Difference between revisions of "Install/ru"

(Created page with "Теперь можно натравить emerge на наше ядро:")
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{{fancyimportant|1= Сборка <code>debian-sources</code> с установленным USE флагом <code>binary</code> потребует не менее 14ГБ свободного места в <code>/var/tmp</code> и займет около часа на процессоре Intel Core i7.}}
 
{{fancyimportant|1= Сборка <code>debian-sources</code> с установленным USE флагом <code>binary</code> потребует не менее 14ГБ свободного места в <code>/var/tmp</code> и займет около часа на процессоре Intel Core i7.}}
  
Let's emerge our kernel:
+
Теперь можно натравить emerge на наше ядро:
  
 
<console> (chroot) # ##i##emerge debian-sources </console>
 
<console> (chroot) # ##i##emerge debian-sources </console>

Revision as of 14:12, July 29, 2015

Install Funtoo Linux

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Вступление

Данный документ написан с целью помочь в установке Funtoo Linux на PC-совместимые системы, сводя к минимуму использование сложных опций для конфигурации системы.

Если у Вас был ранее опыт установки Gentoo Linux, то тогда многое будет уже знакомо, но вам все же стоит ознакомится по причине некоторых различий. Если вы новичок в установке Linux на базе Gentoo либо вообще незнакомы с Linux, то добро пожаловать! Мы попытались сделать все инструкции по установке предельно понятными также и для новичков.

Note

Если вы устанавливаете Funtoo Linux на ARM архитектуру, обратитесь к Funtoo Linux Installation on ARM для того, чтобы узнать основные различия касательно поддержки ARM.

Обзор установки

Это базовый обзор процесса установки Funtoo:

  1. Download and boot the live CD of your choice.
  2. Prepare your disk.
  3. Create and mount filesystems.
  4. Install the Funtoo stage tarball of your choice.
  5. Chroot into your new system.
  6. Download the Portage tree.
  7. Configure your system and network.
  8. Install a kernel.
  9. Install a bootloader.
  10. Complete final steps.
  11. Reboot and enjoy.

Live CD

Для установки Funtoo Linux вам прежде всего следует загрузить компьютер с Live CD или USB-флешки с каким-либо дистрибутивом Linux. Мы рекомендуем использовать дистрибутив на базе Gentoo System Rescue CD, так как он содержит многие инструменты и утилиты, а также поддерживает как 32-, так и 64-битные системы. Его можно записать на CD/DVD либо установить на флеш-карту. Взять дистрибутив можно отсюда:

Note

Если Вы используете более старую версию System Rescue CD, не забудьте в загрузочном меню выбрать ядро rescue64, когда собираетесь поставить 64-разрядную систему. По умолчанию System Rescue CD загружается в 32-разрядном режиме, хотя его последние версии автоматически пытаются определить 64-разрядном процессоры.

Доступ к сети

После того как вы загрузились с System Rescue CD, убедитесь в том, что у вас есть доступ в Интернет, который необходим для дальнейшей установки Funtoo Linux:

# ping www.google.com
PING www.google.com (216.58.217.36) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from den03s10-in-f4.1e100.net (216.58.217.36): icmp_seq=1 ttl=57 time=30.1 ms

Если пинг прошел успешно (отображаются сообщения 64 bytes как в примере выше), то сеть настроена. Нажмите Ctrl-C, чтобы закончить пинг.

Если Вам нужно настроить WiFi-соединение для доступа в Интернет, то это следует делать в графической оболочке, предоставляемой System Rescue CD. Для запуска графического сеанса выполните команду startx:

# startx
caption

Для соединения с нужной WiFi-сетью воспользуйтесь аплетом NetworkManager (иконка в нижнем правом углу панели задач рабочего стола). Затем в графической оболочке откройте терминал с тем, чтобы завершить оставшиеся шаги.

Удаленная установка

Как вариант, можно войти в System Rescue CD по сети через SSH для установки системы с другого компьютера. Возможно, это будет более удобным способом установки Funtoo Linux.

Если Вы собираетесь установить систему удаленно, то следуйте согласно этим инструкциям. Сперва убедитесь, что System Rescue CD имеет функционирующее сетевое соединение. Затем установите пароль для root на System Rescue CD:

# passwd
New password: ********
Retype new password: ********
passwd: password updated successfully

После установки пароля необходимо определить IP-адрес System Rescue CD, а затем использовать ssh для соединения с ним. Для того чтобы узнать IP-адрес, используемый System Resuce CD, выполните команду ifconfig:

# ifconfig

Один из сетевых интерфейсов должен иметь IP-адрес (отображенный как inet addr:) из Вашей локальной сети. После этого к System Rescue CD можно подключиться удаленно и выполнить с комфортом оставшиеся шаги из существующей операционной системы. В удаленной системе наберите следующее, заменив Template:С на IP-адрес System Resuce CD. Подключение из существующего Linux или MacOS будет выглядеть следующим образом:

(remote system) $ ssh root@1.2.3.4
Password: **********
Note

If you'd like to connect remotely from an existing Microsoft Windows system, you'll need to download an SSH client for Windows, such as PuTTY.

After you've logged in via SSH, you're now connected remotely to System Rescue CD and can perform the installation steps.

Подготовка жесткого диска

In this section, we'll learn about the different ways that Funtoo Linux can boot from a hard disk. By "boot", we mean the process by which Linux starts after you press the power button on your desktop, laptop or server. You can think of "booting" as a process that starts with your computer's firmware (built-in software) running, and then "finding" the Linux kernel and running it. The Linux kernel then takes over, identifies all your hardware, and starts.

