Difference between pages "Install/ru/Partitioning" and "Package:Ntp"

< Install(Difference between pages)
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<noinclude>
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{{Ebuild
{{InstallPart|процесс разбиения диска и создания файловых систем}}
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|Summary=Network Time Protocol suite/programs
</noinclude>
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|CatPkg=net-misc/ntp
=== Подготовка жесткого диска ===
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|Homepage=http://www.ntp.org/
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}}
  
В этой части  мы научимся различным способам установки Funtoo Linux -- и загрузки с -- жесткого диска.
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=== Installation ===
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{{console|body=
 +
###i## emerge net-misc/ntp
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}}
  
==== Введение ====
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=== Configuration ===
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==== Client ====
  
В прежние времена существовал лишь один способ загрузить PC-совместимый компьютер. Все наши дектопы и сервера имели стандартный PC BIOS, все наши харды использовали MBR и были разбиты используя схему разбивки MBR.  Вот как это все было и нам это нравилось!
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==== Server ====
  
Затем появились EFI и UEFI,  встроенные программы нового образца наряду со схемой разбивки GPT, поддерживающая диски размером более 2.2TБ. Неожиданно, нам стали доступны различные способы установки и загрузки Линукс систем . То, что было единым методом, стало чем-то более сложным.
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=== Runtime ===
 
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{{console|body=
Воспользуемся моментом и рассмотрим доступные способы конфигурации жесткого диска для загрузки Funtoo Linux. Данное Руководство рекомендует способ "по-старинке" , загрузка BIOS и использование MBR.  Данный способ работает (за исключением редких случаев) и всесторонне поддерживается. И в этом нет ничего плохого. Если Ваш жесткий диск 2TБ или меньшего размера это не является препятствием для использования всего дискового пространства.
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###i## rc-update add ntpd
 
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###i## rc-update add ntp-client
Но, бывают ситуации когда метод "по-старинке"  не является оптимальным. Если Ваш жесткий диск размером более 2TБ , MBR разбивка не сможет обеспечить доступ ко всему дисковому пространству.  Это одна из причин.  Вторая причина: существуют  "PC" системы, которые более не поддерживают  BIOS загрузку  и  форсируют UEFI загрузку. Из чувства сострадания к тем, кто попал в затруднение перед выбором, это Руководство также описывает установку и загрузку UEFI систем.
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###i## rc
 
