Difference between pages "Funtoo Profiles" and "Web-server-stack"

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== What is a profile? ==
 
  
In Gentoo and Funtoo Linux, profiles are used to define base system settings, and have historically had a lot of untapped potential. In Funtoo Linux, I wanted to take advantage of some of this potential to allow Funtoo Linux users to easily tailor their system for various types of roles. Enter the new Funtoo profile system.
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== Pre-install considerations ==
 +
=== ssl ===
 +
Ssl [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wildcard_certificate wild card certificates] can use the same certificate to cover several subdomain names.  As in https://wiki.funtoo.org https://www.funtoo.org https://forums.funtoo.org can all use the same certificate.  https://funtoo.org would not be covered under the wildcard, so [[User:Threesixes|Threesixes]] ([[User talk:Threesixes|talk]]) suggests using http://domain.tld as a http navigation splash page directory. All that is required to setup a ca signed ssl certificate is an email on the server. https://www.startssl.com offers free ssl ca certificates, though there are several other certificate [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Certificate_authority#Providers providers].  Many web apps require you set your URL & will have problems if your URL is set to http://, rather than https://
  
== What It Is ==
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=== sockets vs tcp stack ===
 +
Sockets have less overhead but can not be shared across jails, or to other machines.  Tcp stack has more overhead but is far more flexible.
  
Historically, users have had to add a ton of settings to <tt>/etc/make.conf</tt> to customize their Gentoo or Funtoo Linux system, which made setup of the operating system more difficult than it should be.
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=== Email Servers ===
 +
* {{Package|mail-mta/postfix}}  <-- suggested
 +
* {{Package|mail-mta/ssmtp}}
 +
* {{Package|mail-mta/exim}}
 +
* {{Package|mail-mta/sendmail}}
 +
* {{Package|mail-mta/nullmailer}}
  
In Gentoo Linux, it is possible to only define one ''system profile''. Think of a system profile as the default settings that Portage uses for building everything on your system.
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=== FTP Servers ===
 +
It is common practice to use FTP servers to host files for downloading.
  
In Funtoo Linux, multiple profiles can be enabled at the same time. These include:
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* {{Package|net-ftp/vsftpd}} <-- suggested
 +
* {{Package|net-ftp/proftpd}}
 +
* {{Package|net-ftp/pure-ftpd}}
 +
* {{Package|net-ftp/qshare}}
  
* '''arch''' - one arch profile is enabled, at build time, and is not changed. This defines CPU architecture-specific settings.
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== Webserver ==
* '''build''' - one build profile is enabled, at build time, and is generally not changed. It defines the type of build, such as 'current' or 'stable', and associated settings.
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Web servers come in several varieties. The most common stack is known as LAMP which stands for linux apache mysql php. [[User:Threesixes|Threesixes]] ([[User talk:Threesixes|talk]]) suggests setting up the web server stack by selecting the database first, then scripting language second, and web server 3rd.
* '''flavor''' - one flavor is enabled per system, and can be changed by the user. This defines the general use of the system, such as 'minimal', 'core', 'desktop', 'workstation'
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* '''mix-in''' - zero or more mix-ins can be enabled that enable settings specific to a particular subset of features, such as 'gnome', 'kde', 'media', 'mate', 'X', 'hardened'
+
  
{{Fancynote|1=
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=== Databases ===
See [[Flavors and Mix-ins]] for a complete list of all flavors and mix-ins available in Funtoo Linux, along with descriptions of what each one does.}}
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* {{Package|dev-db/mysql}}
  
=== Origins and Benefits ===
+
mariadb is a drop in replacement for mysql
 +
* {{Package|dev-db/mariadb}} <-- suggested
  
This new system is really a completion of the original cascading profile design that was designed by Daniel Robbins and implemented by Seemant Kulleen as part of Portage. Funtoo Profiles designed to leverage the existing cascading profile system and provide something much more useable and maintainable for users and developers alike. Here are some of its benefits:
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percona is a drop in replacement for mysql
 +
* {{Package|dev-db/percona-server}}
  
* Fewer settings in /etc/make.conf. <tt>CHOST</tt> and <tt>ARCH</tt> no longer set in <tt>/etc/make.conf</tt>.
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* {{Package|dev-db/postgresql-server}}
* Separation of concerns -- arch, build, and flavor-related settings are organized together.
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* {{Package|dev-db/sqlite}}
* User flexibility - any number of mix-ins can be enabled to tweak masks or USE settings as needed.
+
  
