool? (yes/no) [default=yes]: 
Name of the new storage pool [default=default]: 
Name of the storage backend to use (btrfs, dir, lvm) [default=btrfs]: dir ↵
Would you like to connect to a MAAS server? (yes/no) [default=no]: 
Would you like to create a new local network bridge? (yes/no) [default=yes]: 
What should the new bridge be called? [default=lxdbr0]: 
What IPv4 address should be used? (CIDR subnet notation, “auto” or “none”) [default=auto]: 
What IPv6 address should be used? (CIDR subnet notation, “auto” or “none”) [default=auto]: none ↵
Would you like LXD to be available over the network? (yes/no) [default=no]: 
Would you like stale cached images to be updated automatically? (yes/no) [default=yes] 
Would you like a YAML "lxd init" preseed to be printed? (yes/no) [default=no]: 
root #

As you can see, we chose all the default except for:

storage pool
We opted for using a directory-based container storage rather than btrfs volumes. Directory-based may be the default option during LXD configuration -- it depends if you have btrfs-tools installed or not.
IPv6 address
It is recommended you turn this off unless you are specifically wanting to play with IPv6 in your containers. It may cause dhcpcd in your container to only retrieve an IPv6 address if you leave it enabled. This is great if you have IPv6 working -- otherwise, you'll get a dud IPv6 address and no IPv4 address, and thus no network.
   Warning

As explained above, turn off IPv6 NAT in LXD unless you specifically intend to use it! It can confuse dhcpcd.

Now, we should be able to run lxc image list and get a response from the LXD daemon:

root # lxc image list
+-------+-------------+--------+-------------+------+------+-------------+
| ALIAS | FINGERPRINT | PUBLIC | DESCRIPTION | ARCH | SIZE | UPLOAD DATE |
+-------+-------------+--------+-------------+------+------+-------------+
root #

If you are able to do this, you have successfully set up the core parts of LXD! Note that we used the command lxc and not lxd like we did for lxd init -- from this point forward, you will use the lxc command. Don't let this confuse you -- the lxc command is the primary command-line tool for working with LXD containers.

Above, you can see that no images are installed. Images are installable snapshots of containers that we can use to create new containers ourselves. So, as a first step, let's go ahead and grab an image we can use. You will want to browse https://build.funtoo.org for an LXD image that will work on your computer hardware. For example, I was able to download the following file using wget:

root # wget https://build.funtoo.org/1.3-release-std/x86-64bit/intel64-skylake/lxd-intel64-skylake-1.3-release-std-2019-06-11.tar.xz

Once downloaded, this image can be installed using the following command:

root # lxc image import lxd-intel64-skylake-1.3-release-std-2019-06-11.tar.xz --alias funtoo
Image imported with fingerprint: fe4d27fb31bfaf3bd4f470e0ea43d26a6c05991de2a504b9e0a3b1a266dddc69

Now you will see the image available in our image list:

root # lxc image list
+--------+--------------+--------+--------------------------------------------+--------+----------+------------------------------+
| ALIAS  | FINGERPRINT  | PUBLIC |                DESCRIPTION                 |  ARCH  |   SIZE   |         UPLOAD DATE          |
+--------+--------------+--------+--------------------------------------------+--------+----------+------------------------------+
| funtoo | fe4d27fb31bf | no     | 1.3 Release Skylake 64bit [std] 2019-06-14 | x86_64 | 279.35MB | Jun 15, 2019 at 3:09am (UTC) |
+--------+--------------+--------+--------------------------------------------+--------+----------+------------------------------+
root #

First Container

It is now time to launch our first container. This can be done as follows:

root # lxc launch funtoo testcontainer
Creating testcontainer
Starting testcontainer

We can now see the container running via lxc list:

root # lxc list
+---------------+---------+------+-----------------------------------------------+------------+-----------+
| NAME          |  STATE  | IPV4 |                     IPV6                      |    TYPE    | SNAPSHOTS |
+---------------+---------+------+-----------------------------------------------+------------+-----------+
| testcontainer | RUNNING |      | fd42:8063:81cb:988c:216:3eff:fe2a:f901 (eth0) | PERSISTENT |           |
+---------------+---------+------+-----------------------------------------------+------------+-----------+
root #

By default, our new container testcontainer will use the default profile, which will connect an eth0 interface in the container to NAT, and will also use our directory-based LXD storage pool. We can now enter the container as follows:

root # lxc exec testcontainer -- su --login
testcontainer #

As you might have noticed, we do not yet have any IPv4 networking configured. While LXD has set up a bridge and NAT for us, along with a DHCP server to query, we actually need to use dhcpcd to query for an IP address, so let's get that set up:

testcontainer # echo "template=dhcpcd" > /etc/conf.d/netif.eth0
testcontainer # cd /etc/init.d
testcontainer # ln -s netif.tmpl netif.eth0
testcontainer # rc-update add netif.eth0 default
 * service netif.eth0 added to runlevel default
testcontainer # rc
 * rc is deprecated, please use openrc instead.
 * Caching service dependencies ...                             [ ok ]
 * Starting DHCP Client Daemon ...                              [ ok ]
 * Network dhcpcd eth0 up ...                                   [ ok ]
testcontainer # 

You can now see that eth0 has a valid IPv4 address:

testcontainer # ifconfig
eth0: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        inet 10.212.194.17  netmask 255.255.255.0  broadcast 10.212.194.255
        inet6 fd42:8063:81cb:988c:25ea:b5bd:603d:8b0d  prefixlen 64  scopeid 0x0<global>
        inet6 fe80::216:3eff:fe2a:f901  prefixlen 64  scopeid 0x20<link>
        ether 00:16:3e:2a:f9:01  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 45  bytes 5385 (5.2 KiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 20  bytes 2232 (2.1 KiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

What happened is that LXD set up a DHCP server for us (dnsmasq) running on our private container network, and automatically offers IP addresses to our containers. It also configured iptables for us to NAT the connection so that outbound Internet access should magically work. You should also be able to see this IPv4 address listed in the container list when you type lxc list on your host system.

Network Troubleshooting

Note that if you are having issues with your container getting an IPv4 address via DHCP, make sure that you turn IPv6 off in LXD. Do this by running:

root # lxc network edit lxdbr0

Then, change ipv6.nat to "false" and restart lxd and the container:

root # /etc/init.d/lxd restart
root # lxc restart testcontainer

This should resolve the issue.

Finishing Steps

Assuming your network is now working, you are ready to start using your new Funtoo container. Time to have some fun! Go ahead and run ego sync and then emerge your favorite things:

testcontainer # ego sync
Syncing meta-repo
Cloning into '/var/git/meta-repo'...