Boot Methods/pt-br

Antigamente inicializar um PC não envolvia muitas escolhas -- só havia um meio de fazer isso. Todos os nossos desktops e servidores tinham uma BIOS padrão, todos os nossos hard drives utilizavam Master Boot Records, e eram particionados utilizando esquema de partição MBR. Depios, ao longo do tempo veio EFI e UEFI, que são firmware em ovo estilo projetados para inicializar os sistemas, junto com tabelas de partições GPT para obter suporte a discos com armazenamento supoerior a 2.2TB. Todo Tudo de repente, nós então tínhamos uma variedade de opções para inicializar o Linux, tornando o que antes era um método único de encaixar tudo aproximar-se a algo muito mais complexo.

BIOS + GRUB (MBR)

Note

Essa opção é o método a "moda antiga" para iniciar o Funtoo Linux, como documentado em nosso Install Guide. Esse método usa as partições MBR tradicionais, que já existiam desde a origem do PC.

Aqui está o típico layout de disco:

  • MBR (master boot record) at beginning of boot disk
  • MBR partition 1, /dev/sda1 is the /boot filesystem (typically ext2)
  • MBR partition 2, /dev/sda2 is swap.
  • MBR partition 3, /dev/sda3 is the / (root) filesystem.

Aqui é como funciona um processo de boot:

  1. A BIOS do sistema carrega a MBR de seu disco de boot (contendo o stage1 do carregador de boot GRUB) e o executa.
  2. Extra boot-related code é carregado pelo stage1 do GRUB do /boot sistema de arquivos no disco.

Agora, o carregador de boot pode executar e carregar o kernel Linux, o initramfs e iniciar o Funtoo Linux.

BIOS + GRUB (GPT)

This is a more modern way to boot Linux. It uses MBR for booting but uses the more modern GPT partition scheme. Here's the disk layout:

  • The protective MBR is used for booting.
  • GPT partition 1, /dev/sda1 is the /boot filesystem (typically ext2)
  • GPT partition 2 type 0xEF02, /dev/sda2 is the boot loader partition (this contains a fake MBR).
  • GPT partition 3, /dev/sda3 is swap.
  • GPT partition 4, /dev/sda4 is the / (root) filesystem.

Here's how this hybrid scheme works:

  1. The system BIOS loads the fake MBR from your boot disk(/dev/sda2) (containing stage1 of the GRUB boot loader) and runs it.
  2. Extra boot-related code is loaded by the GRUB stage1 from a small (a few MB) GPT partition on the disk.

Now, the boot loader is able to run and load the Linux kernel and initramfs, and start Funtoo Linux.

UEFI + GRUB

Note

This method is documented in our Install Guide as the "new school" UEFI boot method.

UEFI is a new-style firmware that is used for booting. It is generally available on all new PCs (2012 and newer) and may be available on older systems as well. Here's the disk layout:

  • no MBR is installed or required
  • GPT partition 1, /dev/sda1 is the /boot filesystem (vfat aka "FAT32").
  • GPT partition 2, /dev/sda2 is swap.
  • GPT partition 3, /dev/sda3 is the / (root) filesystem.

Here's how this boot scheme works:

  1. UEFI (contained in your motherboard's firmware) loads the Bootmanager entry from the RW NVRAM inside your motherboard.
  2. If there's a valid entry that contains Grub, then the GRUB boot loader code from your /boot filesystem will be loaded.
  3. UEFI can read from vfat partitions directly, which is why we use vfat instead of the normal ext2 for /boot.

Now, the boot loader is able to run and load the Linux kernel and initramfs from the vfat /boot filesystem, and start Funtoo Linux.

Pure UEFI

A Pure UEFI boot is also possible. The partitioning scheme is the same as the UEFI + GRUB scheme, above. This boot method is documented in detail in our Pure UEFI Boot Guide.

Here's how this boot scheme works:

  1. UEFI (contained in your motherboard's firmware) loads the Bootmanager entry from the RW NVRAM inside your motherboard.
  2. UEFI loads the Linux kernel STUB and initramfs directly, and runs the Linux kernel to start Funtoo Linux.