Профили Funtoo

Revision as of 17:24, July 27, 2015 by Cirill (Talk | contribs) (Created page with "=== Дополнения для медиа-форматов ===")

Other languages:
English • ‎português do Brasil • ‎русский

Типы профилей

Historically, users have had to add a large number of settings to /etc/make.conf to customize their Gentoo or Funtoo Linux system, which made setup of the operating system more difficult than it should be. In Gentoo Linux, it is possible to only define one system profile. Think of a system profile as the default settings that Portage uses for building everything on your system. Funtoo Linux uses multiple sub-profiles per system. The following profile types are available in Funtoo Linux:

Sub-ProfileDescription
archThis defines CPU-specific settings. Only one arch profile is enabled at install time, and cannot be changed.
subarchThis further refines the CPU-specific settings. One subarch profile is typically enabled at install time.
buildThis defines the type of stability, such as current or stable, and its associated settings. One build profile is enabled, at install time, and is generally not changed.
flavorThis defines the intended use of Funtoo, such as minimal, core, workstation or desktop. One flavor is enabled, and can be changed by the user.
mix-insThese can be enabled by the user, based on the features the user wants, such as gnome, kde, media, mate, X, and hardened.
Note

Flavors can (and often do) inherit settings from other flavors and mix-ins. Mix-ins can also inherit settings from other mix-ins. For example, X is inherited by gnome. The epro tool will show both as being enabled so there are no surprises.

Использование epro

epro show отображает текущие настройки профилей в вашей системе:

#  epro show

=== Enabled Profiles: ===

        arch:  x86-64bit
       build:  current
     subarch:  intel64-haswell
      flavor:  desktop
     mix-ins:  gnome


=== All inherited flavors from desktop flavor: ===

                     workstation (from desktop flavor)
                            core (from workstation flavor)
                         minimal (from core flavor)

=== All inherited mix-ins from desktop flavor: ===

                               X (from workstation flavor)
                           audio (from workstation flavor)
                             dvd (from workstation flavor)
                           media (from workstation flavor)
      mediadevice-audio-consumer (from media mix-in)
                mediadevice-base (from mediadevice-audio-consumer mix-in)
      mediadevice-video-consumer (from media mix-in)
                mediadevice-base (from mediadevice-video-consumer mix-in)
        mediaformat-audio-common (from media mix-in)
          mediaformat-gfx-common (from media mix-in)
        mediaformat-video-common (from media mix-in)
                  console-extras (from workstation flavor)
                           print (from desktop flavor)

To view all available sub-profile settings, use epro list:

#  epro list

Enabled profiles will be highlighted in cyan. Directly enabled profiles will be in bold and have an asterisk * appended. Sub-profiles enabled via inheritance will be highlighted.

Примеры использования

Add the mix-ins gnome and kde
#  epro mix-ins +gnome +kde
Remove a mix-in, for example gnome
#  epro mix-ins -gnome
Change the profile arch to x86-64bit
#  epro arch x86-64bit
Change the subarch to generic_64
#  epro subarch generic_64
Change the system flavor
#  epro flavor desktop
Get JSON output of profile settings
#  epro show-json
Get current sub-profile setting in text form
#  epro get [profiletype]

Конфигурации

В системе можно одновременно задействовать только один профиль конфигурации. Доступны следующие варианты:

FlavorDescription
minimalThis contains the bare minimum settings for all Funtoo Linux flavors.
coreThe core flavor includes the minimal flavor, plus reasonable settings, and is used for the official stage3 downloads.
serverIn the future, the server flavor will include the core flavor, plus specific settings designed for servers. At the moment, it is equivalent to the core flavor.
workstationThe workstation flavor is a minimal desktop system. It includes the core flavor, plus these mix-ins: X, audio, dvd, media and console-extras.
desktopThe desktop flavor includes the common settings for any full-featured desktop system. It includes the workstation flavor plus printing support. The user is expected to further customize their system with a desktop environment of choice, such as KDE, GNOME, or XFCE, possibly by using a mix-in.

