Difference between revisions of "LXD"

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== Introduction ==
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<languages/>
 +
{{Subpages|GPU Acceleration,GPU Acceleration (NVIDIA),What are subuids and subgids?,Administration Tutorial,Features and Concepts}}
 +
<translate>
 +
== Introduction == <!--T:1-->
  
LXD is a container "hypervisor" designed to provide an easy set of tools to manage Linux containers, and its development is currently being led by employees at Canonical. You can learn more about the project in general at https://linuxcontainers.org/lxd/ .
+
<!--T:2-->
 +
LXD is a container "hypervisor" designed to provide an easy set of tools to manage Linux containers, and its development is currently being led by employees at Canonical. You can learn more about the project in general at https://linuxcontainers.org/lxd/ .  
  
== Basic Setup ==
+
<!--T:3-->
 +
LXD is currently used for container infrastructure for [[Special:MyLanguage/Funtoo Containers|Funtoo Containers]] and is also very well-supported under Funtoo Linux. For this reason, it's recommended that you check out LXD and see what it can do for you.
  
The following steps will show you how to set up a basic LXD environment under Funtoo Linux. This environment will set up a bridge called {{c|lxdbr0}} which will be set up via NAT to provide Internet access to your containers. In addition, a default storage pool will be created that will simply use your existing filesystem's storage, creating a directory at {{f|/var/lib/lxd/storage-pools/default}} to store any containers you create. More sophisticated configurations are possible that use dedicated network bridges connected to physical interfaces without NAT, as well as dedicated storage pools that use [[ZFS]] and [[BTRFS]] -- however, these types of configurations are generally overkill for a developer workstation and should only be attempted by advanced users. So we won't cover them here.
+
== Basic Setup on Funtoo == <!--T:4-->
  
=== Requirements ===
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<!--T:5-->
 +
The following steps will show you how to set up a basic LXD environment under Funtoo Linux. This environment will essentially use the default LXD setup -- a will be created called {{c|lxdbr0}} which will use NAT to provide Internet access to your containers. In addition, a default storage pool will be created that will simply use your existing filesystem's storage, creating a directory at {{f|/var/lib/lxd/storage-pools/default}} to store any containers you create. More sophisticated configurations are possible that use dedicated network bridges connected to physical interfaces without NAT, as well as dedicated storage pools that use [[Special:MyLanguage/ZFS|ZFS]] and [[Special:MyLanguage/btrfs|btrfs]] -- however, these types of configurations are generally overkill for a developer workstation and should only be attempted by advanced users. So we won't cover them here.
 +
 
 +
=== Requirements === <!--T:6-->
  
 
This section will guide you through setting up the basic requirements for creating an LXD environment.
 
This section will guide you through setting up the basic requirements for creating an LXD environment.
  
 +
<!--T:8-->
 
The first step is to emerge LXD and its dependencies. Perform the following:
 
The first step is to emerge LXD and its dependencies. Perform the following:
  
 +
</translate>
 
{{console|body=
 
{{console|body=
 
# ##i##emerge -a lxd
 
# ##i##emerge -a lxd
 
}}
 
}}
 +
<translate>
  
 +
<!--T:9-->
 
Once LXD is done emerging, we will want to enable it to start by default:
 
Once LXD is done emerging, we will want to enable it to start by default:
  
 +
</translate>
 
{{console|body=
 
{{console|body=
 
# ##i##rc-update add lxd default
 
# ##i##rc-update add lxd default
 
}}
 
}}
 +
<translate>
  
 +
<!--T:10-->
 
In addition, we will want to set up the following files. {{f|/etc/security/limits.conf}} should be modified to have the following lines in it:
 
In addition, we will want to set up the following files. {{f|/etc/security/limits.conf}} should be modified to have the following lines in it:
  
 +
</translate>
 
{{file|name=/etc/security/limits.conf|body=
 
{{file|name=/etc/security/limits.conf|body=
 
*      soft    nofile  1048576
 
*      soft    nofile  1048576
Line 34: Line 50:
 
# End of file
 
# End of file
 
}}
 
}}
 +
<translate>
  
 +
<!--T:11-->
 
In addition, we will want to map a set of user ids and group ids to the root user so they are available for its use. Do this by creating the {{f|/etc/subuid}} and {{f|/etc/subgid}} files with the following identical contents:
 
In addition, we will want to map a set of user ids and group ids to the root user so they are available for its use. Do this by creating the {{f|/etc/subuid}} and {{f|/etc/subgid}} files with the following identical contents:
  
 +
</translate>
 
{{file|name=/etc/subuid|body=
 
{{file|name=/etc/subuid|body=
 
root:100000:1000000000
 
root:100000:1000000000
 
}}
 
}}
 +
<translate>
  
 +
</translate>
 
{{file|name=/etc/subgid|body=
 
{{file|name=/etc/subgid|body=
 
root:100000:1000000000
 
root:100000:1000000000
 
}}
 
}}
 +
<translate>
  
 +
<!--T:12-->
 
At this point we are ready to initialize and start LXD.
 
At this point we are ready to initialize and start LXD.
  
=== Initialization ===
+
=== Initialization === <!--T:13-->
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
=== Features ===
 
 
 
Some of the biggest features of LXD are:
 
 
 
* Secure by design (unprivileged containers, resource restrictions and much more)
 
* Scalable (from containers on your laptop to thousand of compute nodes)
 
* Intuitive (simple, clear API and crisp command line experience)
 
* Image based (no more distribution templates, only good, trusted images)
 
* Live migration
 
 
 
==== Unprivileged Containers ====
 
 
 
LXD uses unprivileged containers by default. The difference between an unprivileged container and a privileged one is whether the root user in the container is the “real” root user (uid 0 at the kernel level).
 
 
 
The way unprivileged containers are created is by taking a set of normal UIDs and GIDs from the host, usually at least 65536 of each (to be POSIX compliant) and mapping those into the container.
 
 
 
The most common example and what most LXD users will end up with by default is a map of 65536 UIDs and GIDs, with a host base id of 100000. This means that root in the container (uid 0) will be mapped to the host uid 100000 and uid 65535 in the container will be mapped to uid 165535 on the host. UID/GID 65536 and higher in the container aren’t mapped and will return an error if you attempt to use them.
 
 
 
From a security point of view, that means that anything which is not owned by the users and groups mapped into the container will be inaccessible. Any such resource will show up as being owned by uid/gid “-1” (rendered as 65534 or nobody/nogroup in userspace). It also means that should there be a way to escape the container, even root in the container would find itself with just as much privileges on the host as a nobody user.
 