Background

Note

If you are an absolute beginner to Linux, you may be less confused if you skip to the next section, Which to Use?

In earlier times, there was only one way to boot a PC-compatible computer. All of our desktops and servers had standard firmware called the "PC BIOS," all our hard drives used Master Boot Records at the beginning of the disk, where the PC BIOS would "look" to find boot loader code which would in turn load Linux, and our hard drives were partitioned into different regions using the standard MBR partition scheme. That was just how it was done. And we liked it that way!

Then, along came EFI and UEFI, which are new-style firmware designed to boot systems, along with GPT partition tables to define disk partitions on disks larger than 2.2TB. All of the sudden, we had a variety of options for installing and booting Linux systems, turning what once was a one-method-fits-all approach into something a lot more complex.

Let's take a moment to review the options available to you for configuring a hard drive to boot Funtoo Linux. This Install Guide uses, and recommends, the old-school method of BIOS booting and using an MBR. It works and (except for rare cases) is universally supported. There's nothing wrong with it. If your system disk is 2TB or smaller in size, it won't prevent you from using all of your disk's capacity, either.

But, there are some situations where the old-school method isn't optimal. If you have a system disk >2TB in size, then MBR partitions won't allow you to access all your storage. So that's one reason. Another reason is that there are some so-called "PC" systems out there that don't support BIOS booting anymore, and force you to use UEFI to boot. So, out of compassion for people who fall into this predicament, this Install Guide documents UEFI booting too.

Our recommendation is still to go old-school unless you have reason not to. The boot loader we will be using to load the Linux kernel in this guide is called GRUB, so we call this method the BIOS + GRUB (MBR) method. It's the traditional method of setting up a PC-compatible system to boot Linux.

If you need to use UEFI to boot, we recommend not using the MBR at all for booting, as some systems support this, but others don't. Instead, we recommend using UEFI to boot GRUB, which in turn will load Linux. We refer to this method as the UEFI + GRUB (GPT) method.

And yes, there are even more methods, some of which are documented on the Boot Methods page. We used to recommend a BIOS + GRUB (GPT) method but it is not consistently supported across a wide variety of hardware.

Что выбрать?

Вам нужно определиться с тем, какой способ загрузки вы выберите. Тут есть несколько подходов.

Подход 1 - классический

Если у Вас нормально загружается System Rescue CD и при загрузке отображается начальное меню светло-голубого цвета, это означает что загрузка с CD-диска у вас происходит средствами BIOS и у вас есть все шансы, что и установленную систему Funtoo Linux вы сможете загружать с помощью BIOS-а. В этом случае следует использовать классический вариант, "если только" у вас нет особых причин использовать UEFI, таких, например, как использование системного диска размером более 2.2 ТБ. В этом случае следует рассмотреть Подход 2, поскольку Ваша система, возможно, также поддерживает и загрузку через UEFI.

Подход 2 - современный
Если у вас нормально загружается System Rescue CD и при загрузке отображается начальное черно-белое меню -- можете себя поздравить, конфигурация вашей системы поддерживает UEFI-загрузку. В этом случае все готово к установке Funtoo Linux с загрузкой через UEFI.

Ваша система также может поддерживать загрузку средствами BIOS, но все же лучше сначала попробовать UEFI. Можете покопаться в натройках вашего BIOS-а и попробовать эту штуку.

Note

У опытных пользователей может возникнуть вопрос: Неужели между этими подходами такая существенная разница? Дело тут вот в чем. Если Вы используете классические MBR-разделы, ваш раздел /boot должен быть отформатирован в файловой системе ext2, для чего можно использовать fdisk и создать нужные MBR-разделы. Если же Вы используете современные GPT-разделы и загрузку через UEFI, ваш раздел /boot необходимо отформатировать в файловой системе vfat, поскольку именно с такими разделами работает UEFI и для создания Ваших GPT-разделов можно использовать gdisk. Также в этом случае установку GRUB надо будет проделать несколько иначе. Если Вам интересно, на этом, по сути, различия и заканчиваются.

To install Funtoo Linux to boot via the New School UEFI method, you must boot System Rescue CD using UEFI. If you successfully boot sysresccd with UEFI, you will see an initial black and white screen to select the mode in which you will boot system rescue cd. Otherwise, if you see a blue screen with black text, UEFI will not be active and you will not be able to set up UEFI booting later in the install process!

Note

Некоторые материнские платы имеют неполную поддержку UEFI. Проведите собственное исследование. Например, Award BIOS в моей Gigabyte GA-990FXA-UD7 rev 1.1 позволяет включить UEFI-загрузку для CD/DVD-дисков. Для UEFI-загрузки с жестких дисков и установки Funtoo Linux таким способом этого не достаточно! UEFI должен поддерживаться как для съемных носителей (чтобы вы могли загрузиться с System Rescue CD с помощью UEFI), так и для фиксированных (чтобы у вас была возможность загрузить установленную таким образом Funtoo Linux). Оказывается, что более позднии ревизии этой платы (rev 3.0) имеют более новый BIOS с уже полноценной поддержкой UEFI-загрузки. Так что, тут в ход идет третье правило -- знай свое оборудование.

Классический (BIOS/MBR) метод

Note

Use this method if you are booting using your BIOS, and if your System Rescue CD initial boot menu was light blue. If you're going to use the new-school method, click here to jump down to UEFI/GPT.

