Difference between pages "Install/ru/Partitioning" and "CPU FLAGS"

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<noinclude>
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This page lists processor instruction sets that can be enabled on Funtoo Linux systems using the {{c|CPU_FLAGS_*}} variables.
{{InstallPart|процесс разбиения диска и создания файловых систем}}
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</noinclude>
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=== Подготовка жесткого диска ===
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В этой части  мы научимся различным способам установки Funtoo Linux -- и загрузки с -- жесткого диска.
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==CPU_FLAGS_X86 ==
  
==== Введение ====
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{{TableStart}}
 
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<tr><th>Flag</th><th>Introduced</th><th>By</th><th>Part of</th><th>Adopted in</th><th>Name</th><th></th></tr>
В прежние времена существовал лишь один способ загрузить PC-совместимый компьютер. Все наши дектопы и сервера имели стандартный PC BIOS, все наши харды использовали MBR и были разбиты используя схему разбивки MBR.  Вот как это все было и нам это нравилось!
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<tr><td>{{c|mmx}}</td><td>1997 (Pentium MMX)</td><td>Intel</td><td></td><td></td><td>MMX</td><td>See [[Wikipedia:MMX (instruction set)]] </td></tr>
 
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<tr><td>{{c|mmxext}}</td><td>1999</td><td>AMD</td><td>{{c|sse}}</td><td>Intel Pentium III (as part of SSE)</td><td>AMD MMX Extensions</td><td>See [[Wikipedia:Extended MMX]]</td></tr>
Затем появились EFI и UEFI,  встроенные программы нового образца наряду со схемой разбивки GPT, поддерживающая диски размером более 2.2TБ. Неожиданно, нам стали доступны различные способы установки и загрузки Линукс систем . То, что было единым методом, стало чем-то более сложным.
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<tr><td>{{c|sse}}</td><td>1999 (Pentium III)</td><td>AMD</td><td></td><td>Athlon XP</td><td>Streaming SIMD Extensions (SSE)</td><td>See [[Wikipedia:Streaming SIMD Extensions]]</td></tr>
 
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<tr><td>{{c|sse2}}</td><td>2001 (Pentium 4)</td><td>Intel</td><td></td><td>AMD Athlon 64/Opteron</td><td>Streaming SIMD Extensions 2 (SSE2)</td><td>See [[Wikipedia:SSE2]]</td></tr>
Воспользуемся моментом и рассмотрим доступные способы конфигурации жесткого диска для загрузки Funtoo Linux. Данное Руководство рекомендует способ "по-старинке" , загрузка BIOS и использование MBR.  Данный способ работает (за исключением редких случаев) и всесторонне поддерживается. И в этом нет ничего плохого. Если Ваш жесткий диск 2TБ или меньшего размера это не является препятствием для использования всего дискового пространства.
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<tr><td>{{c|sse3}}</td><td>2004 (Pentium 4 Prescott)</td><td>Intel</td><td></td><td>AMD Athlon 64 (some steppings)</td><td>Streaming SIMD Extensions 3 (SSE3/PNI)</td><td>See [[Wikipedia:SSE3]]</td></tr>
 
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<tr><td>{{c|ssse3}}</td><td>2006 (Core 2 Woodcrest)</td><td>Intel</td><td></td><td>AMD Bobcat/Bulldozer</td><td>Supplemental Streaming SIMD Extensions 3 (SSSE3)</td><td>See [[Wikipedia:SSSE3]]</td></tr>
Но, бывают ситуации когда метод "по-старинке"  не является оптимальным. Если Ваш жесткий диск размером более 2TБ , MBR разбивка не сможет обеспечить доступ ко всему дисковому пространству.  Это одна из причин.  Вторая причина: существуют  "PC" системы, которые более не поддерживают  BIOS загрузку  и  форсируют UEFI загрузку. Из чувства сострадания к тем, кто попал в затруднение перед выбором, это Руководство также описывает установку и загрузку UEFI систем.
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<tr><td>{{c|sse4_1}}</td><td>2007 (Core Penryn)</td><td>Intel</td><td></td><td>AMD Bulldozer</td><td>Supplemental Streaming SIMD Extensions 4.1</td><td>See [[Wikipedia:SSSE4#SSE4.1]]</td></tr>
 