Дополнения

Одновременно в системе может быть задействовано любое количество дополнений. Доступные следующие варианты дополнений:

Mix-inDescription
audioEnables core audio-related settings, currently related to ALSA.
console-extrasEnables things that are nice to have for console-only systems. Currently enabling gpm in USE.
dvdUSE settings related to optical drives -- CDR/DVD-ROM/RW use.
gnomeUSE and package.use settings required to merge GNOME. Designed to be used with desktop or workstation flavor.
hardenedEnables hardened support.
kdeUSE and package.use settings required to merge KDE. Designed to be used with desktop or workstation flavor.
mediaUSE settings related to audio/video media encoding. Can be for desktops or servers.
printEnables printing capability.
vmware-guestSettings related to using Funtoo Linux as a VMWare virtual machine guest.
XSettings related to the X Window System and hardware support.
xfceUSE settings required for merging XFCE.

Дополнения для мультимедийных устройств

Media device mix-ins have been created to support media devices, including external and portable devices, and associated low-level hardware support and hardware-focused codecs. Media devices have been categorized into audio and video categories, and consumer and professional categories. "Consumer" devices are those devices that regular desktop users might typically use, while "professional" devices are those that professionals, hobbyists or enthusiasts would typically use. Here are the new mix-ins for media devices:

Media Device Mix-inDescription
mediadevice-baseCommon, universally-supported media devices, like IEEE-1394 (Firewire), CDDA, CDIO. Other mediadevice mix-ins have this as a parent.
mediadevice-audio-consumerConsumer audio devices, such as personal portable media players (iOS, iPod, etc.)
mediadevice-audio-proPro audio support, such as JACK.
mediadevice-video-consumerConsumer video support, such as DVD, Blu Ray, V4L
mediadevice-video-proPro video support, such as dv, dc1394.

Дополнения для медиа-форматов

Media format mix-ins have been created to support media formats for reading, writing, encoding and decoding images, audio and video. They have been organized into a "common" collection, for popular formats, and an "extra" collection, which is intended to include "everything else". Let's look at the new mix-ins:

Media Format Mix-inDescription
mediaformat-video-commonCommon (ie. popular) video formats.
mediaformat-video-extraMore esoteric video formats.
mediaformat-audio-commonCommon (ie. popular) audio formats.
mediaformat-audio-extraMore esoteric audio formats.
mediaformat-gfx-commonCommon (ie. popular) graphics formats.
mediaformat-gfx-extraMore esoteric graphics formats.

How to Use Media Mix-Ins

Our existing media mix-in still exists, and is still pulled in by the desktop and workstation flavors automatically. It now includes the following parent mix-ins:

  • mediadevice-audio-consumer
  • mediadevice-video-consumer
  • mediaformat-audio-common
  • mediaformat-gfx-common
  • mediaformat-video-common

In addition, there is a new media-pro mix-in which needs to be enabled manually, which pulls in the following mix-ins:

  • mediadevice-audio-pro
  • mediadevice-video-pro

So typically, you would enable the desktop or workstation flavor, and if you need professional hardware support, you'd also enable the media-pro mix-in. If you needed any additional media formats support, you could enable one or more of the mediaformat-*-extra mix-ins to add the formats you needed. Of course, it's possible to enable only the specific mix-ins you need, and also complement these mix-ins with specific USE variable settings you might require.

How Profile Settings are Stored

Funtoo Linux stores its profile settings in the /etc/portage/make.profile/parent file. Typically, users don't need to modify this file, instead using ego and epro to make changes, but it can be handy to take a look at what the contents of the file look like. A simple server might have profile settings as follows:

/etc/portage/make.profile/parent
gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/arch/x86-64bit
gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/build/current
gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/flavor/core

Profile settings for a desktop might look like this:

/etc/portage/make.profile/parent
gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/arch/x86-64bit
gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/build/current
gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/flavor/desktop
gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/dvd
gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/media

History and Origins

This new system is really a completion of the original cascading profile design that was co-designed by Daniel Robbins and Seemant Kulleen and implemented by Seemant Kulleen as part of Portage. Funtoo Profiles designed to leverage the existing cascading profile system and provide something much more useable and maintainable for users and developers alike. Here are some of its benefits:

  • Fewer settings in /etc/make.conf. CHOST and ARCH no longer set in /etc/make.conf.
  • Separation of concerns -- arch, build, and flavor-related settings are organized together.
  • User flexibility - any number of mix-ins can be enabled to tweak masks or USE settings as needed.
Note

See Custom Profiles for information on how to extend the profile system.