First, it's a good idea to make sure that you've found the correct hard disk to partition. Try this command and verify that {[f|/dev/sda}} is the disk that you want to partition:

# fdisk -l /dev/sda

Disk /dev/sda: 640.1 GB, 640135028736 bytes, 1250263728 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk label type: gpt

#         Start          End    Size  Type            Name
 1         2048   1250263694  596.2G  Linux filesyste Linux filesystem

Now, it is recommended that you erase any existing MBR or GPT partition tables on the disk, which could confuse the system's BIOS at boot time. We accomplish this using sgdisk:

Warning

This will make any existing partitions inaccessible! You are strongly cautioned and advised to backup any critical data before proceeding.

# sgdisk --zap-all /dev/sda

Creating new GPT entries.
GPT data structures destroyed! You may now partition the disk using fdisk or
other utilities.

This output is also nothing to worry about, as the command still succeded:

***************************************************************
Found invalid GPT and valid MBR; converting MBR to GPT format
in memory. 
***************************************************************

Now we will use fdisk to create the MBR partition table and partitions:

# fdisk /dev/sda

Within fdisk, follow these steps:

Empty the partition table:

Command (m for help): o ↵

Create Partition 1 (boot):

Command (m for help): n ↵
Partition type (default p): 
Partition number (1-4, default 1): 
First sector: 
Last sector: +128M ↵

Create Partition 2 (swap):

Command (m for help): n ↵
Partition type (default p): 
Partition number (2-4, default 2): 
First sector: 
Last sector: +2G ↵
Command (m for help): t ↵ 
Partition number (1,2, default 2): 
Hex code (type L to list all codes): 82 ↵

Create the root partition:

Command (m for help): n ↵
Partition type (default p): 
Partition number (3,4, default 3): 
First sector: 
Last sector: 

Verify the partition table:

Command (m for help): p

Disk /dev/sda: 298.1 GiB, 320072933376 bytes, 625142448 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disklabel type: dos
Disk identifier: 0x82abc9a6

Device    Boot     Start       End    Blocks  Id System
/dev/sda1           2048    264191    131072  83 Linux
/dev/sda2         264192   4458495   2097152  82 Linux swap / Solaris
/dev/sda3        4458496 625142447 310341976  83 Linux

Write the parition table to disk:

Command (m for help): w

Your new MBR partition table will now be written to your system disk.

Note

You're done with partitioning! Now, jump over to Creating filesystems.

Современный (UEFI/GPT) метод

Note

Use this method if you are interested in booting using UEFI, and if your System Rescue CD initial boot menu was black and white. If it was light blue, this method will not work.

The gdisk commands to create a GPT partition table are as follows. Adapt sizes as necessary, although these defaults will work for most users. Start gdisk:

# gdisk /dev/sda

Within gdisk, follow these steps:

Create a new empty partition table (This will erase all data on the disk when saved):

Command: o ↵
This option deletes all partitions and creates a new protective MBR.
Proceed? (Y/N): y ↵

Create Partition 1 (boot):

Command: n ↵
Partition Number: 1 ↵
First sector: 
Last sector: +500M ↵
Hex Code: EF00 ↵

Create Partition 2 (swap):

Command: n ↵
Partition Number: 2 ↵
First sector: 
Last sector: +4G ↵
Hex Code: 8200 ↵

Create Partition 3 (root):

Command: n ↵
Partition Number: 3 ↵
First sector: 
Last sector:  (for rest of disk)
Hex Code: 

По ходу процесса Вы также можете набрать "p" и нажать Enter чтобы посмотреть текущее состояние табицы разделов. Если Вы где-то допустили ошибку, вы можете набрать "d" чтобы удалить некорректно созданный раздел. Когда Вы будете удовлетворены таблицей разделов, наберите "w" чтобы записать ее на диск:

Запись таблицы разделов на диск:

Command: w ↵
Do you want to proceed? (Y/N): Y ↵

The partition table will now be written to the disk and gdisk will close.

Теперь ваши GPT/GUID-разделы созданы и они появятся в Linux в виде следующих блочных устройств:

  • /dev/sda1, будет содержать файловую систему /boot,
  • /dev/sda2, она будет использоваться под область подкачки, а также
  • /dev/sda3, будет содержать вашу корневую файловую систему.
Tip

You can verify that the block devices above were correctly created by running the command lsblk.

Creating filesystems

Note

Этот раздел касается как варианта установки с BIOS, так и UEFI-варианта. Не пропускайте этот этап!

Before your newly-created partitions can be used, the block devices that were created in the previous step need to be initialized with filesystem metadata. This process is known as creating a filesystem on the block devices. After filesystems are created on the block devices, they can be mounted and used to store files.

Let's keep this simple. Are you using old-school MBR partitions? If so, let's create an ext2 filesystem on /dev/sda1:

# mkfs.ext2 /dev/sda1

If you're using new-school GPT partitions for UEFI, you'll want to create a vfat filesystem on /dev/sda1, because this is what UEFI is able to read:

# mkfs.vfat -F 32 /dev/sda1

Now, let's create a swap partition. This partition will be used as disk-based virtual memory for your Funtoo Linux system.

You will not create a filesystem on your swap partition, since it is not used to store files. But it is necessary to initialize it using the mkswap command. Then we'll run the swapon command to make your newly-initialized swap space immediately active within the live CD environment, in case it is needed during the rest of the install process:

# mkswap /dev/sda2
# swapon /dev/sda2

Now, we need to create a root filesystem. This is where Funtoo Linux will live. We generally recommend ext4 or XFS root filesystems. If you're not sure, choose ext4. Here's how to create a root ext4 filesystem:

# mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda3

...and here's how to create an XFS root filesystem, if you prefer to use XFS instead of ext4:

# mkfs.xfs /dev/sda3

Your filesystems (and swap) have all now been initialized, so that that can be mounted (attached to your existing directory heirarchy) and used to store files. We are ready to begin installing Funtoo Linux on these brand-new filesystems.