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<tr><td>{{c|sse4a}}</td><td>late 2007 (Barcelona/Phenom)</td><td>AMD</td><td></td><td>N/A</td><td>Supplemental Streaming SIMD Extensions 4a</td><td>See [[Wikipedia:SSSE4#SSE4a]]</td></tr>
Мы всё же рекомендуем разбивку "по-старинке". Загрузчик, который мы используем для загрузки Линукс в этом руководстве называется GRUB,  таки образом мы называем метод '''BIOS + GRUB (MBR)''' . Это традиционный способ установки на PC-совместимые компьютеры.
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<tr><td>{{c|sse4_2}}</td><td>late 2008 (Nehalem/Core i7)</td><td>Intel</td><td></td><td>AMD Bulldozer</td><td>Supplemental Streaming SIMD Extensions 4.2</td><td>See [[Wikipedia:SSSE4#SSE4.2]]</td></tr>
 
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<tr><td>{{c|popcnt}}</td><td>2007</td><td>AMD</td><td></td><td>Intel Nehalem</td><td>POPCNT</td><td>See [[Wikipedia:SSE4#POPCNT_and_LZCNT]]</td></tr>
If you need to use UEFI to boot, we recommend not using the MBR at all for booting, as some systems support this, but others don't. Instead, we recommend using UEFI to boot GRUB, which in turn will load Linux. We refer to this method as the '''UEFI + GRUB (GPT)''' method.
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<tr><td>{{c|lzcnt}}</td><td>2007</td><td>AMD</td><td></td><td>Intel Haswell</td><td>LZCNT</td><td>See [[Wikipedia:SSE4#POPCNT_and_LZCNT]]</td></tr>
 