 
 
LXD does offer a number of options related to unprivileged configuration:
 
 
 
* Increasing the size of the default uid/gid map
 
* Setting up per-container maps
 
* Punching holes into the map to expose host users and groups
 
 
 
=== Relationship with LXC ===
 
LXD isn't a rewrite of LXC, in fact it's building on top of LXC to provide a new, better user experience. Under the hood, LXD uses LXC through liblxc and its Go binding
 
to create and manage the containers.
 
 
 
It's basically an alternative to LXC's tools and distribution template system with the added features that come from being controllable over the network.
 
  
=== Licensing ===
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<!--T:14-->
LXD is free software and is developed under the Apache 2 license.
+
To configure LXD, first we will need to start LXD. This can be done as follows:
  
<hr>
+
</translate>
<hr>
 
Let's break this tutorial into smaller parts. Please click on the headings to go to the section's text.
 
 
 
<hr>
 
<hr>
 
 
 
== [[LXD/LXD Installation|PART II - LXD Installation]] ==
 
 
 
== [[LXD/LXD Setup|PART III - LXD Setup]] ==
 
 
 
== Containers, snapshots and images ==
 
'''Containers''' in LXD are made of:
 
* A filesystem (rootfs)
 
* A list of configuration options, including resource limits, environment, security options and more
 
* A bunch of devices like disks, character/block unix devices and network interfaces
 
* A set of profiles the container inherits configuration from (see below)
 
* Some properties (container architecture, ephemeral or persistent and the name)
 
* Some runtime state (when using CRIU for checkpoint/restore)
 
 
 
Container '''snapshots''' as the name states snapshots of the container in time and cannot be modified in any way. It is worth noting that because snapshots can store the container runtime state, which gives us ability of “stateful” snapshots. That is, the ability to rollback the container including its cpu and memory state at the time of the snapshot.
 
 
 
LXD is '''image''' based, all LXD containers come from an image. Images are typically clean Linux distribution images similar to what you would use for a virtual machine or cloud instance. It is possible to “publish” a container, making an image from it which can then be used by the local or remote LXD hosts.
 
 
 
=== Our first image ===
 
Let's get our hands even more dirty and create our first image. We will be using a generic 64 bit Funtoo Linux image.
 
 
 
{{note|The Funtoo's default build host is building only westmere stage for now.}}
 
 
 
Grab the image here:
 
https://build.funtoo.org/funtoo-current/x86-64bit/intel64-westmere/lxd-latest.tar.xz
 
 
 
Grab also the hash file:
 
https://build.funtoo.org/funtoo-current/x86-64bit/intel64-westmere/lxd-latest.tar.xz.hash.txt
 
 
 
{{tip|Check the hash of the downloaded file against the one from server. Proceed if they match. }}
 
 
 
==== Import the image ====
 
After we have successfully downloaded the archive we can now finally import it into LXD and start using it as our "seed" image for all our containers.
 
 
{{console|body=
 
{{console|body=
###i## lxc image import lxd-latest.tar.xz --alias funtoo
+
# ##i##/etc/init.d/lxd start
Image imported with fingerprint: 6c2ca3af0222d503656f5a1838885f1b9b6aed2c1994f1d7ef94e2efcb7233c4
 
###i## lxc image ls
 
<nowiki>+--------+--------------+--------+------------------------------------+--------+----------+-----------------------------+
 
| ALIAS  | FINGERPRINT  | PUBLIC |            DESCRIPTION            |  ARCH  |  SIZE  |        UPLOAD DATE        |
 
+--------+--------------+--------+------------------------------------+--------+----------+-----------------------------+
 
| funtoo | 6c2ca3af0222 | no    | Funtoo Current Generic Pure 64-bit | x86_64 |227.99MB  | Dec 13, 2017 at 11:01pm (UTC)  |
 
+--------+--------------+--------+------------------------------------+--------+----------+-----------------------------+
 
</nowiki>}}
 
And there we have our very first Funtoo Linux image imported inside LXD.  You can reference the image through the alias or through the fingerprint. Aliases can be added also later.
 
 
 
Let me show you some basic usage then.
 
 
 
=== Creating your first container ===
 
So now we can launch our first container. That is done using this command:
 
 
 
{{console|body=
 
###i## lxc launch funtoo fun-1
 
Creating fun-1
 
Starting fun-1
 
###i##  lxc ls
 
<nowiki>+-------+---------+------+-----------------------------------------------+------------+-----------+
 
| NAME  |  STATE  | IPV4 |                    IPV6                      |    TYPE    | SNAPSHOTS |
 
+-------+---------+------+-----------------------------------------------+------------+-----------+
 
| fun-1 | RUNNING |      | fd42:156d:4593:a619:216:3eff:fef7:c1c2 (eth0) | PERSISTENT | 0        |
 
+-------+---------+------+-----------------------------------------------+------------+-----------+
 
</nowiki>}}
 
 
 
{{tip|lxc launch is a shortcut for lxc init and lxc start, lxc init creates the container without starting it. }}
 
 
 
==== Profiles intermezzo ====
 
LXD has the ability to change quite a few container settings, including resource limitation, control of container startup and a variety of device pass-through options using what is called profiles. Multiple profiles can be applied to a single container, and the last profile overrides the other ones it the resources being configured is the same for multiple profiles. Let me show you how can this be used.
 
 
 
This is the default profile that gets inherited by all containers.
 
