GNOME First Steps/zh-cn
GNOME 3 is an easy and elegant way to use your computer. It is designed to put you in control and bring freedom to everybody. GNOME 3 is developed by the GNOME community, a diverse, international group of contributors that is supported by an independent, non-profit foundation. GNOME
Before attempting to emerge Gnome, make sure that you have installed and tested the X Window System on your computer.
Preparing to emerge
After verifying that you have installed the X Window system on your computer, change your system flavor to desktop, and enable the gnome profile mix-in. To accomplish this, run the following:
root # epro flavor desktop root # epro mix-ins +gnome
By enabling the gnome mix-in, various settings, including the
USE portage variable, will be optimized to provide you with a relatively painless Gnome install.
可选的 Wayland 支持
在 1.3 版本中，现在可以使用 Wayland 而不是 X 作为显示技术。如果想启用这个功能——这是可选的——还必须运行以下命令：
root # epro mix-ins +wayland
While wayland is supported in Funtoo, wayland itself is not considered to be mature and most people will experience better results using X rather than wayland.
When using Wayland, if you are using nvidia-drivers, you must manually enable NVIDIA's own KMS by adding the following to your
nvidia-drm.modeset=1. KMS must be enabled manually when using nvidia-drivers.
X 或 Wayland
You will want to make sure you run
dispatch-conf to update your configuration files after everything emerges. In particular, take a look at
/etc/gdm/custom.conf and ensure that the following setting is configured to match whether or not you are running Wayland. This controls whether or not gdm runs using Wayland. If gdm starts in Wayland, then it is able to launch either X or Wayland sessions. If Wayland is disabled in gdm, then it will only be able to start X sessions.
The Funtoo Linux repositories include two ebuild "meta packages" that can be used to install Gnome. One of them,
gnome-light installs a bare-bones gnome desktop with few "extra" applications and games that can be found in the
games-* portage categories, respectively. If you are interested in having a Gnome desktop with extra applications like a photo viewer, text editor, sound player, font viewer, etc, immediately after installing the Gnome packages, consider emerging the
gnome package instead of
Individual Gnome applications can be installed on top of a
gnome-light installation, allowing you to only install the applications you need and limit unnecessary bloat.
Below are two lists comparing some of the different packages installed by default with a
... and many other applications.
| Best for:
|How to install:
||How to install:
安装 GNOME 应该遵循的步骤如下：
root # emerge -auDN @world root # emerge gnome
Make sure your
VIDEO_CARDS setting in
/etc/make.conf is set appropriately. This is needed even if you are using wayland.
A few finishing touches
专有的 NVIDIA 驱动程序
While many video drivers (those that are part of xorg-x11) do not require users to be part of the
video group for hardware acceleration, the proprietary NVIDIA drivers definitely do require this. Please make sure that any non-root user is part of the
video group, and ensure that Nouveau kernel modules are blacklisted. Setup steps for proprietary NVIDIA drivers can be found on the the NVIDIA Linux Display Drivers page.
Users of other graphics drivers typically don't need to perform any steps other than ensure that the correct
gfxcard- mix-in is enabled and the system is updated (via
emerge -auDN @world to ensure that this support is active. See the Graphics Settings portion of the Installation documentation for more information on the different mix-ins available.
Setting up xdm (GUI log-in)
Most users of Gnome are satisfied using
gdm, the Gnome display manager, to log in to Gnome. To clarify: a display manager provides a graphical interface during system startup that allows users to log in to a desktop environment.
By default, GNOME displays the
/etc/motd file for several seconds after you log in via GDM. The best way to eliminate this delay is to remove the unnecessary
/etc/motd file, which only contains information related to when your stage3 was built:
root # rm /etc/motd
By default, after installing Gnome, GDM is not enabled. To enable GDM, edit
/etc/conf.d/xdm and set the
DISPLAYMANAGER variable to
gdm instead of the default,
xdm. When finished, your
/etc/conf.d/xdm file should look like:
# We always try and start X on a static VT. The various DMs normally default # to using VT7. If you wish to use the xdm init script, then you should ensure # that the VT checked is the same VT your DM wants to use. We do this check to # ensure that you haven't accidentally configured something to run on the VT # in your /etc/inittab file so that you don't get a dead keyboard. CHECKVT=7 # What display manager do you use ? # NOTE: If this is set in /etc/rc.conf, that setting will override this one. DISPLAYMANAGER="gdm"
Once you finish configuring that file, add the
xdm service to the default runlevel so that GDM will start automatically when your system has finished loading other services.