Warning

When deploying an OpenVZ host, please use ext4 exclusively. The Parallels development team tests extensively with ext4, and modern versions of openvz-rhel6-stable are not compatible with XFS, and you may experience kernel bugs.

Подключение файловых систем

Mount the newly-created filesystems as follows, creating /mnt/funtoo as the installation mount point:

# mkdir /mnt/funtoo
# mount /dev/sda3 /mnt/funtoo
# mkdir /mnt/funtoo/boot
# mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/funtoo/boot

Optionally, if you have a separate filesystem for /home or anything else:

# mkdir /mnt/funtoo/home
# mount /dev/sda4 /mnt/funtoo/home

If you have /tmp or /var/tmp on a separate filesystem, be sure to change the permissions of the mount point to be globally-writeable after mounting, as follows:

# chmod 1777 /mnt/funtoo/tmp

Установка даты

Important

Если ваши системные дата и время слишком сильно отличаются от правильных (обычно это проявляется если ошибка составляет несколько месяцев или лет), это может помешать системе Portage корректно загружать архивы с исходными текстами. Это происходит потому что некоторые наши исходники загружаются через протокол HTTPS, который использует SSL-сертификаты, которые содержат даты начала и окончания своего действия. Однако, если время в вашей системе ваставлено более-менее верно, вы вероятнее всего пока можете спокойно пропустить этот этап.

Now is a good time to verify the date and time are correctly set to UTC. Use the date command to verify the date and time:

# date
Fri Jul 15 19:47:18 UTC 2011

If the date and/or time need to be corrected, do so using date MMDDhhmmYYYY, keeping in mind hhmm are in 24-hour format. The example below changes the date and time to "July 16th, 2011 @ 8:00PM" UTC:

# date 071620002011
Fri Jul 16 20:00:00 UTC 2011

Once you have set the system clock, it's a very good idea to copy the time to the hardware clock, so it persists across reboots:

# hwclock --systohc

Установка Stage 3 архива

Now that filesystems are created and your hardware and system clock are set, the next step is downloading the initial Stage 3 tarball. The Stage 3 is a pre-compiled system used as a starting point to install Funtoo Linux. Notice: if you're using virtual machines (like Vbox) generic stage3 images are preferred rather than cpu-optimized ones.

To download the correct build of Funtoo Linux for your system, head over to the Subarches page. Subarches are builds of Funtoo Linux that are designed to run on a particular type of CPU, to offer the best possible performance. They also take advantage of the instruction sets available for each CPU.

The Subarches page lists all CPU-optimized versions of Funtoo Linux. Find the one that is appropriate for the type of CPU that your system has, and then click on its name in the first column (such as corei7, for example.) You will then go to a page dedicated to that subarch, and the available stage3's available for download will be listed.

For most subarches, you will have several stage3's available to choose from. This next section will help you understand which one to pick.

Которую выбрать сборку?

Если не уверены - выбирайте funtoo-current.

У Funtoo Linux есть несколько различных 'сборок':

BuildDescription
funtoo-currentThe most commonly-selected build of Funtoo Linux. Receives rapid updates and preferred by desktop users.
funtoo-stableEmphasizes less-frequent package updates and trusted, reliable versions of packages over the latest versions.

Какой выбрать вариант?

Если не уверены - выбирайте standard.

Our "regular" stage3's are listed with a variant of standard. The following variant builds are available:

VariantDescription
standardThe "standard" version of Funtoo Linux
pure64A 64-bit build that drops multilib (32-bit compatibility) support. Can be ideal for server systems.
hardenedIncludes PIE/SSP toolchain for enhanced security. PIE does require the use of PaX in the kernel, while SSP works with any kernel, and provides enhanced security in user-space to avoid stack-based exploits. For expert users.

Загрузка Stage3

Once you have found the stage3 that you would like to download, use wget to download the Stage 3 tarball you have chosen to use as the basis for your new Funtoo Linux system. It should be saved to the /mnt/funtoo directory as follows:

# cd /mnt/funtoo
# wget http://build.funtoo.org/funtoo-current/x86-64bit/generic_64/stage3-latest.tar.xz

Note that 64-bit systems can run 32-bit or 64-bit stages, but 32-bit systems can only run 32-bit stages. Make sure that you select a Stage 3 build that is appropriate for your CPU. If you are not certain, it is a safe bet to choose the generic_64 or generic_32 stage. Consult the Subarches page for more information.

Once the stage is downloaded, extract the contents with the following command, substituting in the actual name of your stage 3 tarball:

# tar xpf stage3-latest.tar.xz
Important

It is very important to use tar's "p" option when extracting the Stage 3 tarball - it tells tar to preserve any permissions and ownership that exist within the archive. Without this option, your Funtoo Linux filesystem permissions will be incorrect.

Chroot into Funtoo

To install Funtoo Linux, the chroot command is first used. The chroot command will "switch into" the new Funtoo Linux system, so the commands you execute after running "chroot" will run within your newly-extracted Funtoo Linux system.

Before chrooting, there are a few things that need to be done to set up the chroot environment. You will need to mount /proc, /sys and /dev inside your new system. Use the following commands to do so:

# cd /mnt/funtoo
# mount -t proc none proc
# mount --rbind /sys sys
# mount --rbind /dev dev

You'll also want to copy over resolv.conf in order to have proper resolution of Internet hostnames from inside the chroot:

# cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/funtoo/etc/

Now you can chroot into your new system. Use env before chroot to ensure that no environment settings from the installation media are pulled in to your new system:

# env -i HOME=/root TERM=$TERM chroot . bash -l
Note

For users of live CDs with 64-bit kernels installing 32-bit systems: Some software may use uname -r to check whether the system is 32 or 64-bit. You may want append linux32 to the chroot command as a workaround, but it's generally not needed.