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Мы всё же рекомендуем разбивку "по-старинке". Загрузчик, который мы используем для загрузки Линукс в этом руководстве называется GRUB,  таки образом мы называем метод '''BIOS + GRUB (MBR)''' . Это традиционный способ установки на PC-совместимые компьютеры.
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Если Вам необходимо ипользвание UEFI для загрузки, мы советуем не использовать MBR вообще, ввиду того, что некоторые системы поддерживают MBR,  некоторые нет. Вместо, мы советуем использование UEFI  для загрузки GRUB, который, затем в свою очередь загрузит Линукс. Мы называем этот  метод как '''UEFI + GRUB (GPT)'''.
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И да, есть еще несколько способов, некоторые из них задокументированы в [[Boot Methods]] page. Обычно мы рекомендуем  '''BIOS + GRUB (GPT)''' метод но он ограничивается не столь широкой поддержкой со стороны комплектующих.
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'''The big question is -- which boot method should you use?''' Here's how to tell.
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;Principle 1 - Old School: If you can reliably boot System Rescue CD and it shows you an initial light blue menu, you are booting the CD using the BIOS, and it's likely that you can thus boot Funtoo Linux using the BIOS. So, go old-school and use BIOS booting, ''unless'' you have some reason to use UEFI, such as having a >2.2TB system disk. In that case, see Principle 2, as your system may also support UEFI booting.
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;Principle 2 - New School: If you can reliably boot System Rescue CD and it shows you an initial black and white menu -- congratulations, your system is configured to support UEFI booting. This means that you are ready to install Funtoo Linux to boot via UEFI. Your system may still support BIOS booting, but just be trying UEFI first. You can poke around in your BIOS boot configuration and play with this.
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;What's the Big Difference between Old School and New School?: Here's the deal. If you go with old-school MBR partitions, your <code>/boot</code> partition will be an ext2 filesystem, and you'll use <code>fdisk</code> to create your MBR partitions. If you go with new-school GPT partitions and UEFI booting, your <code>/boot</code> partition will be a vfat filesystem, because this is what UEFI is able to read, and you will use <code>gdisk</code> to create your GPT partitions. And you'll install GRUB a bit differently. That's about all it comes down to, in case you were curious.
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;Also Note: To install Funtoo Linux to boot via the New School UEFI method, you must boot System Rescue CD using UEFI -- and see an initial black and white screen. Otherwise, UEFI will not be active and you will not be able to set it up!
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{{Note|'''Some motherboards may appear to support UEFI, but don't.''' Do your research. For example, the Award BIOS in my Gigabyte GA-990FXA-UD7 rev 1.1 has an option to enable UEFI boot for CD/DVD. '''This is not sufficient for enabling UEFI boot for hard drives and installing Funtoo Linux.''' UEFI must be supported for both removable media (so you can boot System Rescue CD using UEFI) as well as fixed media (so you can boot your new Funtoo Linux installation.) It turns out that later revisions of this board (rev 3.0) have a new BIOS that fully supports UEFI boot.  This may point to a third principle -- know thy hardware.}}
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==== Old-School (BIOS/MBR) Method ====
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{{Note|Use this method if you are booting using your BIOS, and if your System Rescue CD initial boot menu was light blue. If you're going to use the new-school method, [[#New-School (UEFI/GPT) Method|click here to jump down to UEFI/GPT.]]}}
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===== Preparation =====
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First, it's a good idea to make sure that you've found the correct hard disk to partition. Try this command and verify that <code>/dev/sda</code> is the disk that you want to partition:
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<console>
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# ##i##fdisk -l /dev/sda
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Disk /dev/sda: 640.1 GB, 640135028736 bytes, 1250263728 sectors
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Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
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Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
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I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
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Disk label type: gpt
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#        Start          End    Size  Type            Name
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1        2048  1250263694  596.2G  Linux filesyste Linux filesystem
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</console>
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Now, it's recommended that you erase any existing MBR or GPT partition tables on the disk, which could confuse the system's BIOS at boot time. We do this using <code>sgdisk</code>:
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{{fancywarning|This will make any existing partitions inaccessible! You are '''strongly''' cautioned and advised to backup any critical data before proceeding.}}
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<console>
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# ##i##sgdisk --zap-all /dev/sda
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Creating new GPT entries.
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GPT data structures destroyed! You may now partition the disk using fdisk or
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other utilities.
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</console>
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This output is also nothing to worry about, as the command still succeded:
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<console>
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***************************************************************
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Found invalid GPT and valid MBR; converting MBR to GPT format
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in memory.
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***************************************************************
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</console>
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===== Partitioning =====
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Now we will use <code>fdisk</code> to create the MBR partition table and partitions:
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<console>
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# ##i##fdisk /dev/sda
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</console>
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Within <code>fdisk</code>, follow these steps:
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'''Empty the partition table''':
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<console>
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Command (m for help): ##i##o ↵
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</console>
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'''Create Partition 1''' (boot):
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<console>
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Command (m for help): ##i##n ↵
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Partition type (default p): ##i##↵
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Partition number (1-4, default 1): ##i##↵
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First sector: ##i##↵
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Last sector: ##i##+128M ↵
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</console>
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'''Create Partition 2''' (swap):
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<console>
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Command (m for help): ##i##n ↵
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Partition type (default p): ##i##↵
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Partition number (2-4, default 2): ##i##↵
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First sector: ##i##↵
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Last sector: ##i##+2G ↵
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Command (m for help): ##i##t ↵
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Partition number (1,2, default 2): ##i## ↵
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Hex code (type L to list all codes): ##i##82 ↵
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</console>
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'''Create the root partition:'''
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<console>
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Command (m for help): ##i##n ↵
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Partition type (default p): ##i##↵
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Partition number (3,4, default 3): ##i##↵
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First sector: ##i##↵
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Last sector: ##i##↵
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</console>
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'''Verify the partition table:'''
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<console>
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Command (m for help): ##i##p
