Funtoo Linux Installation Guide

From Funtoo
Jump to navigation Jump to search
This page is a translated version of the page Install and the translation is 0% complete.
Other languages:
Deutsch • ‎English • ‎Türkçe • ‎español • ‎français • ‎italiano • ‎polski • ‎português • ‎slovenčina • ‎Ελληνικά • ‎русский • ‎українська • ‎հայերեն • ‎עברית • ‎ไทย • ‎中文(中国大陆)‎ • ‎中文(台灣)‎ • ‎日本語 • ‎한국어

Translators: Thank you for your help! Please use the section-by-section guide as the basis for your translations. Thanks again!


root # Welcome to Funtoo Linux!

Welcome to Funtoo Linux! This document was written to help you install Funtoo Linux on PC-compatible systems, while keeping distracting options regarding system configuration to a minimum.

If you're new to installing a Gentoo-based Linux, or new to Linux entirely -- welcome! We have attempted to make these installation instructions understandable to new users as well. We encourage all new users to read Wolf Pack Philosophy to understand some of the distinctives of the Funtoo community.

Before we get started, please review the following important information:

Our desktop environment stages (GNOME, Cinnamon, etc.) now support seamless installation on VMware Workstation Pro virtual machines. We highly recommend you enable 3D Accelerated Video for your VM, which is not enabled by default. Click here for more info.
Current Release
The current release of Funtoo Linux is next, sometimes referred to as next-release. This is actually a (mostly) rolling release with an emphasis on being current.
Development Model
Funtoo Linux is a community-developed Linux meta-distribution. If you use Funtoo Linux, you are welcome to contribute to its development via without going through any special procedure or complicated approval process. See Development Guide for more information on how to contribute to Funtoo. We also have YouTube video tutorials to help you get started.
Support Matrix
Please use our Support Matrix to familiarize yourself with the technologies we do -- and do not -- support.
Documentation Styles
We now offer the ability to read and browse the Install Guide section-by-section. Online users may find this more convenient.
Running Steam
We have recently released official Steam Docker Images as well as support for Steam on Flatpak -- these are the officially-supported way to run Steam on Funtoo. See Steam for more information.
LXD container management as well as Docker is officially supported. Please see Chroot and Containers for an incomplete but growing list of container technologies available, along with links to further documentation.
New Fchroot Tool
Our new fchroot tool is now available to allow you to run ARM and RISCV environments on PC-compatible hardware. This is a very effective tool for accelerating building of large pieces of software on resource-constrained ARM systems. See the page, Frankenchroot and Frankenchroot/Live_NFS_Frankenchroot for set-up information.

Now that we've covered all that important information, it's time to get started installing Funtoo Linux!

Installation Overview

This is a basic overview of the Funtoo installation process:

  1. Get Acquainted with Funtoo's Culture and Support Matrix.
  2. Download and boot the Funtoo LiveCD/LiveUSB.
  3. Prepare your disk.
  4. MBR Partitioning.
  5. GPT Partitioning.
  6. Create and mount filesystems.
  7. Setting the Date.
  8. Install the Funtoo stage tarball of your choice.
  9. Chroot into your new system.
  10. Download the Portage tree.
  11. Configure your system.
  12. Introducing Portage.
  13. Install a kernel.
  14. Install a bootloader.
  15. Configure the Network.
  16. Complete final steps.
  17. Profile Configuration.
  18. All Done! Enjoy!

Scarica il LiveCD

Per installare Funtoo Linux, devi avviare il computer utilizzando un Live CD o una chiavetta USB basate su una qualche distribuxione Linux. Raccomandiamo un Funtoo:New Install Experience/LiveCD basato su Funtoo poichè contiene un kernel aggiornato e un complete ambiente grafico. Può essere masterizzato su un DVD o un CD oppure messo su una chiavetta USB. Clicca quì per scaricare

When installing Funtoo Linux on x86-64bit, we highly recommend the official Funtoo Linux LiveCD/LiveUSB, which can always be downloaded here:

While any modern bootable Linux image should be sufficient to install Funtoo Linux, the Funtoo LiveCD has several advantages over other options. Because it natively runs Funtoo Linux, and includes our official debian-sources kernel with very good hardware support, the hardware it supports is going to match the hardware that Funtoo Linux supports -- thus allowing you to identify any hardware compatibility issues immediately.

In addition, our LiveCD is regularly updated, and includes NetworkManager which allows the use of the easy nmtui command to configure your network. It also includes our innovative Fchroot tool, which allows you to use QEMU to "chroot" into non-x86 systems such as arm-64bit and riscv-64bit. This allows the Funtoo LiveCD to be used to even rescue and set up systems with different instruction sets!

Per copiarlo su una chiavetta chiavetta usb, utilizzare il seguente comando:

root # dd if=funtoo-livecd-area31-5.1-beta.iso of=/dev/sdx bs=4k status=progress

Certamente avrai bisogno di cambiare /dev/sdx con il nome della tua chiavetta USB sul tuo sistema

Accesso alla rete

For steps on setting up network access from the LiveCD, please see the Funtoo:New Install Experience/LiveCD page.