xdm need dbus service started before. To achieve this:
root # rc-update add dbus default root # rc-update add elogind default
Above command adds dbus to list of services to be started at boot. At this point, you are encouraged to reboot your system to get system services initialized in the proper state, and to ensure that any newly-rebuilt services are running:
root # reboot
After the system reboots, log in and start the
root # /etc/init.d/xdm start
Hopefully, all goes well and you see a graphical login screen. If you would like
xdm to start automatically at boot, you can add it to your default runlevel as follows:
root # rc-update add xdm default
Setting up xinitrc (text-based log-in)
If, instead of using a display manager like GDM, you would rather log into the console and start Gnome from there, add the following to your
# Fix Missing Applications in Gnome export XDG_MENU_PREFIX=gnome- # Properly Launch the Desired X Session exec ck-launch-session gnome-session
If you need support for different input sources, there is no longer a need to configure IBus or SCIM in your
~.xinitrc file as GNOME uses IBus natively. Simply configure it in the Gnome Control Center under the Region & Language section.
Upgrading from older Gnome releases
To update either
gnome to a newer version, run the following command:
root # emerge -vauDN world
For bluetooth support under Gnome, ensure that:
- Bluetooth support is enabled within your kernel (using modules is fine).
- Your bluetooth hardware is turned on.
- Your user is in the
After ensuring those two things, the
bluetooth startup script can be added to the default runlevel and started:
root # rc-update add bluetooth default root # rc
rc command has been run, the
bluetooth init file has been run, meaning that you should now be able to navigate to the Gnome Control Center's Bluetooth section to turn bluetooth on. The icon next to devices should now animate and you should be able to discover and add devices such as bluetooth keyboards and mice.
Additional kernel drivers may be necessary for certain input devices. For example, for the bluetooth Apple Magic Trackpad, the following option must be enabled in your kernel:
Under Device Drivers-->HID support-->HID bus support-->Special HID drivers:
<M> Apple Magic Mouse/Trackpad multi-touch support
To enable printing support, add the
cupsd init file to the default runlevel and then start the cupsd service by running the
root # rc-update add cupsd default root # rc
You should now be able to navigate to the Gnome Control Center's Printers sections and add printers to your system. After adding printers to your system, you should, hopefully, be able to print to them. If you have troubles with the default printer drivers, consider reading
To enable scanning support, add your user account (and the accounts of any other users who may need to scan) to the
lp group. By adding your user account to this group, you will have access to any locally attached scanner:
root # gpasswd -a <username> lp
After adding yourself and any other desired users to the
lp local printing group, install
xsane, a graphical scanning frontend, by running the following command:
root # emerge xsane
When you run
xsane, it should be able to access your scanner.
Automatically Starting Applications at Login
When using an old-fashioned Template:~/.xinitrc, loading applications when X starts is relatively easy, simply add different applications to launch on separate lines in the file. When using GDM, this can also be accomplished with ease by editing the
~/.xprofile file. Here is a sample
~/.xprofile that runs the
xflux application to dim a computer's monitor at night:
xflux -z 87107
Remember to add an
& at the end of any command that doesn't return directly to the shell prompt after running.
Gnome has a plethora of games that can be added to your installation of either
gnome. By default, the majority of Gnome games are not included in the
gnome-light packages. If you are interested in playing games under Gnome, or for that matter, any other desktop environment, you will want to add your user account to the
games group. This can be accomplished easily by running the following command:
root # gpasswd -a $USER games
The above command appends games to the list of groups that you are already a member of. Once your user account has been added to the
games group, you should log out and log back in to apply the changes to your user at log-in. Below is a list of games that were developed by the Gnome team with the Gnome desktop environment in mind:
To install any of the above games, simply run an:
root # emerge <gamename>