{{console|body=
 
###i## lxc profile list
 
<nowiki>+---------+---------+
 
|  NAME  | USED BY |
 
+---------+---------+
 
| default | 1      |
 
+---------+---------+
 
</nowiki>
 
###i##  lxc profile show default
 
config: {}
 
description: Default LXD profile
 
devices:
 
  eth0:
 
    nictype: bridged
 
    parent: lxdbr0
 
    type: nic
 
  root:
 
    path: /
 
    pool: default
 
    type: disk
 
name: default
 
used_by:
 
- /1.0/containers/fun-1
 
 
}}
 
}}
 +
<translate>
  
Now let's edit this profile for our funtoo containers. It will include some useful stuff.
+
<!--T:15-->
 +
At this point, we can run {{c|lxd init}} to run a configuration wizard to set up LXD:
  
 +
</translate>
 
{{console|body=
 
{{console|body=
###i## lxc profile set default raw.lxc "lxc.mount.entry = none dev/shm tmpfs rw,nosuid,nodev,create=dir"
+
# ##i##lxd init
###i## lxc profile set default environment.LANG "en_US.UTF-8"
+
Would you like to use LXD clustering? (yes/no) [default=no]: ##i##↵
###i## lxc profile set default environment.LC_ALL "en_US.UTF-8"
+
Do you want to configure a new storage pool? (yes/no) [default=yes]: ##i##↵
###i## lxc profile set default environment.LC_COLLATE "POSIX"
+
Name of the new storage pool [default=default]: ##i##↵
 +
Name of the storage backend to use (btrfs, dir, lvm) [default=btrfs]: ##i##dir
 +
Would you like to connect to a MAAS server? (yes/no) [default=no]: ##i##↵
 +
Would you like to create a new local network bridge? (yes/no) [default=yes]: ##i##
 +
What should the new bridge be called? [default=lxdbr0]: ##i##↵
 +
What IPv4 address should be used? (CIDR subnet notation, “auto” or “none”) [default=auto]: ##i##↵
 +
What IPv6 address should be used? (CIDR subnet notation, “auto” or “none”) [default=auto]: ##i##none ↵
 +
Would you like LXD to be available over the network? (yes/no) [default=no]: ##i##↵
 +
Would you like stale cached images to be updated automatically? (yes/no) [default=yes] ##i##
 +
Would you like a YAML "lxd init" preseed to be printed? (yes/no) [default=no]: ##i##↵
 +
#
 
}}
 
}}
 +
<translate>
  
Profiles can store any configuration that a container can (key/value or devices) and any number of profiles can be applied to a container. Profiles are applied in the order they are specified so the last profile to specify a specific key wins. In any case, resource-specific configuration always overrides that coming from the profiles.
+
<!--T:16-->
 
+
As you can see, we chose all the default ''except'' for:
The default profile is set for any new container created which doesn't specify a different profiles list.
+
;storage pool: We opted for using a directory-based container storage rather than [[Special:MyLanguage/btrfs|btrfs]] volumes. Directory-based may be the default option during LXD configuration -- it depends if you have btrfs-tools installed or not.
 
+
;IPv6 address: It is recommended you turn this off unless you are specifically wanting to play with IPv6 in your containers. It may cause {{c|dhcpcd}} in your container to only retrieve an IPv6 address if you leave it enabled. This is great if you have IPv6 working -- otherwise, you'll get a dud IPv6 address and no IPv4 address, and thus no network.
{{note|LXD supports simple instance types. Those are represented as a string which can be passed at container creation time. [https://github.com/lxc/lxd/blob/master/doc/containers.md#instance-types containers.md#instance-types]}}
 
 
 
=== Using our first container ===
 
After we have done all these customizations we can now start using our container.
 
The next command will give us shell inside the container.
 
  
{{console|body=
+
{{Warning|As explained above, turn off IPv6 NAT in LXD unless you specifically intend to use it! It can confuse {{c|dhcpcd}}.}}
###i## lxc exec fun-1 bash
 
}}
 
  
Now you should see a different prompt starting with
+
Now, we should be able to run {{c|lxc image list}} and get a response from the LXD daemon:
  
 +
</translate>
 
{{console|body=
 
{{console|body=
fun-1 ~ #
+
# ##i##lxc image list
 +
+-------+-------------+--------+-------------+------+------+-------------+
 +
{{!}} ALIAS {{!}} FINGERPRINT {{!}} PUBLIC {{!}} DESCRIPTION {{!}} ARCH {{!}} SIZE {{!}} UPLOAD DATE {{!}}
 +
+-------+-------------+--------+-------------+------+------+-------------+
 +
#
 
}}
 
}}
 +
<translate>
 +
<!--T:18-->
 +
If you are able to do this, you have successfully set up the core parts of LXD! Note that we used the command {{c|lxc}} and not {{c|lxd}} like we did for {{c|lxd init}} -- from this point forward, you will use the {{c|lxc}} command. Don't let this
 +
confuse you -- the {{c|lxc}} command is the primary command-line tool for working with LXD containers.
  
If we run top or ps for example we will see only the processes of the container.
+
<!--T:19-->
 +
Above, you can see that no images are installed. Images are installable snapshots of containers that we can use to create new containers ourselves. So, as a first step, let's go ahead and grab an image we can use. You will want to browse https://build.funtoo.org for an LXD image that will work on your computer hardware. For example, I was able to download
 +
the following file using {{c|wget}}:
  
 +
</translate>
 
{{console|body=
 
{{console|body=
fun-1 ~ # ps aux
+
# ##i##wget https://build.funtoo.org/1.3-release-std/x86-64bit/intel64-skylake/lxd-intel64-skylake-1.3-release-std-2019-06-11.tar.xz
USER      PID %CPU %MEM    VSZ  RSS TTY      STAT START  TIME COMMAND
 
root        1 0.0  0.0  4248  748 ?        Ss+  13:20  0:00 init [3]
 
root      266  0.0  0.0  30488  472 ?        Ss  13:20  0:00 /usr/sbin/sshd
 
root      312  0.2  0.0  17996  3416 ?        Ss  13:29  0:00 bash
 
root      317  0.0  0.0  19200  2260 ?        R+  13:29  0:00 ps aux
 
 
}}
 
}}
 +
<translate>
  
As you can see only the container's processes are shown. User running the processes is root here. What happens if we search for all sshd processes for example on the host box?
+
<!--T:20-->
 
+
Once downloaded, this image can be installed using the following command:
 +
</translate>
 
{{console|body=
 
{{console|body=
###i## <nowiki>ps aux|grep ssh
+
# ##i##lxc image import lxd-intel64-skylake-1.3-release-std-2019-06-11.tar.xz --alias funtoo
root    14505  0.0  0.0  30564  1508 ?        Ss  Sep07  0:00 /usr/sbin/sshd 
+
Image imported with fingerprint: fe4d27fb31bfaf3bd4f470e0ea43d26a6c05991de2a504b9e0a3b1a266dddc69
100000  25863  0.0  0.0  30488  472 ?        Ss  15:20  0:00 /usr/sbin/sshd 
 
root    29487  0.0  0.0  8324  828 pts/2    S+  15:30  0:00 grep --colour=auto sshd</nowiki>
 
###i##
 
 
}}
 
}}
 +
<translate>
  
So as you can see, the sshd process is running under user with uid 100000 on the host machine and has a different PID.
+
<!--T:21-->
 