Installazione da remoto

In alternativa, è possibile accedere al System Rescue CD dalla rete via SSH per eseguire l'installazione da un altro computer, questo può essere un modo più conveniente per installare Funtoo Linux.

First ensure that sshd is running. You may need to start sshd as follows:

root # /etc/init.d/sshd start

Se desideri completare l'installazione in remoto, in primo luogo, sarà necessario assicurarsi che il System Rescue CD abbia una connessione di rete funzionante. Quindi, sarà necessario impostare una password di root per il System Rescue CD:

root # passwd
New password: ********
Retype new password: ********
passwd: password updated successfully

Una volta digitata una password, sarà necessario determinare l'indirizzo IP del System Rescue CD, e poi è possibile utilizzare ssh per connettersi ad esso. Per determinare l'indirizzo IP attualmente utilizzato dal System Rescue CD, digitare ifconfig:

root # ifconfig

Alternativamente, è possibile determinare il proprio indirizzo IP con il programma iproute2 ip:

root # ip addr show

Una delle interfacce deve avere un indirizzo IP (elencato come inet addr:) dalla LAN. È quindi possibile connettersi in remoto, da un altro sistema sulla LAN, al System Rescue CD, ed eseguire i passi di installazione con la comodità di un sistema operativo esistente. Nel sistema remoto, digitare quanto segue, sostituendo con l'indirizzo IP del System Rescue CD. La connessione da un sistema Linux o MacOS esistente potrebbe essere simile a questa:

remote system $ ssh root@
Password: **********

Se ti piacese connetterti da un sistema operativo Microsoft Windows, avrai bisogno di scaricare ssh per Windows, come ad esempio OpenSSH.

Dopo aver effettuato l'accesso via SSH, sarai ora collegato in remoto al System Rescue CD e sarai in grado di eseguire i passaggi di installazione.

Prepare Disk

In this section, you will need to choose a disk format to use for booting and partitioning -- either MBR or UEFI.

MBR is the traditional way of booting a PC. It works by installing executable code on the boot sector of your hard drive, which starts the boot process. When you use MBR to boot, you must have BIOS booting enabled in your BIOS, use traditional MBR partitions on your disk which are created using the fdisk tool.

UEFI is the more modern way to boot a PC. It works using a boot loader that is built into your computer. Boot entries are created and stored in your computer's non-volatile memory. When you use UEFI to boot, you must have UEFI enabled in your BIOS, and use more modern GPT partitions which are created using the gdisk tool.

Generally, it's usually safe to pick the legacy MBR method for system disks under 2TB in size and most modern PC systems support MBR as well as UEFI booting.


For more information on differences between MBR and UEFI, see our Disk Formats page for an overview of each option and the trade-offs.

But First...

Before doing anything to your disks, make sure you are partitioning the right one. Use the lsblk command to view a list of all block devices on your system, as well as partitions on these block devices:

root # lsblk
sda             8:0    0  1.8T  0 disk 
├─sda1          8:1    0  512M  0 part 
├─sda2          8:2    0    8G  0 part [SWAP]
└─sda3          8:3    0  1.8T  0 part 
  ├─main-root 254:0    0  500G  0 lvm  /
  └─main-data 254:1    0  1.3T  0 lvm  /home

If you're not sure which disks are which, you can use lsblk -o MODEL,NAME,SIZE to show the device models matching the /dev/sd? names.

Make sure you will not be overwriting any important data and that you have chosen the correct /dev/sd? device. Above, you can see that SATA disk sda contains three partitions, sda1, sda2 and sda3, and that sda3 contains LVM volumes. If you are using an NVME disk, then you may see nvme0n1 as your disk, and your partitions (if any exist yet) will be named nvme0n1p1, nvme0n1p2, etc. If you are installing on microSD Card for Raspberry Pi, your disk will likely be mmcblk0 and partitions will have suffixes p1, p2, etc.

Once you've double-checked your target block device and made sure you'll be partitioning the correct disk, proceed to the next step.

MBR Partitioning

Legacy (BIOS/MBR) Method


Use this method if you are booting using your BIOS, and if your Funtoo LiveCD initial boot menu was light blue. If you're going to use the UEFI/GPT disk format, then please proceed to the next section.

First, it's a good idea to make sure that you've found the correct hard disk to partition. Try this command and verify that /dev/sda is the disk that you want to partition:

root # fdisk -l /dev/sda

Disk /dev/sda: 640.1 GB, 640135028736 bytes, 1250263728 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk label type: gpt

#         Start          End    Size  Type            Name
 1         2048   1250263694  596.2G  Linux filesyste Linux filesystem

Now, it is recommended that you erase any existing MBR or GPT partition tables on the disk, which could confuse the system's BIOS at boot time. We accomplish this using sgdisk:


This will make any existing partitions inaccessible! You are strongly cautioned and advised to backup any critical data before proceeding.

root # sgdisk --zap-all /dev/sda

Creating new GPT entries.
GPT data structures destroyed! You may now partition the disk using fdisk or
other utilities.