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Disk /dev/sda: 298.1 GiB, 320072933376 bytes, 625142448 sectors
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Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
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Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
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I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
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Disklabel type: dos
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Disk identifier: 0x82abc9a6
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Device    Boot    Start      End    Blocks  Id System
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/dev/sda1          2048    264191    131072  83 Linux
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/dev/sda2        264192  4458495  2097152  82 Linux swap / Solaris
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/dev/sda3        4458496 625142447 310341976  83 Linux
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</console>
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'''Write the parition table to disk:'''
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<console>
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Command (m for help): ##i##w
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</console>
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Your new MBR partition table will now be written to your system disk.
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{{Note|You're done with partitioning! Now, jump over to [[#Creating filesystems|Creating filesystems]].}}
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==== New-School (UEFI/GPT) Method ====
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{{Note|Use this method if you are booting using UEFI, and if your System Rescue CD initial boot menu was black and white. If it was light blue, this method will not work.}}
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The <tt>gdisk</tt> commands to create a GPT partition table are as follows. Adapt sizes as necessary, although these defaults will work for most users. Start <code>gdisk</code>:
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<console>
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# ##i##gdisk
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</console>
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Within <tt>gdisk</tt>, follow these steps:
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'''Create a new empty partition table''' (This ''will'' erase all data on the disk when saved):
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<console>
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Command: ##i##o ↵
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This option deletes all partitions and creates a new protective MBR.
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Proceed? (Y/N): ##i##y ↵
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</console>
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'''Create Partition 1''' (boot):
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<console>
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Command: ##i##n ↵
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Partition Number: ##i##1 ↵
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First sector: ##i##↵
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Last sector: ##i##+500M ↵
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Hex Code: ##i##↵
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</console>
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'''Create Partition 2''' (swap):
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<console>
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Command: ##i##n ↵
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Partition Number: ##i##2 ↵
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First sector: ##i##↵
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Last sector: ##i##+4G ↵
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Hex Code: ##i##8200 ↵
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</console>
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'''Create Partition 3''' (root):
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<console>
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Command: ##i##n ↵
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Partition Number: ##i##3 ↵
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First sector: ##i##↵
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Last sector: ##i##↵##!i## (for rest of disk)
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Hex Code: ##i##↵
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</console>
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Along the way, you can type "<tt>p</tt>" and hit Enter to view your current partition table. If you make a mistake, you can type "<tt>d</tt>" to delete an existing partition that you created. When you are satisfied with your partition setup, type "<tt>w</tt>" to write your configuration to disk:
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'''Write Partition Table To Disk''':
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<console>
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Command: ##i##w ↵
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Do you want to proceed? (Y/N): ##i##Y ↵
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</console>
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The partition table will now be written to disk and <tt>gdisk</tt> will close.
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Now, your GPT/GUID partitions have been created, and will show up as the following ''block devices'' under Linux:
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* <tt>/dev/sda1</tt>, which will be used to hold the <tt>/boot</tt> filesystem,
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* <tt>/dev/sda2</tt>, which will be used for swap space, and
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* <tt>/dev/sda3</tt>, which will hold your root filesystem.
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==== Creating filesystems ====
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{{Note|This section covers both BIOS ''and'' UEFI installs. Don't skip it!}}
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Before your newly-created partitions can be used, the block devices need to be initialized with filesystem ''metadata''. This process is known as ''creating a filesystem'' on the block devices. After filesystems are created on the block devices, they can be mounted and used to store files.
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Let's keep this simple. Are you using old-school MBR partitions? If so, let's create an ext2 filesystem on /dev/sda1:
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<console>
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# ##i##mkfs.ext2 /dev/sda1
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</console>
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If you're using new-school GPT partitions for UEFI, you'll want to create a vfat filesystem on /dev/sda1, because this is what UEFI is able to read:
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<console>
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# ##i##mkfs.vfat -F 32 /dev/sda1
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</console>
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Now, let's create a swap partition. This partition will be used as disk-based virtual memory for your Funtoo Linux system.
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You will not create a filesystem on your swap partition, since it is not used to store files. But it is necessary to initialize it using the <code>mkswap</code> command. Then we'll run the <code>swapon</code> command to make your newly-initialized swap space immediately active within the live CD environment, in case it is needed during the rest of the install process:
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<console>
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# ##i##mkswap /dev/sda2
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# ##i##swapon /dev/sda2
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</console>
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Now, we need to create a root filesystem. This is where Funtoo Linux will live. We generally recommend ext4 or XFS root filesystems. If you're not sure, choose ext4. Here's how to create a root ext4 filesystem:
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<console>
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# ##i##mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda3
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</console>
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...and here's how to create an XFS root filesystem, if you choose to use XFS:
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<console>
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# ##i##mkfs.xfs /dev/sda3
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</console>
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Your filesystems (and swap) have all now been initialized, so that that can be mounted (attached to your existing directory heirarchy) and used to store files. We are ready to begin installing Funtoo Linux on these brand-new filesystems.
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{{fancywarning|1=
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When deploying an OpenVZ host, please use ext4 exclusively. The Parallels development team tests extensively with ext4, and modern versions of <code>openvz-rhel6-stable</code> are '''not''' compatible with XFS, and you may experience kernel bugs.
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}}
 