+
Now you will see the image available in our image list:
=== Basic actions with containers ===
 
==== Listing containers ====
 
{{console|body=
 
###i##  lxc ls
 
<nowiki>+-------+---------+-----------------------+------------------------------------------------+------------+-----------+
 
| NAME  |  STATE  |        IPV4          |                      IPV6                      |    TYPE    | SNAPSHOTS |
 
+-------+---------+-----------------------+------------------------------------------------+------------+-----------+
 
| fun-1 | RUNNING | 10.214.101.187 (eth0) | fd42:156d:4593:a619:a5ad:edaf:7270:e6c4 (eth0) | PERSISTENT | 0        |
 
|      |        |                      | fd42:156d:4593:a619:216:3eff:fef7:c1c2 (eth0)  |            |          |
 
+-------+---------+-----------------------+------------------------------------------------+------------+-----------+
 
</nowiki>}}
 
lxc ls also accepts arguments as filters. For example lxc ls web will list all containers that have web in their name.
 
  
==== Container details ====
+
</translate>
 
{{console|body=
 
{{console|body=
###i## lxc info c1
+
# ##i##lxc image list
Name: c1
+
+--------+--------------+--------+--------------------------------------------+--------+----------+------------------------------+
Remote: unix://
+
{{!}} ALIAS  {{!}} FINGERPRINT  {{!}} PUBLIC {{!}}                DESCRIPTION                {{!}}  ARCH {{!}}   SIZE   {{!}}        UPLOAD DATE          {{!}}
Architecture: x86_64
+
+--------+--------------+--------+--------------------------------------------+--------+----------+------------------------------+
Created: 2017/09/08 02:07 UTC
+
{{!}} funtoo {{!}} fe4d27fb31bf {{!}} no    {{!}} 1.3 Release Skylake 64bit [std] 2019-06-14 {{!}} x86_64 {{!}} 279.35MB {{!}} Jun 15, 2019 at 3:09am (UTC) {{!}}
Status: Running
+
+--------+--------------+--------+--------------------------------------------+--------+----------+------------------------------+
Type: persistent
+
#
Profiles: default, prf-funtoo
 
Pid: 6366
 
Ips:
 
  eth0: inet    10.214.101.79  vethFG4HXG
 
  eth0: inet6  fd42:156d:4593:a619:8619:546e:43f:2089 vethFG4HXG
 
   eth0: inet6   fd42:156d:4593:a619:216:3eff:fe4a:3d4f  vethFG4HXG
 
  eth0: inet6  fe80::216:3eff:fe4a:3d4f        vethFG4HXG
 
  lo:  inet    127.0.0.1
 
  lo:  inet6  ::1
 
Resources:
 
  Processes: 6
 
  CPU usage:
 
    CPU usage (in seconds): 25
 
  Memory usage:
 
    Memory (current): 69.01MB
 
    Memory (peak): 258.92MB
 
  Network usage:
 
    eth0:
 
      Bytes received: 83.65kB
 
      Bytes sent: 9.44kB
 
      Packets received: 188
 
      Packets sent: 93
 
    lo:
 
      Bytes received: 0B
 
      Bytes sent: 0B
 
      Packets received: 0
 
      Packets sent: 0
 
 
}}
 
}}
 +
<translate>
  
==== Container configuration ====
+
=== First Container === <!--T:24-->
{{console|body=
 
###i##  lxc config edit c1
 
### This is a yaml representation of the configuration.
 
### Any line starting with a '# will be ignored.
 
###
 
### A sample configuration looks like:
 
### name: container1
 
### profiles:
 
### - default
 
### config:
 
###  volatile.eth0.hwaddr: 00:16:3e:e9:f8:7f
 
### devices:
 
###  homedir:
 
###    path: /extra
 
###    source: /home/user
 
###    type: disk
 
### ephemeral: false
 
###
 
### Note that the name is shown but cannot be changed
 
  
architecture: x86_64
+
<!--T:25-->
config:
+
It is now time to launch our first container. This can be done as follows:
  image.architecture: x86_64
 
  image.description: Funtoo Current Generic Pure 64-bit
 
  image.name: funtoo-generic_64-pure64-funtoo-current-2016-12-10
 
  image.os: funtoo
 
  image.release: "1.0"
 
  image.variant: current
 
  volatile.base_image: e279c16d1a801b2bd1698df95e148e0a968846835f4769b24988f2eb3700100f
 
  volatile.eth0.hwaddr: 00:16:3e:4a:3d:4f
 
  volatile.eth0.name: eth0
 
  volatile.idmap.base: "0"
 
  volatile.idmap.next: '[{"Isuid":true,"Isgid":false,"Hostid":100000,"Nsid":0,"Maprange":65536},{"Isuid":false,"Isgid":true,"Hostid":100000,"Nsid":0,"Maprange":65536}]'
 
  volatile.last_state.idmap: '[{"Isuid":true,"Isgid":false,"Hostid":100000,"Nsid":0,"Maprange":65536},{"Isuid":false,"Isgid":true,"Hostid":100000,"Nsid":0,"Maprange":65536}]'
 
  volatile.last_state.power: RUNNING
 
devices: {}
 
ephemeral: false
 
profiles:
 
- default
 
- prf-funtoo
 
stateful: false
 
description: ""
 
}}
 
  
One can also add environment variables.
+
</translate>
 
{{console|body=
 
{{console|body=
###i## lxc config set <container> environment.LANG en_US.UTF-8
+
# ##i##lxc launch funtoo testcontainer
###i## lxc config set <container> environment.LC_COLLATE POSIX
+
Creating testcontainer
 +
Starting testcontainer
 
}}
 
}}
 +
<translate>
  
=== Managing files ===
+
<!--T:26-->
 
+
We can now see the container running via {{c|lxc list}}:
=== Snapshots ===
 
 
 
=== Cloning, copying and moving containers ===
 
 
 
=== Resource control ===
 
LXD offers a variety of resource limits. Some of those are tied to the container itself, like memory quotas, CPU limits and I/O priorities. Some are tied to a particular device instead, like I/O bandwidth or disk usage limits.
 
 
 
As with all LXD configuration, resource limits can be dynamically changed while the container is running. Some may fail to apply, for example if setting a memory value smaller than the current memory usage, but LXD will try anyway and report back on failure.
 
 
 
All limits can also be inherited through profiles in which case each affected container will be constrained by that limit. That is, if you set limits.memory=256MB in the default profile, every container using the default profile (typically all of them) will have a memory limit of 256MB.
 