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{{TableEnd}}
And yes, there are even more methods, some of which are documented on the [[Boot Methods]] page. We used to recommend a '''BIOS + GRUB (GPT)''' method but it is not consistently supported across a wide variety of hardware.
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'''The big question is -- which boot method should you use?''' Here's how to tell.
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;Principle 1 - Old School: If you can reliably boot System Rescue CD and it shows you an initial light blue menu, you are booting the CD using the BIOS, and it's likely that you can thus boot Funtoo Linux using the BIOS. So, go old-school and use BIOS booting, ''unless'' you have some reason to use UEFI, such as having a >2.2TB system disk. In that case, see Principle 2, as your system may also support UEFI booting.
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;Principle 2 - New School: If you can reliably boot System Rescue CD and it shows you an initial black and white menu -- congratulations, your system is configured to support UEFI booting. This means that you are ready to install Funtoo Linux to boot via UEFI. Your system may still support BIOS booting, but just be trying UEFI first. You can poke around in your BIOS boot configuration and play with this.
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;What's the Big Difference between Old School and New School?: Here's the deal. If you go with old-school MBR partitions, your <code>/boot</code> partition will be an ext2 filesystem, and you'll use <code>fdisk</code> to create your MBR partitions. If you go with new-school GPT partitions and UEFI booting, your <code>/boot</code> partition will be a vfat filesystem, because this is what UEFI is able to read, and you will use <code>gdisk</code> to create your GPT partitions. And you'll install GRUB a bit differently. That's about all it comes down to, in case you were curious.
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;Also Note: To install Funtoo Linux to boot via the New School UEFI method, you must boot System Rescue CD using UEFI -- and see an initial black and white screen. Otherwise, UEFI will not be active and you will not be able to set it up!
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{{Note|'''Some motherboards may appear to support UEFI, but don't.''' Do your research. For example, the Award BIOS in my Gigabyte GA-990FXA-UD7 rev 1.1 has an option to enable UEFI boot for CD/DVD. '''This is not sufficient for enabling UEFI boot for hard drives and installing Funtoo Linux.''' UEFI must be supported for both removable media (so you can boot System Rescue CD using UEFI) as well as fixed media (so you can boot your new Funtoo Linux installation.) It turns out that later revisions of this board (rev 3.0) have a new BIOS that fully supports UEFI boot.  This may point to a third principle -- know thy hardware.}}
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==== Old-School (BIOS/MBR) Method ====
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{{Note|Use this method if you are booting using your BIOS, and if your System Rescue CD initial boot menu was light blue. If you're going to use the new-school method, [[#New-School (UEFI/GPT) Method|click here to jump down to UEFI/GPT.]]}}
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===== Preparation =====
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First, it's a good idea to make sure that you've found the correct hard disk to partition. Try this command and verify that <code>/dev/sda</code> is the disk that you want to partition:
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<console>
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# ##i##fdisk -l /dev/sda
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Disk /dev/sda: 640.1 GB, 640135028736 bytes, 1250263728 sectors
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Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
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Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
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I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
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Disk label type: gpt
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#        Start          End    Size  Type            Name
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1        2048  1250263694  596.2G  Linux filesyste Linux filesystem
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</console>
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Now, it's recommended that you erase any existing MBR or GPT partition tables on the disk, which could confuse the system's BIOS at boot time. We do this using <code>sgdisk</code>:
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{{fancywarning|This will make any existing partitions inaccessible! You are '''strongly''' cautioned and advised to backup any critical data before proceeding.}}
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<console>
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# ##i##sgdisk --zap-all /dev/sda
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Creating new GPT entries.
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GPT data structures destroyed! You may now partition the disk using fdisk or
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other utilities.
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</console>
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This output is also nothing to worry about, as the command still succeded:
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<console>
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***************************************************************
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Found invalid GPT and valid MBR; converting MBR to GPT format
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in memory.
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***************************************************************
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</console>
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===== Partitioning =====
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Now we will use <code>fdisk</code> to create the MBR partition table and partitions:
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<console>
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# ##i##fdisk /dev/sda
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</console>
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Within <code>fdisk</code>, follow these steps:
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'''Empty the partition table''':
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<console>
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Command (m for help): ##i##o ↵
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</console>
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'''Create Partition 1''' (boot):
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<console>
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Command (m for help): ##i##n ↵
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Partition type (default p): ##i##↵
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Partition number (1-4, default 1): ##i##↵
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First sector: ##i##↵
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Last sector: ##i##+128M ↵
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</console>
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'''Create Partition 2''' (swap):
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<console>
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Command (m for help): ##i##n ↵
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Partition type (default p): ##i##↵
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Partition number (2-4, default 2): ##i##↵
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First sector: ##i##↵
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Last sector: ##i##+2G ↵
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Command (m for help): ##i##t ↵
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Partition number (1,2, default 2): ##i## ↵
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Hex code (type L to list all codes): ##i##82 ↵
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</console>
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'''Create the root partition:'''
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<console>
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Command (m for help): ##i##n ↵
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Partition type (default p): ##i##↵
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Partition number (3,4, default 3): ##i##↵
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First sector: ##i##↵
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Last sector: ##i##↵
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</console>
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'''Verify the partition table:'''
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<console>
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Command (m for help): ##i##p
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Disk /dev/sda: 298.1 GiB, 320072933376 bytes, 625142448 sectors
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Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
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Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
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I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
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Disklabel type: dos
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Disk identifier: 0x82abc9a6