Important

If you receive the error "chroot: failed to run command `/bin/bash': Exec format error", it is most likely because you are running a 32-bit kernel and trying to execute 64-bit code. Make sure that you have selected the proper type of kernel when booting SystemRescueCD.

It's also a good idea to change the default command prompt while inside the chroot. This will avoid confusion if you have to change terminals. Use this command:

# export PS1="(chroot) $PS1"

Test internet name resolution from within the chroot:

# ping -c 5 google.com

If you can't ping, make sure /etc/resolv.conf doesn't contain things like 127.0.x.x addresses, if it does, change the 127.0.x.x entry to 8.8.8.8 -- Google's public dns address. Make sure to replace this with your dns of choice once the system is installed.


Congratulations! You are now chrooted inside a Funtoo Linux system. Now it's time to get Funtoo Linux properly configured so that Funtoo Linux will start successfully, without any manual assistance, when your system is restarted.

Downloading the Portage tree

Note

For an alternative way to do this, see Installing Portage From Snapshot.

Now it's time to install a copy of the Portage repository, which contains package scripts (ebuilds) that tell portage how to build and install thousands of different software packages. To create the Portage repository, simply run emerge --sync from within the chroot. This will automatically clone the portage tree from GitHub:

(chroot) # emerge --sync
Important

If you receive the error with initial emerge --sync due to git protocol restrictions, set the SYNC variable in /etc/portage/make.conf to "https://github.com/funtoo/ports-2012.git"

Настройка вашей системы

Как и полагается дистрибутивам Linux, в Funtoo Linux также есть свои конфигурационные файлы. Один из этих файлов, /etc/fstab, вам совершенно точно нужно отредактировать для того чтобы Funtoo Linux успешно загружался. Редактирование прочих конфигурационных файлов является опциональным.

Использование Nano

The default editor included in the chroot environment is called nano. To edit one of the files below, run nano as follows:

(chroot) # nano /etc/fstab

When in the editor, you can use arrow keys to move the cursor, and common keys like backspace and delete will work as expected. To save the file, press Control-X, and answer y when prompted to save the modified buffer if you would like to save your changes.

Конфигурационные файлы

Here are a full list of files that you may want to edit, depending on your needs:

FileDo I need to change it?Description
/etc/fstab YES - required Mount points for all filesystems to be used at boot time. This file must reflect your disk partition setup. We'll guide you through modifying this file below.
/etc/localtime Maybe - recommended Your timezone, which will default to UTC if not set. This should be a symbolic link to something located under /usr/share/zoneinfo (e.g. /usr/share/zoneinfo/America/Montreal)
/etc/make.conf (symlink) - also known as:
/etc/portage/make.conf
Maybe - recommended Parameters used by gcc (compiler), portage, and make. It's a good idea to set MAKEOPTS. This is covered later in this document.
/etc/conf.d/hostname Maybe - recommended Used to set system hostname. Set the hostname variable to the fully-qualified (with dots, ie. foo.funtoo.org) name if you have one. Otherwise, set to the local system hostname (without dots, ie. foo). Defaults to localhost if not set.
/etc/hosts No You no longer need to manually set the hostname in this file. This file is automatically generated by /etc/init.d/hostname.
/etc/conf.d/keymaps Optional Keyboard mapping configuration file (for console pseudo-terminals). Set if you have a non-US keyboard. See Funtoo Linux Localization.
/etc/conf.d/hwclock Optional How the time of the battery-backed hardware clock of the system is interpreted (UTC or local time). Linux uses the battery-backed hardware clock to initialize the system clock when the system is booted.
/etc/conf.d/modules Optional Kernel modules to load automatically at system startup. Typically not required. See Additional Kernel Resources for more info.
/etc/conf.d/consolefont Optional Allows you to specify the default console font. To apply this font, enable the consolefont service by running rc-update add consolefont.
profiles Optional Some useful portage settings that may help speed up intial configuration.

If you're installing an English version of Funtoo Linux, you're in luck, as most of the configuration files can be used as-is. If you're installing for another locale, don't worry. We will walk you through the necessary configuration steps on the Funtoo Linux Localization page, and if needed, there's always plenty of friendly, helpful support available. (See Community)

Let's go ahead and see what we have to do. Use nano -w <name_of_file> to edit files -- the "-w" argument disables word-wrapping, which is handy when editing configuration files. You can copy and paste from the examples.

Warning

It's important to edit your /etc/fstab file before you reboot! You will need to modify both the "fs" and "type" columns to match the settings for your partitions and filesystems that you created with gdisk or fdisk. Skipping this step may prevent Funtoo Linux from booting successfully.

/etc/fstab

/etc/fstab is used by the mount command which is run when your system boots. Lines in this file inform mount about filesystems to be mounted and how they should be mounted. In order for the system to boot properly, you must edit /etc/fstab and ensure that it reflects the partition configuration you used earlier in the install process. If you can't remember the partition configuration that you used earlier, the lsblk command may be of help to you:

(chroot) # nano -w /etc/fstab
/etc/fstab - An example fstab file
# The root filesystem should have a pass number of either 0 or 1.
# All other filesystems should have a pass number of 0 or greater than 1.
#
# NOTE: If your BOOT partition is ReiserFS, add the notail option to opts.
#
# See the manpage fstab(5) for more information.
#
# <fs>	     <mountpoint>  <type>  <opts>         <dump/pass>

/dev/sda1    /boot         ext2    noauto,noatime 1 2
/dev/sda2    none          swap    sw             0 0
/dev/sda3    /             ext4    noatime        0 1
#/dev/cdrom  /mnt/cdrom    auto    noauto,ro      0 0
Note

Currently, our default /etc/fstabfile has the root filesystem as /dev/sda4 and the swap partition as /dev/sda3. These will need to be changed to /dev/sda3 and /dev/sda2, respectively.