 
 
==== Disk ====
 
Setting a size limit on the container’s filesystem and have it enforced against the container. Right now LXD only supports disk limits if you’re using the ZFS or btrfs storage backend.
 
 
 
To set a disk limit (requires btrfs or ZFS):
 
  
 +
</translate>
 
{{console|body=
 
{{console|body=
###i## lxc config device set c1 root size 20GB
+
# ##i##lxc list
 +
+---------------+---------+------+-----------------------------------------------+------------+-----------+
 +
{{!}} NAME          {{!}}  STATE  {{!}} IPV4 {{!}}                    IPV6                      {{!}}    TYPE    {{!}} SNAPSHOTS {{!}}
 +
+---------------+---------+------+-----------------------------------------------+------------+-----------+
 +
{{!}} testcontainer {{!}} RUNNING {{!}}      {{!}} fd42:8063:81cb:988c:216:3eff:fe2a:f901 (eth0) {{!}} PERSISTENT {{!}}          {{!}}
 +
+---------------+---------+------+-----------------------------------------------+------------+-----------+
 +
#
 
}}
 
}}
 +
<translate>
 +
<!--T:29-->
 +
By default, our new container {{c|testcontainer}} will use the default profile, which will connect an {{c|eth0}} interface in the container to NAT, and will also use our directory-based LXD storage pool. We can now enter the container as follows:
  
==== CPU ====
+
</translate>
To just limit a container to any 2 CPUs, do:
 
 
 
 
{{console|body=
 
{{console|body=
###i## lxc config set c1 limits.cpu 2
+
# ##i##lxc exec testcontainer -- su --login
 +
%testcontainer%
 
}}
 
}}
 +
<translate>
  
To pin to specific CPU cores, say the second and fourth:
+
<!--T:30-->
 +
As you might have noticed, we do not yet have any IPv4 networking configured. While LXD has set up a bridge and NAT for us, along with a DHCP server to query, we actually need to use {{c|dhcpcd}} to query for an IP address, so let's get that set up:
  
 +
</translate>
 
{{console|body=
 
{{console|body=
###i## lxc config set c1 limits.cpu 1,3
+
%testcontainer% ##i##echo "template=dhcpcd" > /etc/conf.d/netif.eth0
 +
%testcontainer% ##i##cd /etc/init.d
 +
%testcontainer% ##i##ln -s netif.tmpl netif.eth0
 +
%testcontainer% ##i##rc-update add netif.eth0 default
 +
* service netif.eth0 added to runlevel default
 +
%testcontainer% ##i##rc
 +
* rc is deprecated, please use openrc instead.
 +
* Caching service dependencies ...                            [ ##g##ok ##!g##]
 +
* Starting DHCP Client Daemon ...                              [ ##g##ok ##!g##]
 +
* Network dhcpcd eth0 up ...                                  [ ##g##ok ##!g##]
 +
%testcontainer% ##i##
 
}}
 
}}
 +
<translate>
  
More complex pinning ranges like this works too:
+
<!--T:31-->
 +
You can now see that {{c|eth0}} has a valid IPv4 address:
  
 +
</translate>
 
{{console|body=
 
{{console|body=
###i## lxc config set c1 limits.cpu 0-3,7-11
+
%testcontainer% ##i##ifconfig
 +
eth0: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
 +
        inet 10.212.194.17  netmask 255.255.255.0  broadcast 10.212.194.255
 +
        inet6 fd42:8063:81cb:988c:25ea:b5bd:603d:8b0d  prefixlen 64  scopeid 0x0<global>
 +
        inet6 fe80::216:3eff:fe2a:f901  prefixlen 64  scopeid 0x20<link>
 +
        ether 00:16:3e:2a:f9:01  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
 +
        RX packets 45  bytes 5385 (5.2 KiB)
 +
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
 +
        TX packets 20  bytes 2232 (2.1 KiB)
 +
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0
 
}}
 
}}
 +
<translate>
  
==== Memory ====
+
What happened is that LXD set up a DHCP server for us (dnsmasq) running on our private container network, and automatically offers IP addresses to our containers. It also configured iptables for us to NAT the connection so that outbound Internet access should magically work.
To apply a straightforward memory limit run:
+
You should also be able to see this IPv4 address listed in the container list when you type {{c|lxc list}} on your host system.
  
{{console|body=
+
=== Network Troubleshooting ===
###i## lxc config set c1 limits.memory 256MB
 
}}
 
  
(The supported suffixes are kB, MB, GB, TB, PB and EB)
+
Note that if you are having issues with your container getting an IPv4 address via DHCP, make sure that you turn IPv6 off in LXD. Do this
 
+
by running:
To turn swap off for the container (defaults to enabled):
 
  
 
{{console|body=
 
{{console|body=
###i## lxc config set c1 limits.memory.swap false
+
###i## lxc network edit lxdbr0
 
}}
 
}}
To tell the kernel to swap this container’s memory first:
 
  
{{console|body=
+
Then, change {{c|ipv6.nat}} to {{c|"false"}} and restart lxd and the container:
###i## lxc config set c1 limits.memory.swap.priority 0
 
}}
 
And finally if you don’t want hard memory limit enforcement:
 
  
 
{{console|body=
 
{{console|body=
###i## lxc config set c1 limits.memory.enforce soft
+
###i## /etc/init.d/lxd restart
 +
###i## lxc restart testcontainer
 
}}
 
}}
  
==== Network ====
+
This should resolve the issue.
==== Block I/O ====
 
  
=== Resource limits using profile - Funtoo Containers example ===
+
=== Finishing Steps ===
So I am going to create 3 profiles to mimic the resource limits for current Funtoo Containers.
 
 
 
{{TableStart}}
 
<tr class="danger"><th>Price</th><th>RAM</th><th>CPU Threads</th><th>Disk Space</th><th>Sign Up</th></tr>
 
<tr><td>'''$15/mo'''</td><td>4GB</td><td>6 CPU Threads</td><td>50GB</td><td>[https://funtoo.chargebee.com/hosted_pages/plans/container_small Sign Up! (small)]</td></tr>
 
<tr><td>'''$30/mo'''</td><td>12GB</td><td>12 CPU Threads</td><td>100GB</td><td>[https://funtoo.chargebee.com/hosted_pages/plans/container_medium Sign Up! (medium)]</td></tr>
 
<tr><td>'''$45/mo'''</td><td>48GB</td><td>24 CPU Threads</td><td>200GB</td><td>[https://funtoo.chargebee.com/hosted_pages/plans/container_large Sign Up! (large)]</td></tr>
 
{{TableEnd}}
 
 
 
I am going to create one profile and copy/edit it for the remaining two options.
 