}}
  
==== Mounting filesystems ====
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{{EbuildFooter}}
 
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Mount the newly-created filesystems as follows, creating <code>/mnt/funtoo</code> as the installation mount point:
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<console>
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# ##i##mkdir /mnt/funtoo
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# ##i##mount /dev/sda3 /mnt/funtoo
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# ##i##mkdir /mnt/funtoo/boot
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# ##i##mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/funtoo/boot
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</console>
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Optionally, if you have a separate filesystem for <code>/home</code> or anything else:
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<console>
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# ##i##mkdir /mnt/funtoo/home
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# ##i##mount /dev/sda4 /mnt/funtoo/home
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</console>
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If you have <code>/tmp</code> or <code>/var/tmp</code> on a separate filesystem, be sure to change the permissions of the mount point to be globally-writeable after mounting, as follows:
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<console>
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# ##i##chmod 1777 /mnt/funtoo/tmp
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</console>
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Revision as of 09:58, January 6, 2015

net-misc/ntp


Source Repository:Gentoo Portage Tree
Homepage

Summary: Network Time Protocol suite/programs

Use Flags

openntpd
Allow ntp to be installed alongside openntpd
parse-clocks
Add support for PARSE clocks
samba
Provide support for Samba's signing daemon (needed for Active Directory domain controllers)

News

Drobbins

Better Experiences: Ego and Vim

Info on Funtoo's new personality tool called 'ego', and user-focused updates to vim's defaults.
27 April 2015 by Drobbins
Drobbins

How We're Keeping You At the Center of the Funtoo Universe

Read about recent developments that keep you, our users, at the forefront of our focus as Funtoo moves forward.
10 April 2015 by Drobbins
Mgorny

New OpenGL management in Funtoo

Funtoo is switching to an improved system for managing multiple OpenGL providers (Mesa/Xorg, AMD and NVIDIA). The update may involve blockers and file collisions.
30 March 2015 by Mgorny
View More News...

Ntp

Tip

This is a wiki page. To edit it, Create a Funtoo account. Then log in and then click here to edit this page. See our editing guidelines to becoming a wiki-editing pro.


Installation

# emerge net-misc/ntp


Configuration

Client

Server

Runtime

# rc-update add ntpd
# rc-update add ntp-client
# rc