{{fancynote|See [[Custom Profiles]] for information on how to extend the profile system.}}
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=== Languages ===
 +
* {{Package|dev-lang/php}} <-- suggested
 +
* {{Package|dev-lang/perl}}
 +
* {{Package|dev-lang/python}}
  
== What It Looks Like ==
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=== Web Servers ===
Here's a what a list of profiles looks like:
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* {{Package|www-servers/apache}}
<console>
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* {{Package|www-servers/cherokee}}
###i## eselect profile list
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* {{Package|www-servers/nginx}} <-- suggested
Currently available arch profiles:
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* {{Package|www-servers/tengine}}
  [1]  funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/arch/x86-32bit
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* {{Package|www-servers/lighttpd}}
  [2]  funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/arch/x86-64bit
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Currently available build profiles:
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  [3]  funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/build/stable
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  [4]  funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/build/current
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  [5]  funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/build/experimental
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Currently available flavor profiles:
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  [6]  funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/flavor/minimal
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  [7]  funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/flavor/core
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  [8]  funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/flavor/desktop
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  [9]  funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/flavor/workstation
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Currently available mix-ins profiles:
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  [10]  funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/audio
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  [11]  funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/console-extras
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  [12]  funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/dvd
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  [13]  funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/gnome
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  [14]  funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/kde
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  [15]  funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/media
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  [16]  funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/print
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  [17]  funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/python3-only
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  [18]  funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/rhel5-compat
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  [19]  funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/server-db
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  [20]  funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/server-mail
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  [21]  funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/server-web
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  [22]  funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/X
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  [23]  funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/xfce
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</console>
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As you can see, there are multiple types of profiles to choose from.
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Let's move on to how to start using it.
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== Switch to the Funtoo 1.0 Profile ==
 
  
=== Using eselect ===
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=== SSL Termination, Reverse Proxies, & load balancing ===
The preferred method of adding and removing profiles is to use [[eselect|eselect profile]]. This ensures that profiles are added correctly and in the proper order. The order is very important for things to work right.
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Reverse proxies are useful, some cache static data, and shuck out cached pages rather than hitting the web server. Some pass requests to backend nodes high availability clustering your website, some web servers have this functionality built in.
For a list of options, run:
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<console>
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###i## eselect profile help
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</console>
+
  
As stated by the previous command output, let's see the list of what profiles currently defined the option '''list''':
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* {{Package|www-servers/nginx}}
 +
* {{package|net-misc/stunnel}}
 +
* {{package|www-servers/pound}} <-- suggested for ssl termination & load balancing
 +
* {{Package|www-servers/varnish}} <-- suggested for caching to reduce power consumption & reduce the need of constantly rebuilding pages
 +
* {{Package|net-proxy/squid}}
  
<console>
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== Post install ==
###i## eselect profile list
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There are several considerations to take into account with a web server install, such as setting up an email server, setting up a firewall, firewalling web applications, and dynamically firewalling attackers.
Currently available arch profiles:
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  [1]  funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/arch/x86-64bit *
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Currently available build profiles:
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  [2]  funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/build/stable
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  [3]  funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/build/current *
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  [4]  funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/build/experimental
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Currently available flavor profiles:
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  [5]  funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/flavor/minimal
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  [6]  funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/flavor/core
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  [7]  funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/flavor/desktop *
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Currently available mix-ins profiles:
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  [8]  funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/dvd
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  [9]  funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/gnome
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  [10]  funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/kde
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  [11]  funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/media
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  [12]  funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/rhel5-compat
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  [13]  funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/server-db
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  [14]  funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/server-mail
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  [15]  funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/server-web
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  [16]  funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/workstation
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  [17]  funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/workstation-minimal
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</console>
+
  
As in several other Funtoo utilities, a star on the right indicates an active item (your case may differ from the example above). To add, say, the mix-ins '''dvd''', '''kde''' and '''media''' you have to enter:
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=== Firewalls ===
 +
* {{Package|net-firewall/nftables}}
 +
* {{Package|net-firewall/iptables}} <-- suggested
 +
* {{Package|net-firewall/firewalld}}
 +
* {{Package|net-firewall/ufw}}
  