  
 +
<!--T:32-->
 +
Assuming your network is now working, you are ready to start using your new Funtoo container. Time to have some fun! Go ahead and run {{c|ego sync}} and then emerge your favorite things:
 +
</translate>
 
{{console|body=
 
{{console|body=
###i## lxc profile create res-small
+
%testcontainer% ##i##ego sync
###i## lxc profile edit res-small
+
\##g##Syncing meta-repo
config:
+
Cloning into '/var/git/meta-repo'...
  limits.cpu: "6"
 
  limits.memory: 4GB
 
description: Small Variant of Funtoo Containers
 
devices:
 
  root:
 
    path: /
 
    pool: default
 
    size: 50GB
 
    type: disk
 
name: small
 
used_by: []
 
###i## lxc profile copy res-small res-medium
 
###i## lxc profile copy res-small res-large
 
###i## lxc profile set res-medium limits.cpu 12
 
###i## lxc profile set res-medium limits.memory 12GB
 
###i## lxc profile device set res-medium root size 100GB
 
###i## lxc profile set res-large limits.cpu 24
 
###i## lxc profile set res-large limits.memory 48GB
 
###i## lxc profile device set res-large root size 200GB
 
}}
 
Now let's create a container and assign the res-small and funtoo profiles to it.
 
{{console|body=
 
###i## lxc init funtoo c-small
 
###i## lxc profile assign c-small res-small
 
###i## lxc profile add c-small funtoo
 
}}
 
 
 
=== Image manipulations ===
 
  
=== Remote hosts ===
 
 
== Running systemd container on a non-systemd host ==
 
To use systemd in the container, a recent enough (>=4.6) kernel version with support for cgroup namespaces is needed. Funtoo's openrc has the fix to mount systemd cgroups, which is sufficient to run systemd based distributions lxd containers.
 
 
If you want to get <code>systemd</code> hierarchy mounted automatically on system startup, using <code>/etc/fstab</code> will not work, but the
 
{{Package|dev-libs/libcgroup}} can be used for this. First you needed to edit the <code>/etc/cgroup/cgconfig.conf</code> and add:
 
{{file|name=/etc/cgroup/cgconfig.conf|body=mount {
 
    "name=systemd" = /sys/fs/cgroup/systemd;
 
}
 
 
}}
 
}}
Then you need to start the cgconfig daemon:
+
<translate>
{{console|body=
+
<!--T:121-->
###i## rc-service cgconfig start
+
[[Category:Containers]]
}}
+
[[Category:LXD]]
The daemon can be started as needed, or automatically at system start by simply adding it to default group:
+
[[Category:Official Documentation]]
{{console|body=
+
</translate>
###i## rc-update add cgconfig default
 
}}
 
 
 
<hr>
 
<hr>
 
 
 
== [[LXD/LXD in LXD|PART X - LXD in LXD]] ==
 
== [[LXD/Docker in LXD|PART Y - Docker in LXD]] ==
 
 
 
== [[LXD/FAQ|PART Z - LXD FAQ]] ==
 
 
 
== List of tested and working images ==
 
These are images from the https://images.linuxcontainers.org repository available by default in lxd. You can
 
list all available images by typing following command (beware the list is very long):
 
{{console|body=
 
###i## lxc image list images:
 
<nowiki>+---------------------------------+--------------+--------+------------------------------------------+---------+----------+-------------------------------+
 
|              ALIAS              | FINGERPRINT  | PUBLIC |              DESCRIPTION                |  ARCH  |  SIZE  |          UPLOAD DATE          |
 
+---------------------------------+--------------+--------+------------------------------------------+---------+----------+-------------------------------+
 
| alpine/3.3 (3 more)            | ef69c8dc37f6 | yes    | Alpine 3.3 amd64 (20171018_17:50)        | x86_64  | 2.00MB  | Oct 18, 2017 at 12:00am (UTC) |
 
+---------------------------------+--------------+--------+------------------------------------------+---------+----------+-------------------------------+
 
| alpine/3.3/armhf (1 more)      | 5ce4c80edcf3 | yes    | Alpine 3.3 armhf (20170103_17:50)        | armv7l  | 1.53MB  | Jan 3, 2017 at 12:00am (UTC)  |
 
+---------------------------------+--------------+--------+------------------------------------------+---------+----------+-------------------------------+
 
| alpine/3.3/i386 (1 more)        | cd1700cb7c97 | yes    | Alpine 3.3 i386 (20171018_17:50)        | i686    | 1.84MB  | Oct 18, 2017 at 12:00am (UTC) |
 
+---------------------------------+--------------+--------+------------------------------------------+---------+----------+-------------------------------+
 
| alpine/3.4 (3 more)            | bd4f1ccfabb5 | yes    | Alpine 3.4 amd64 (20171018_17:50)        | x86_64  | 2.04MB  | Oct 18, 2017 at 12:00am (UTC) |
 
+---------------------------------+--------------+--------+------------------------------------------+---------+----------+-------------------------------+
 
| alpine/3.4/armhf (1 more)      | 9fe7c201924c | yes    | Alpine 3.4 armhf (20170111_20:27)        | armv7l  | 1.58MB  | Jan 11, 2017 at 12:00am (UTC) |
 
+---------------------------------+--------------+--------+------------------------------------------+---------+----------+-------------------------------+
 
| alpine/3.4/i386 (1 more)        | 188a31315773 | yes    | Alpine 3.4 i386 (20171018_17:50)        | i686    | 1.88MB  | Oct 18, 2017 at 12:00am (UTC) |
 
+---------------------------------+--------------+--------+------------------------------------------+---------+----------+-------------------------------+
 
| alpine/3.5 (3 more)            | 63bebc672163 | yes    | Alpine 3.5 amd64 (20171018_17:50)        | x86_64  | 1.70MB  | Oct 18, 2017 at 12:00am (UTC) |
 
+---------------------------------+--------------+--------+------------------------------------------+---------+----------+-------------------------------+
 
| alpine/3.5/i386 (1 more)        | 48045e297515 | yes    | Alpine 3.5 i386 (20171018_17:50)        | i686    | 1.73MB  | Oct 18, 2017 at 12:00am (UTC) |
 
+---------------------------------+--------------+--------+------------------------------------------+---------+----------+-------------------------------+
 
...
 
