Install/Introducing Portage/zh-cn

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安装指南:介绍 Portage

Install Guide, Chapter 12 < Prev Next >

Portage,是 Funtoo Linux 的包管理器,其中包含了一个叫做 emerge 的命令,这个命令可以用来从源码构建并安装包。也能同时管理好所有的依赖关系。你可以按照下面的说明调用 emerge:

chroot # emerge packagename

When you install a package by specifying its name in the command-line, Portage records its name in the /var/lib/portage/world file. It does so because it assumes that, since you have installed it by name, you want to consider it part of your system and want to keep the package updated in the future. This is a handy feature, since when packages are being added to the world set, we can update our entire system by typing:

chroot # ego sync
chroot # emerge -auDN @world

This is the "official" way to update your Funtoo Linux system. Above, we first update our Portage tree using git to grab the latest ebuilds (scripts), and then run an emerge command to update the world set of packages. The options specified tell emerge to:

  • a - show us what will be emerged, and ask us if we want to proceed
  • u - update the packages we specify -- don't emerge them again if they are already emerged.
  • D - Consider the entire dependency tree of packages when looking for updates. In other words, do a deep update.
  • N - Update any packages that have changed (new) USE settings.

Of course, sometimes we want to install a package but not add it to the world file. This is often done because you only want the package installed temporarily or because you know the package in question is a dependency of another package. If this behavior is desired, you call emerge like this:

chroot # emerge -1 packagename

高级用户可以看看 Emerge 的维基页面。

更新 world 合集

Certain packages in the Funtoo stage3 tarball are compiled with the bindist USE flag enabled by default. (The bindist flag controls enabling or disabling of options for proprietary and/or patented parts of code which is not allowed to be distributed in images due to licensing issues). You may notice a dependency resolution problem with bindist USE flags during updating packages after initial system setup. To avoid potential problems, update the system before first boot or any other package installation as shown below:

chroot # ego sync
chroot # emerge -auDN @world

Make sure you read any post emerge messages and follow their instructions. This is especially true if you have upgraded perl or python.


If you choose different file systems then the ones in this guide such as JFS or Btrfs, please remember to install any necessary packages so that your system can perform a file system check at boot. The package is jfsutils for JFS. Similar packages exist for all file systems.

Install Guide, Chapter 12 < Prev Next >