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Device    Boot    Start      End    Blocks  Id System
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/dev/sda1          2048    264191    131072  83 Linux
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/dev/sda2        264192  4458495  2097152  82 Linux swap / Solaris
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/dev/sda3        4458496 625142447 310341976  83 Linux
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</console>
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'''Write the parition table to disk:'''
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<console>
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Command (m for help): ##i##w
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</console>
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Your new MBR partition table will now be written to your system disk.
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{{Note|You're done with partitioning! Now, jump over to [[#Creating filesystems|Creating filesystems]].}}
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==== New-School (UEFI/GPT) Method ====
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{{Note|Use this method if you are booting using UEFI, and if your System Rescue CD initial boot menu was black and white. If it was light blue, this method will not work.}}
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The <tt>gdisk</tt> commands to create a GPT partition table are as follows. Adapt sizes as necessary, although these defaults will work for most users. Start <code>gdisk</code>:
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<console>
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# ##i##gdisk
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</console>
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Within <tt>gdisk</tt>, follow these steps:
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'''Create a new empty partition table''' (This ''will'' erase all data on the disk when saved):
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<console>
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Command: ##i##o ↵
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This option deletes all partitions and creates a new protective MBR.
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Proceed? (Y/N): ##i##y ↵
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</console>
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'''Create Partition 1''' (boot):
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<console>
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Command: ##i##n ↵
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Partition Number: ##i##1 ↵
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First sector: ##i##↵
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Last sector: ##i##+500M ↵
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Hex Code: ##i##↵
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</console>
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'''Create Partition 2''' (swap):
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<console>
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Command: ##i##n ↵
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Partition Number: ##i##2 ↵
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First sector: ##i##↵
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Last sector: ##i##+4G ↵
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Hex Code: ##i##8200 ↵
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</console>
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'''Create Partition 3''' (root):
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<console>
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Command: ##i##n ↵
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Partition Number: ##i##3 ↵
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First sector: ##i##↵
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Last sector: ##i##↵##!i## (for rest of disk)
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Hex Code: ##i##↵
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</console>
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Along the way, you can type "<tt>p</tt>" and hit Enter to view your current partition table. If you make a mistake, you can type "<tt>d</tt>" to delete an existing partition that you created. When you are satisfied with your partition setup, type "<tt>w</tt>" to write your configuration to disk:
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'''Write Partition Table To Disk''':
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<console>
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Command: ##i##w ↵
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Do you want to proceed? (Y/N): ##i##Y ↵
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</console>
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The partition table will now be written to disk and <tt>gdisk</tt> will close.
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Now, your GPT/GUID partitions have been created, and will show up as the following ''block devices'' under Linux:
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* <tt>/dev/sda1</tt>, which will be used to hold the <tt>/boot</tt> filesystem,
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* <tt>/dev/sda2</tt>, which will be used for swap space, and
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* <tt>/dev/sda3</tt>, which will hold your root filesystem.
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==== Creating filesystems ====
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{{Note|This section covers both BIOS ''and'' UEFI installs. Don't skip it!}}
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Before your newly-created partitions can be used, the block devices need to be initialized with filesystem ''metadata''. This process is known as ''creating a filesystem'' on the block devices. After filesystems are created on the block devices, they can be mounted and used to store files.
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Let's keep this simple. Are you using old-school MBR partitions? If so, let's create an ext2 filesystem on /dev/sda1:
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<console>
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# ##i##mkfs.ext2 /dev/sda1
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</console>
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If you're using new-school GPT partitions for UEFI, you'll want to create a vfat filesystem on /dev/sda1, because this is what UEFI is able to read:
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<console>
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# ##i##mkfs.vfat -F 32 /dev/sda1
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</console>
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Now, let's create a swap partition. This partition will be used as disk-based virtual memory for your Funtoo Linux system.
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You will not create a filesystem on your swap partition, since it is not used to store files. But it is necessary to initialize it using the <code>mkswap</code> command. Then we'll run the <code>swapon</code> command to make your newly-initialized swap space immediately active within the live CD environment, in case it is needed during the rest of the install process:
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<console>
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# ##i##mkswap /dev/sda2
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# ##i##swapon /dev/sda2
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</console>
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Now, we need to create a root filesystem. This is where Funtoo Linux will live. We generally recommend ext4 or XFS root filesystems. If you're not sure, choose ext4. Here's how to create a root ext4 filesystem:
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<console>
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# ##i##mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda3
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</console>
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...and here's how to create an XFS root filesystem, if you choose to use XFS:
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<console>
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# ##i##mkfs.xfs /dev/sda3
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</console>
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Your filesystems (and swap) have all now been initialized, so that that can be mounted (attached to your existing directory heirarchy) and used to store files. We are ready to begin installing Funtoo Linux on these brand-new filesystems.
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+
{{fancywarning|1=
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When deploying an OpenVZ host, please use ext4 exclusively. The Parallels development team tests extensively with ext4, and modern versions of <code>openvz-rhel6-stable</code> are '''not''' compatible with XFS, and you may experience kernel bugs.
+
}}
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==== Mounting filesystems ====
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Mount the newly-created filesystems as follows, creating <code>/mnt/funtoo</code> as the installation mount point:
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##mkdir /mnt/funtoo
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# ##i##mount /dev/sda3 /mnt/funtoo
+
# ##i##mkdir /mnt/funtoo/boot
+
# ##i##mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/funtoo/boot
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</console>
+
 