+---------------------------------+--------------+--------+------------------------------------------+---------+----------+-------------------------------+
 
|                                | fd95a7a754a0 | yes    | Alpine 3.5 amd64 (20171016_17:50)        | x86_64  | 1.70MB  | Oct 16, 2017 at 12:00am (UTC) |
 
+---------------------------------+--------------+--------+------------------------------------------+---------+----------+-------------------------------+
 
|                                | fef66668f5a2 | yes    | Debian stretch arm64 (20171016_22:42)    | aarch64 | 96.56MB  | Oct 16, 2017 at 12:00am (UTC) |
 
+---------------------------------+--------------+--------+------------------------------------------+---------+----------+-------------------------------+
 
|                                | ff18aa2c11d7 | yes    | Opensuse 42.3 amd64 (20171017_00:53)    | x86_64  | 58.92MB  | Oct 17, 2017 at 12:00am (UTC) |
 
+---------------------------------+--------------+--------+------------------------------------------+---------+----------+-------------------------------+
 
|                                | ff4ef0d824b6 | yes    | Ubuntu zesty s390x (20171017_03:49)      | s390x  | 86.88MB  | Oct 17, 2017 at 12:00am (UTC) |
 
+---------------------------------+--------------+--------+------------------------------------------+---------+----------+-------------------------------+
 
</nowiki>}}
 
 
 
These are the images that are known to work with current LXD setup on Funtoo Linux:
 
{| class="wikitable sortable"
 
|-
 
! Image  !! Init !! Status
 
|-
 
| CentOS 7 || systemd || Working
 
|-
 
| Debian Jessie (8) - EOL  April/May 2020|| systemd || Working (systemd - no failed units)
 
|-
 
| Debian Stretch (9) - EOL June 2022|| systemd || Working
 
|-
 
| Fedora 26 || systemd with cgroup v2|| Not Working
 
|-
 
| Fedora 25 || systemd || Working
 
|-
 
| Fedora 24 || systemd || Working
 
|-
 
| Oracle 7 || systemd || Working (systemd - no failed units)
 
|-
 
| OpenSUSE 42.2 || systemd || Working
 
|-
 
| OpenSUSE 42.3 || systemd || Working
 
|-
 
| Ubuntu Xenial (16.04 LTS) - EOL 2021-04 || systemd || Working
 
|-
 
| Ubuntu Zesty (17.04) - EOL 2018-01 || systemd || Working
 
|-
 
| Alpine 3.3 || OpenRC || Working
 
|-
 
| Alpine 3.4 || OpenRC || Working
 
|-
 
| Alpine 3.5 || OpenRC || Working
 
|-
 
| Alpine 3.6 || OpenRC || Working
 
|-
 
| Alpine Edge || OpenRC || Working
 
|-
 
| Archlinux || systemd with cgroup v2 || Not Working
 
|-
 
| CentOS 6 || upstart || Working (systemd - no failed units)
 
|-
 
| Debian Buster || systemd with cgroup v2 || Not Working
 
|-
 
| Debian Sid || systemd with cgroup v2 || Not working
 
|-
 
| Debian Wheezy (7) - EOL May 2018 || ? || ? (more testing needed)
 
|-
 
| Gentoo || OpenRC || Working (all services started)
 
|-
 
| Oracle 6 || upstart || ? (mount outputs nothing)
 
|-
 
| Plamo 5 || ? || ?
 
|-
 
| Plamo 6 || ? || ?
 
|-
 
| Sabayon || systemd with cgroup v2 || Not Working
 
|-
 
| Ubuntu Artful (17.10) - EOL 2018-07|| systemd with cgroup v2 || Not Working
 
|-
 
| Ubuntu Core 16 || ? || ?
 
|-
 
| Ubuntu Trusty (14.04 LTS) - EOL 2019-04 || upstart || Working
 
|}
 
 
 
[[Category:Virtualization]]
 

Latest revision as of 00:59, October 22, 2019

Other languages:
English • ‎português do Brasil

Introduction

LXD is a container "hypervisor" designed to provide an easy set of tools to manage Linux containers, and its development is currently being led by employees at Canonical. You can learn more about the project in general at https://linuxcontainers.org/lxd/ .

LXD is currently used for container infrastructure for Funtoo Containers and is also very well-supported under Funtoo Linux. For this reason, it's recommended that you check out LXD and see what it can do for you.

Basic Setup on Funtoo

The following steps will show you how to set up a basic LXD environment under Funtoo Linux. This environment will essentially use the default LXD setup -- a will be created called lxdbr0 which will use NAT to provide Internet access to your containers. In addition, a default storage pool will be created that will simply use your existing filesystem's storage, creating a directory at /var/lib/lxd/storage-pools/default to store any containers you create. More sophisticated configurations are possible that use dedicated network bridges connected to physical interfaces without NAT, as well as dedicated storage pools that use ZFS and btrfs -- however, these types of configurations are generally overkill for a developer workstation and should only be attempted by advanced users. So we won't cover them here.

Requirements

This section will guide you through setting up the basic requirements for creating an LXD environment.

The first step is to emerge LXD and its dependencies. Perform the following:

root # emerge -a lxd

Once LXD is done emerging, we will want to enable it to start by default:

root # rc-update add lxd default

In addition, we will want to set up the following files. /etc/security/limits.conf should be modified to have the following lines in it:

   /etc/security/limits.conf
*       soft    nofile  1048576
*       hard    nofile  1048576
root    soft    nofile  1048576
root    hard    nofile  1048576
*       soft    memlock unlimited
*       hard    memlock unlimited
# End of file

In addition, we will want to map a set of user ids and group ids to the root user so they are available for its use. Do this by creating the /etc/subuid and /etc/subgid files with the following identical contents:

   /etc/subuid
root:100000:1000000000
   /etc/subgid
root:100000:1000000000

At this point we are ready to initialize and start LXD.