<console>
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=== Dynamic Firewalling ===
###i## eselect profile add 8
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* {{Package|app-admin/sshguard}} <-- suggested
###i## eselect profile add 10
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* {{Package|net-analyzer/fail2ban}}
###i## eselect profile add 11
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</console>
+
  
Or, in a one-shot:
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=== Webapp Firewalls ===
  
<console>
+
Apache has an option for webapplication firewalling.  as far as [[User:Threesixes|Threesixes]] ([[User talk:Threesixes|talk]]) can tell this passes login errors & excessive site fuzzing to logs for fail2ban/sshguard to deal with.
###i## eselect profile add 8 10 11
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https://github.com/nbs-system/naxsi is a web app firewall for nginx.
</console>
+
  
Verification:
+
=== Benchmarking ===
 +
It's a good idea to benchmark your system, server, & websites.  There are several tools to assist you in doing this.
  
<console>
+
* http://toolbar.netcraft.com/site_report?url=undefined#last_reboot
###i## eselect profile list 
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* http://gtmetrix.com/
Currently available arch profiles:
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* http://www.showslow.com/
  [1]  funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/arch/x86-64bit *
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* http://yslow.org/
Currently available build profiles:
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* http://getfirebug.com/
  [2]  funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/build/stable
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* {{Package|app-admin/apache-tools}}
  [3]  funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/build/current *
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* {{Package|app-benchmarks/sysbench}}
  [4]  funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/build/experimental
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* {{Package|app-benchmarks/phoronix-test-suite}}
Currently available flavor profiles:
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* {{Package|app-benchmarks/iozone}}
  [5]  funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/flavor/minimal
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* {{Package|app-benchmarks/piozone}}
  [6]  funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/flavor/core
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* {{Package|app-benchmarks/siege}}
  [7]  funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/flavor/desktop *
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* {{Package|app-benchmarks/ramspeed}}
Currently available mix-ins profiles:
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* {{Package|app-benchmarks/jmeter}}
  [8]  funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/dvd *
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  [9]  funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/gnome
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  [10]  funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/kde *
+
  [11]  funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/media *
+
  [12]  funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/rhel5-compat
+
  [13]  funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/server-db
+
  [14]  funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/server-mail
+
  [15]  funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/server-web
+
  [16]  funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/workstation
+
  [17]  funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/workstation-minimal
+
</console>
+
 
+
{{Fancynote| You must use the numbers to reference the profiles bits you want.}}
+
 
+
No magic here, what you add is put by portage in the <tt>/etc/portage/make.profile/parent</tt> file. In the present case this file contains:
+
 
+
<console>
+
###i## cat /etc/portage/make.profile/parent
+
gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/arch/x86-64bit
+
gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/build/current
+
gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/flavor/desktop
+
gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/dvd
+
gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/gnome
+
gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/kde
+
gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/media
+
</console>
+
 
+
== For Developers ==
+
 
+
=== Define the profile sub-sets you will use ===
+
 
+
So far in Funtoo we have used the exact same profiles as Gentoo thus Funtoo/2008.0 was strictly the same thing as Gentoo/2008.0 or the barely the same 10.0. This (monolithic) profile was set though a symbolic link named '''/etc/make.profile''' pointing on a complex directory architecture located somewhere under '''/usr/portage/profiles'''. This is no longer valid with the Funtoo 1.0 profiles as they are split in several smaller bricks which are then glued together via the  '''/etc/portage/make.profile/parent''' file (You do not need to include everything, just use the "bricks" you need). Those bricks belongs to several categories:
+
 
+
1. MANDATORY -- An "arch" profile which defines settings for a particular architecture. You'll want to set this to whatever arch your system is and leave it alone. '''Setting it to a different arch than your system could severely break it.'''
+
 
+
2. MANDATORY -- A "build" profile which should match the tree you wish to use. '''Stable''', '''Current''' (~arch), or '''Experimental''' (use it if you are brave enough and find '''current''' too stable).
+
 
+
3. MANDATORY -- A "flavor" profile (what was previously known as ''profiles'' is still known as such in Gentoo) which describes the kind of system you want.
+
* minimal - Be warned, minimal is exactly what it says, the minimal profile stuff you need for a usable system, nothing else. This is really for people who know what they're doing.
+
* core - This is the core profile. This is for stuff that affects both desktops and servers.
+
* desktop - Exactly what it says. If you're using a desktop, you should set this as your flavor.
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* server - If you're running a server, you should set this as your flavor.
+
 