Note

If you're using UEFI to boot, change the /dev/sda1 line so that it says vfat instead of ext2. Similarly, make sure that the /dev/sda3 line specifies either xfs or ext4, depending on which filesystem you chose earlier on in the installation process when you created filesystems.

/etc/localtime

/etc/localtime is used to specify the timezone that your machine is in, and defaults to UTC. If you would like your Funtoo Linux system to use local time, you should replace /etc/localtime with a symbolic link to the timezone that you wish to use.

(chroot) # ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/MST7MDT /etc/localtime

The above sets the timezone to Mountain Standard Time (with daylight savings). Type ls /usr/share/zoneinfo to list available timezones. There are also sub-directories containing timezones described by location.

/etc/portage/make.conf

MAKEOPTS can be used to define how many parallel compilations should occur when you compile a package, which can speed up compilation significantly. A rule of thumb is the number of CPUs (or CPU threads) in your system plus one. If, for example, you have a dual core processor without hyper-threading, then you would set MAKEOPTS to 3:

 MAKEOPTS="-j3" 

If you are unsure about how many processors/threads you have, then use nproc to help you.

(chroot) # nproc
16

Set MAKEOPTS to this number plus one:

 MAKEOPTS="-j17" 

USE flags define what functionality is enabled when packages are built. It is not recommended to add a lot of USE flags during installation; you should wait until you have a working, bootable system before changing your USE flags. A USE flag prefixed with a minus ("-") sign tells Portage not to use the flag when compiling. A Funtoo guide to USE flags will be available in the future. For now, you can find out more information about USE flags in the Gentoo Handbook.

LINGUAS tells Portage which local language to compile the system and applications in (those who use LINGUAS variable like OpenOffice). It is not usually necessary to set this if you use English. If you want another language such as French (fr) or German (de), set LINGUAS appropriately:

 LINGUAS="ru" 
==== /etc/conf.d/hwclock ==== Если вы используете схему загрузки совмещенную с Windows, вам поребуется отредактировать этот файл на предмет изменения значения парметра clock с UTC на local, поскольку Windows при каждой загрузке будет выставлять местное время в ваших аппартных часах. В противном случае вам скорее всего нет необходимости править этот файл.
(chroot) # nano -w /etc/conf.d/hwclock
==== Локализация ====

По умолчанию Funtoo Linux настроен с включеной поддержкой Юникода (UTF-8), и локалью и раскладкой клавиатуры US English. Если вы хотите сконфигурировать свою систему для использования какой-либо локали или раскладки помимо Английской, обратитесь к Funtoo Linux Localization.

Введение в Portage

Portage, the Funtoo Linux package manager has a command called emerge which is used to build and install packages from source. It also takes care of installing all of the package's dependencies. You call emerge like this:

 (chroot) # emerge packagename 

When you install a package by specifying its name in the command-line, Portage records its name in the /var/lib/portage/world file. It does so because it assumes that, since you have installed it by name, you want to consider it part of your system and want to keep the package updated in the future. This is a handy feature, since when packages are being added to the world set, we can update our entire system by typing:

 (chroot) # emerge --sync (chroot) # ##i##emerge -auDN @world 

This is the "official" way to update your Funtoo Linux system. Above, we first update our Portage tree using git to grab the latest ebuilds (scripts), and then run an emerge command to update the world set of packages. The options specified tell emerge to:

  • a - show us what will be emerged, and ask us if we want to proceed
  • u - update the packages we specify -- don't emerge them again if they are already emerged.
  • D - Consider the entire dependency tree of packages when looking for updates. In other words, do a deep update.
  • N - Update any packages that have changed (new) USE settings.

You should also consider passing --with-bdeps=y when emerging @world, at least once in a while. This will update build dependencies as well.

Of course, sometimes we want to install a package but not add it to the world file. This is often done because you only want the package installed temporarily or because you know the package in question is a dependnecy of another package. If this behavior is desired, you call emerge like this:

(chroot) # emerge -1 packagename

Advanced users may be interested in the Emerge wiki page.

Updating World

Now is actually a very good time to update the entire system and it can be a good idea to do so prior to first boot.

(chroot) # emerge --sync
(chroot) # emerge -auDN @world
Important

Make sure you read any post emerge messages and follow their instructions. This is especially true if you have upgraded perl or python.

Ядро

Начиная с середины мая 2015-го, stage3 Funtoo Linux содержат уже собранное debian-sources ядро чтобы ускорить и упростить установку системы. Чтобы проверить, установлен ли debian-sources, наберите:

(chroot) # emerge -s debian-sources
Searching...    
[ Results for search key : debian-sources ]
[ Applications found : 1 ]

*  sys-kernel/debian-sources
      Latest version available: 3.19.3
      Latest version installed: 3.19.3
      Size of files: 81,292 kB
      Homepage:      http://www.debian.org
      Description:   Debian Sources (and optional binary kernel)
      License:       GPL-2

If a version is listed under Latest version installed, then debian-sources is already pre-built for you and you can skip the rest of the Kernel section, and proceed to the Installing a Bootloader section.