Initialization

To configure LXD, first we will need to start LXD. This can be done as follows:

root # /etc/init.d/lxd start

At this point, we can run lxd init to run a configuration wizard to set up LXD:

root # lxd init
Would you like to use LXD clustering? (yes/no) [default=no]: 
Do you want to configure a new storage pool? (yes/no) [default=yes]: 
Name of the new storage pool [default=default]: 
Name of the storage backend to use (btrfs, dir, lvm) [default=btrfs]: dir ↵
Would you like to connect to a MAAS server? (yes/no) [default=no]: 
Would you like to create a new local network bridge? (yes/no) [default=yes]: 
What should the new bridge be called? [default=lxdbr0]: 
What IPv4 address should be used? (CIDR subnet notation, “auto” or “none”) [default=auto]: 
What IPv6 address should be used? (CIDR subnet notation, “auto” or “none”) [default=auto]: none ↵
Would you like LXD to be available over the network? (yes/no) [default=no]: 
Would you like stale cached images to be updated automatically? (yes/no) [default=yes] 
Would you like a YAML "lxd init" preseed to be printed? (yes/no) [default=no]: 
root #

As you can see, we chose all the default except for:

storage pool
We opted for using a directory-based container storage rather than btrfs volumes. Directory-based may be the default option during LXD configuration -- it depends if you have btrfs-tools installed or not.
IPv6 address
It is recommended you turn this off unless you are specifically wanting to play with IPv6 in your containers. It may cause dhcpcd in your container to only retrieve an IPv6 address if you leave it enabled. This is great if you have IPv6 working -- otherwise, you'll get a dud IPv6 address and no IPv4 address, and thus no network.
   Warning

As explained above, turn off IPv6 NAT in LXD unless you specifically intend to use it! It can confuse dhcpcd.

Now, we should be able to run lxc image list and get a response from the LXD daemon:

root # lxc image list
+-------+-------------+--------+-------------+------+------+-------------+
| ALIAS | FINGERPRINT | PUBLIC | DESCRIPTION | ARCH | SIZE | UPLOAD DATE |
+-------+-------------+--------+-------------+------+------+-------------+
root #

If you are able to do this, you have successfully set up the core parts of LXD! Note that we used the command lxc and not lxd like we did for lxd init -- from this point forward, you will use the lxc command. Don't let this confuse you -- the lxc command is the primary command-line tool for working with LXD containers.

Above, you can see that no images are installed. Images are installable snapshots of containers that we can use to create new containers ourselves. So, as a first step, let's go ahead and grab an image we can use. You will want to browse https://build.funtoo.org for an LXD image that will work on your computer hardware. For example, I was able to download the following file using wget:

root # wget https://build.funtoo.org/1.3-release-std/x86-64bit/intel64-skylake/lxd-intel64-skylake-1.3-release-std-2019-06-11.tar.xz

Once downloaded, this image can be installed using the following command:

root # lxc image import lxd-intel64-skylake-1.3-release-std-2019-06-11.tar.xz --alias funtoo
Image imported with fingerprint: fe4d27fb31bfaf3bd4f470e0ea43d26a6c05991de2a504b9e0a3b1a266dddc69

Now you will see the image available in our image list:

root # lxc image list
+--------+--------------+--------+--------------------------------------------+--------+----------+------------------------------+
| ALIAS  | FINGERPRINT  | PUBLIC |                DESCRIPTION                 |  ARCH  |   SIZE   |         UPLOAD DATE          |
+--------+--------------+--------+--------------------------------------------+--------+----------+------------------------------+
| funtoo | fe4d27fb31bf | no     | 1.3 Release Skylake 64bit [std] 2019-06-14 | x86_64 | 279.35MB | Jun 15, 2019 at 3:09am (UTC) |
+--------+--------------+--------+--------------------------------------------+--------+----------+------------------------------+
root #

First Container

It is now time to launch our first container. This can be done as follows:

root # lxc launch funtoo testcontainer
Creating testcontainer
Starting testcontainer

We can now see the container running via lxc list:

root # lxc list
+---------------+---------+------+-----------------------------------------------+------------+-----------+
| NAME          |  STATE  | IPV4 |                     IPV6                      |    TYPE    | SNAPSHOTS |
+---------------+---------+------+-----------------------------------------------+------------+-----------+
| testcontainer | RUNNING |      | fd42:8063:81cb:988c:216:3eff:fe2a:f901 (eth0) | PERSISTENT |           |
+---------------+---------+------+-----------------------------------------------+------------+-----------+
root #

By default, our new container testcontainer will use the default profile, which will connect an eth0 interface in the container to NAT, and will also use our directory-based LXD storage pool. We can now enter the container as follows:

root # lxc exec testcontainer -- su --login
testcontainer #

As you might have noticed, we do not yet have any IPv4 networking configured. While LXD has set up a bridge and NAT for us, along with a DHCP server to query, we actually need to use dhcpcd to query for an IP address, so let's get that set up:

testcontainer # echo "template=dhcpcd" > /etc/conf.d/netif.eth0
testcontainer # cd /etc/init.d
testcontainer # ln -s netif.tmpl netif.eth0
testcontainer # rc-update add netif.eth0 default
 * service netif.eth0 added to runlevel default
testcontainer # rc
 * rc is deprecated, please use openrc instead.
 * Caching service dependencies ...                             [ ok ]
 * Starting DHCP Client Daemon ...                              [ ok ]
 * Network dhcpcd eth0 up ...                                   [ ok ]
testcontainer # 

You can now see that eth0 has a valid IPv4 address:

testcontainer # ifconfig
eth0: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        inet 10.212.194.17  netmask 255.255.255.0  broadcast 10.212.194.255
        inet6 fd42:8063:81cb:988c:25ea:b5bd:603d:8b0d  prefixlen 64  scopeid 0x0<global>
        inet6 fe80::216:3eff:fe2a:f901  prefixlen 64  scopeid 0x20<link>
        ether 00:16:3e:2a:f9:01  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 45  bytes 5385 (5.2 KiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 20  bytes 2232 (2.1 KiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

What happened is that LXD set up a DHCP server for us (dnsmasq) running on our private container network, and automatically offers IP addresses to our containers. It also configured iptables for us to NAT the connection so that outbound Internet access should magically work. You should also be able to see this IPv4 address listed in the container list when you type lxc list on your host system.

Network Troubleshooting

Note that if you are having issues with your container getting an IPv4 address via DHCP, make sure that you turn IPv6 off in LXD. Do this by running:

root # lxc network edit lxdbr0

Then, change ipv6.nat to "false" and restart lxd and the container:

root # /etc/init.d/lxd restart
root # lxc restart testcontainer

This should resolve the issue.

Finishing Steps

Assuming your network is now working, you are ready to start using your new Funtoo container. Time to have some fun! Go ahead and run ego sync and then emerge your favorite things:

testcontainer # ego sync
Syncing meta-repo
Cloning into '/var/git/meta-repo'...