+
4. OPTIONAL -- One or more "mix-ins" profiles which describe optional add-ons. 'mix-ins' are the heart of the Funtoo 1.0 profiles. Unlike the monolithic profiles which sets a massive amount of use flags and options for you, we've split them into logical add-on profiles. For instance if you want support for gnome, you would add the gnome mix-in to your current profiles. That mix-in sets all the proper use flags and such for gnome. Same with others. Want dvd support? Add that one in. Using a rhel5 kernel which requires special versions of packages such as udev? There's a mix-in for that too. Run a mail server? web server? There's mix-ins for those also. Expect this category to grow in the future as new mix-ins are created.
+
 
+
The contents of '''/etc/portage/make.profile/parent''' for a basic setup might look like this:
+
 
+
<pre>
+
gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/arch/x86-64bit
+
gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/build/current
+
gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/flavor/core
+
</pre>
+
 
+
A more rounded setup for a desktop might look like this:
+
 
+
<pre>
+
gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/arch/x86-64bit
+
gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/build/current
+
gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/flavor/desktop
+
gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/dvd
+
gentoo:funtoo/1.0/linux-gnu/mix-ins/media
+
</pre>
+
 
+
== Related ==
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* [[Flavors and Mix-ins]]
+
 
+
[[Category:Funtoo features]]
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[[Category:Portage]]
+
[[Category:Labs]]
+
[[Category:HOWTO]]
+
[[Category:Official Documentation]]
+

Latest revision as of 13:55, January 18, 2015

Pre-install considerations

ssl

Ssl wild card certificates can use the same certificate to cover several subdomain names. As in https://wiki.funtoo.org https://www.funtoo.org https://forums.funtoo.org can all use the same certificate. https://funtoo.org would not be covered under the wildcard, so Threesixes (talk) suggests using http://domain.tld as a http navigation splash page directory. All that is required to setup a ca signed ssl certificate is an email on the server. https://www.startssl.com offers free ssl ca certificates, though there are several other certificate providers. Many web apps require you set your URL & will have problems if your URL is set to http://, rather than https://

sockets vs tcp stack

Sockets have less overhead but can not be shared across jails, or to other machines. Tcp stack has more overhead but is far more flexible.

Email Servers

FTP Servers

It is common practice to use FTP servers to host files for downloading.

Webserver

Web servers come in several varieties. The most common stack is known as LAMP which stands for linux apache mysql php. Threesixes (talk) suggests setting up the web server stack by selecting the database first, then scripting language second, and web server 3rd.

Databases

mariadb is a drop in replacement for mysql

percona is a drop in replacement for mysql

  • dev-db/percona-server (package not on wiki - please add)
  • dev-db/postgresql-server (package not on wiki - please add)
  • dev-db/sqlite (package not on wiki - please add)

Languages

Web Servers


SSL Termination, Reverse Proxies, & load balancing

Reverse proxies are useful, some cache static data, and shuck out cached pages rather than hitting the web server. Some pass requests to backend nodes high availability clustering your website, some web servers have this functionality built in.

  • Nginx
  • net-misc/stunnel (package not on wiki - please add)
  • www-servers/pound (package not on wiki - please add) <-- suggested for ssl termination & load balancing
  • Varnish <-- suggested for caching to reduce power consumption & reduce the need of constantly rebuilding pages
  • Squid

Post install

There are several considerations to take into account with a web server install, such as setting up an email server, setting up a firewall, firewalling web applications, and dynamically firewalling attackers.

Firewalls

  • net-firewall/nftables (package not on wiki - please add)
  • Iptables <-- suggested
  • net-firewall/firewalld (package not on wiki - please add)
  • net-firewall/ufw (package not on wiki - please add)

Dynamic Firewalling

Webapp Firewalls

Apache has an option for webapplication firewalling. as far as Threesixes (talk) can tell this passes login errors & excessive site fuzzing to logs for fail2ban/sshguard to deal with. https://github.com/nbs-system/naxsi is a web app firewall for nginx.

Benchmarking

It's a good idea to benchmark your system, server, & websites. There are several tools to assist you in doing this.