+
Optionally, if you have a separate filesystem for <code>/home</code> or anything else:
+
 
+
<console>
+
# ##i##mkdir /mnt/funtoo/home
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# ##i##mount /dev/sda4 /mnt/funtoo/home
+
</console>
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+
If you have <code>/tmp</code> or <code>/var/tmp</code> on a separate filesystem, be sure to change the permissions of the mount point to be globally-writeable after mounting, as follows:
+
 
+
<console>
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# ##i##chmod 1777 /mnt/funtoo/tmp
+
</console>
+

Revision as of 19:17, March 26, 2015

This page lists processor instruction sets that can be enabled on Funtoo Linux systems using the CPU_FLAGS_* variables.

CPU_FLAGS_X86

FlagIntroducedByPart ofAdopted inName
mmx1997 (Pentium MMX)IntelMMXSee Wikipedia:MMX (instruction set)
mmxext1999AMDsseIntel Pentium III (as part of SSE)AMD MMX ExtensionsSee Wikipedia:Extended MMX
sse1999 (Pentium III)AMDAthlon XPStreaming SIMD Extensions (SSE)See Wikipedia:Streaming SIMD Extensions
sse22001 (Pentium 4)IntelAMD Athlon 64/OpteronStreaming SIMD Extensions 2 (SSE2)See Wikipedia:SSE2
sse32004 (Pentium 4 Prescott)IntelAMD Athlon 64 (some steppings)Streaming SIMD Extensions 3 (SSE3/PNI)See Wikipedia:SSE3
ssse32006 (Core 2 Woodcrest)IntelAMD Bobcat/BulldozerSupplemental Streaming SIMD Extensions 3 (SSSE3)See Wikipedia:SSSE3
sse4_12007 (Core Penryn)IntelAMD BulldozerSupplemental Streaming SIMD Extensions 4.1See Wikipedia:SSSE4#SSE4.1
sse4alate 2007 (Barcelona/Phenom)AMDN/ASupplemental Streaming SIMD Extensions 4aSee Wikipedia:SSSE4#SSE4a
sse4_2late 2008 (Nehalem/Core i7)IntelAMD BulldozerSupplemental Streaming SIMD Extensions 4.2See Wikipedia:SSSE4#SSE4.2
popcnt2007AMDIntel NehalemPOPCNTSee Wikipedia:SSE4#POPCNT_and_LZCNT
lzcnt2007AMDIntel HaswellLZCNTSee Wikipedia:SSE4#POPCNT_and_LZCNT