Сборка ядра

Если вам нужно собрать ядро для Funtoo Linux, руководствуйтесь следующей последовательностью действий:

Note

На странице Funtoo Linux Kernels указан полный список ядер поддерживаемых Funtoo Linux. Начинающим пользователям мы советуем выбрать debian-sources.

Important

Сборка debian-sources с установленным USE флагом binary потребует не менее 14ГБ свободного места в /var/tmp и займет около часа на процессоре Intel Core i7.

Теперь можно натравить emerge на наше ядро:

 (chroot) # emerge debian-sources 

Once emerge completes, you'll have a brand new kernel and initramfs installed to /boot, plus kernel headers installed in /usr/src/linux, and you'll be ready to configure the boot loader to load these to boot your Funtoo Linux system.

Warning

Если на вашей системе установлен RAID-массив, при сборке ядра по зависимостям автоматически подтянется утилита mdadm. Важно не забыть отредактировать файл /etc/mdadm.conf прежде чем перезагрузить машину чтобы RAID-массив был корректно опознан и настроен прежде чем ядро попытается подключить его к файловой системе. Если этого правильно не сделать, в результате может получиться нерабочая или вовсе не загружающаяся система! С конкретными деталями этой настройки можно познакомится либо в man-странице man mdadm либо в mdadm ebuild page.

Note

NVIDIA card users: the binary USE flag installs the Nouveau drivers which cannot be loaded at the same time as the proprietary drivers, and cannot be unloaded at runtime because of KMS. You need to blacklist it under /etc/modprobe.d/.

Note

For an overview of other kernel options for Funtoo Linux, see Funtoo Linux Kernels. There may be modules that the Debian kernel doesn't include, a situation where genkernel would be useful. Also be sure to see hardware compatibility information.

Установка загрузчика

These install instructions show you how to use GRUB to boot using BIOS (old-school) or UEFI (new-school). As of boot-update-1.7.2, now in Portage, the steps are very similar.

First, emerge boot-update. This will also cause grub-2 and efibootmgr to be merged, since they are dependencies:

 (chroot) # emerge boot-update 

Then, edit /etc/boot.conf using nano and specify "Funtoo Linux genkernel" as the default setting at the top of the file, replacing "Funtoo Linux".

Теперь /etc/boot.conf должен выглядеть следующим образом:

/etc/boot.conf
boot {
	generate grub
	default "Funtoo Linux genkernel" 
	timeout 3 
}

"Funtoo Linux" {
	kernel bzImage[-v]
}

"Funtoo Linux genkernel" {
	kernel kernel[-v]
	initrd initramfs[-v]
	params += real_root=auto 
} 

"Funtoo Linux better-initramfs" {
	kernel vmlinuz[-v]
	initrd /initramfs.cpio.gz
}

If you are booting a custom or non-default kernel, please read man boot.conf for information on the various options available to you.

Классическая (BIOS) MBR

When using "old school" BIOS booting, run the following command to install GRUB to your MBR, and generate the /boot/grub/grub.cfg configuration file that GRUB will use for booting:

 (chroot) # grub-install --target=i386-pc --no-floppy /dev/sda (chroot) # ##i##boot-update 

Современная (UEFI) загрузочная запись (Boot Entry)

If you're using "new school" UEFI booting, run of the following sets of commands, depending on whether you are installing a 64-bit or 32-bit system. This will add GRUB as a UEFI boot entry.

For x86-64bit systems:

 (chroot) # grub-install --target=x86_64-efi --efi-directory=/boot --bootloader-id="Funtoo Linux [GRUB]" --recheck /dev/sda (chroot) # ##i##boot-update 

For x86-32bit systems:

 (chroot) # grub-install --target=i386-efi --efi-directory=/boot --bootloader-id="Funtoo Linux [GRUB]" --recheck /dev/sda (chroot) # ##i##boot-update 

First Boot, and in the future...

ОК, все готово к загрузке!

Осталось только выполнить grub-install если это -- первая установка Funtoo Linux. Также нужно будет выполнить boot-update всякий раз как вы отредактируете файл /etc/boot.conf на предмет добавления новых ядер в систему. Эта команда сгенерирует файл /etc/boot.conf и после перезагрузки ваши новые ядра сразу появятся в загрузочном меню GRUB-а.

Настройка сети

It's important to ensure that you will be able to connect to your local-area network after you reboot into Funtoo Linux. There are three approaches you can use for configuring your network: NetworkManager, dhcpcd, and the Funtoo Linux Networking scripts. Here's how to choose which one to use based on the type of network you want to set up.

Wi-Fi

For laptop/mobile systems where you will be using Wi-Fi, roaming, and connecting to various networks NetworkManager is strongly recommended. Since Wi-Fi cards require firmware to operate, it is also recommended that you emerge the linux-firmware ebuild:

(chroot) # emerge linux-firmware networkmanager
(chroot) # rc-update add NetworkManager default

The above command will ensure that NetworkManager starts after you boot into Funtoo Linux. Once you've completed these installation steps and have booted into Funtoo Linux, you can use the addwifi command to connect to a Wi-Fi access point:

# addwifi -S wpa -K 'wifipassword' mywifinetwork

For more information about NetworkManager, see the NetworkManager package page.

Note

wpa_supplicant is also a good choice for wireless network connections. See the Package:WPA Supplicant package for steps involved in setting up wpa_supplicant.

Настольный ПК (проводной DHCP)

For a home desktop or workstation with wired Ethernet that will use DHCP, the simplest and most effective option to enable network connectivity is to simply add dhcpcd to the default runlevel:

(chroot) # rc-update add dhcpcd default

When you reboot, dhcpcd will run in the background and manage all network interfaces and use DHCP to acquire network addresses from a DHCP server.

If your upstream DHCP server is dnsmasq, it can be configured to assign addresses via mac address to make servers on DHCP feasible.

Сервер (статический IP)

For servers, the Funtoo Linux Networking scripts are recommended. They are optimized for static configurations and things like virtual ethernet bridging for virtualization setups. See Funtoo Linux Networking for information on how to use Funtoo Linux's template-based network configuration system.

Имя узла

По умолчанию в Funtoo в качестве имени узла используется "localhost". Хотя система будет отлично работать и с эти именем, некоторые ebuild-ы не устанавливаются если в качестве имени стоит это значение. Также использование одинаковых имен для разных машин может вызвать путаницу. Поэтому, рекомендуется установить в качестве имени узла что-то более осмысленное. Имя узла можно выбирать произвольно, можно использовать почти любую комбинацию символов. Главное чтобы это имя было понятно системному администратору. Для изменения имени узла отредактируйте

(chroot) # nano /etc/conf.d/hostname


Look for the line starting with hostname and change the entry between the quotes. Save the file, on the next boot Funtoo will use the new hostname.

Warning

Do not use special characters in the hostname, as the shell may interpret these, leading to unpredictable results. Use the Latin alphabet: a-z, A-Z, 0-9

Tip

Use short hostnames (up to 8 or 10 characters) to prevent the terminal screen being filled with the hostname, leaving little space for the command itself. This become particularly poignant when coding long command strings in various programming languages like Bash, Python, SQL and Perl

=== Заключительные шаги === ==== Установите ваш пароль для пользоователя root ==== Установить пароль для root-а следующим образом необходимо до перезагрузки для того, чтобы после нее вы смогли войти в ситему.
 (chroot) # passwd 

Перезагрузка системы

Now is the time to leave chroot, to unmount Funtoo Linux partitions and files and to restart your computer. When you restart, the GRUB boot loader will start, load the Linux kernel and initramfs, and your system will begin booting.

Leave the chroot, change directory to /mnt, unmount your Funtoo partitions, and reboot.

(chroot) # exit
# cd /mnt
# umount -lR funtoo
# reboot
Note

System Rescue CD will gracefully unmount your new Funtoo filesystems as part of its normal shutdown sequence.

You should now see your system reboot, the GRUB boot loader appear for a few seconds, and then see the Linux kernel and initramfs loading. After this, you should see Funtoo Linux itself start to boot, and you should be greeted with a login: prompt. Funtoo Linux has been successfully installed!

Профили

Once you have rebooted into Funtoo Linux, you can further customize your system to your needs by using Funtoo Profiles. A quick introduction to profiles is included below -- consult the Funtoo Profiles page for more detailed information. There are five basic profile types: arch, build, subarch, flavors and mix-ins:

Sub-Profile TypeDescription
archTypically x86-32bit or x86-64bit, this defines the processor type and support of your system. This is defined when your stage was built and should not be changed.
buildDefines whether your system is a current, stable or experimental build. current systems will have newer packages unmasked than stable systems. This is defined when your stage is built and is typically not changed.
subarchDefines CPU optimizations for your system. The subarch is set at the time the stage3 is built, but can be changed later to better settings if necessary. Be sure to pick a setting that is compatible with your CPU.
flavorDefines the general type of system, such as server or desktop, and will set default USE flags appropriate for your needs.
mix-insDefines various optional settings that you may be interested in enabling.

One arch, build and flavor must be set for each Funtoo Linux system, while mix-ins are optional and you can enable more than one if desired. Often, flavors and mix-ins inherit settings from other sub-profiles. Use epro show to view your current profile settings, in addition to any inheritance information:

(chroot) #  epro show

=== Enabled Profiles: ===

        arch:  x86-64bit
       build:  current
     subarch:  intel64-haswell
      flavor:  desktop
     mix-ins:  gnome


=== All inherited flavors from desktop flavor: ===

                     workstation (from desktop flavor)
                            core (from workstation flavor)
                         minimal (from core flavor)

=== All inherited mix-ins from desktop flavor: ===

                               X (from workstation flavor)
                           audio (from workstation flavor)
                             dvd (from workstation flavor)
                           media (from workstation flavor)
      mediadevice-audio-consumer (from media mix-in)
                mediadevice-base (from mediadevice-audio-consumer mix-in)
      mediadevice-video-consumer (from media mix-in)
                mediadevice-base (from mediadevice-video-consumer mix-in)
        mediaformat-audio-common (from media mix-in)
          mediaformat-gfx-common (from media mix-in)
        mediaformat-video-common (from media mix-in)
                  console-extras (from workstation flavor)
                           print (from desktop flavor)

Here are some basic examples of epro usage:

DescriptionCommand
View available profiles. Enabled profiles will be highlighted in cyan. Directly enabled profiles will be in bold and have a * appended.
(chroot) # epro list
Change the system flavor.
(chroot) # epro flavor desktop
Add a mix-in.
(chroot) # epro mix-in +gnome

Последующие действия

Если вы -- новичек в Funtoo Linux и Gentoo Linux, посмотрите также Funtoo Linux First Steps. Эта страница поможет вам познакомиться поближе с вашей новой системой. В нашей документации также есть особая категория official documentation, которая включает все документы которые официально поддерживаются для помощи в установке и использовании Funtoo Linux.

Еще у нас есть несколько страниц посвященных настройке вашей системы. В First Steps содержится список таких страниц.

Если ваша система нормально не загрузилась, ознакомьтесь с Installation Troubleshooting -- там перечисленны несколько шагов к возможному разрешению проблемы.