This output is also nothing to worry about, as the command still succeeded:

Found invalid GPT and valid MBR; converting MBR to GPT format
in memory. 

Now we will use fdisk to create the MBR partition table and partitions:

root # fdisk /dev/sda

Within fdisk, follow these steps:

Empty the partition table:

Command (m for help): o ↵

Create Partition 1 (boot):

Command (m for help): n ↵
Partition type (default p): 
Partition number (1-4, default 1): 
First sector: 
Last sector: +128M ↵

Create Partition 2 (swap):

Command (m for help): n ↵
Partition type (default p): 
Partition number (2-4, default 2): 
First sector: 
Last sector: +2G ↵
Command (m for help): t ↵ 
Partition number (1,2, default 2): 
Hex code (type L to list all codes): 82 ↵

Create the root partition:

Command (m for help): n ↵
Partition type (default p): 
Partition number (3,4, default 3): 
First sector: 
Last sector: 

Verify the partition table:

Command (m for help): p

Disk /dev/sda: 298.1 GiB, 320072933376 bytes, 625142448 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disklabel type: dos
Disk identifier: 0x82abc9a6

Device    Boot     Start       End    Blocks  Id System
/dev/sda1           2048    264191    131072  83 Linux
/dev/sda2         264192   4458495   2097152  82 Linux swap / Solaris
/dev/sda3        4458496 625142447 310341976  83 Linux

Write the partition table to disk:

Command (m for help): w

Your new MBR partition table will now be written to your system disk.


You're done with partitioning! Now, jump over to Creating filesystems.

GPT Partitioning



Use this method if you are interested in booting using UEFI, and if your Funtoo LiveCD initial boot menu was black and white, or the system booted without a boot menu. If it was light blue, this method will not work. Instead, use the instructions in the previous section then skip this section, or reboot LiveCD in UEFI mode first.


You can build legacy mode into your GPT partition table but it requires a BIOS Boot partition. see Talk:Install/GPT_Partitioning

The gdisk commands to create a GPT partition table are as follows. Adapt sizes as necessary, although these defaults will work for most users. Start gdisk:

root # gdisk /dev/sda

Within gdisk, follow these steps:

Create a new empty partition table (This will erase all data on the disk when saved):

Command: o ↵
This option deletes all partitions and creates a new protective MBR.
Proceed? (Y/N): y ↵

Create Partition 1 (boot):

Command: n ↵
Partition Number: 1 ↵
First sector: 
Last sector: +128M ↵
Hex Code: EF00 ↵

Create Partition 2 (swap):

Command: n ↵
Partition Number: 2 ↵
First sector: 
Last sector: +4G ↵
Hex Code: 8200 ↵

Create Partition 3 (root):

Command: n ↵
Partition Number: 3 ↵
First sector: 
Last sector:  (for rest of disk)
Hex Code: 

Along the way, you can type "p" and hit Enter to view your current partition table. If you make a mistake, you can type "d" to delete an existing partition that you created. When you are satisfied with your partition setup, type "w" to write your configuration to disk:

Write Partition Table To Disk:

Command: w ↵
Do you want to proceed? (Y/N): Y ↵

The partition table will now be written to the disk and gdisk will close.

Now, your GPT/GUID partitions have been created, and will show up as the following block devices under Linux:

  • /dev/sda1, which will be used to hold the /boot filesystem,
  • /dev/sda2, which will be used for swap space, and
  • /dev/sda3, which will hold your root filesystem.

You can verify that the block devices above were correctly created by running the command lsblk.

Creating Filesystems


This section covers both BIOS and UEFI installs. Don't skip it!

Before your newly-created partitions can be used, the block devices that were created in the previous step need to be initialized with filesystem metadata. This process is known as creating a filesystem on the block devices. After filesystems are created on the block devices, they can be mounted and used to store files.

Let's keep this simple. Are you using legacy MBR partitions? If so, let's create an ext2 filesystem on /dev/sda1:

root # mkfs.ext2 /dev/sda1

If you're using GPT partitions for UEFI, or installing for Raspberry Pi, you'll want to create a vfat filesystem on your first partition. This will be mmcblk0p1 in the case of Raspberry Pi:

root # mkfs.vfat -F 32 /dev/sda1

Now, let's create a swap partition. This partition will be used as disk-based virtual memory for your Funtoo Linux system.

You will not create a filesystem on your swap partition, since it is not used to store files. But it is necessary to initialize it using the mkswap command. Then we'll run the swapon command to make your newly-initialized swap space immediately active within the live CD environment, in case it is needed during the rest of the install process:

root # mkswap /dev/sda2
root # swapon /dev/sda2

Root Filesystem

Now, we need to create a root filesystem. This is where Funtoo Linux will live. We generally recommend ext4 or XFS root filesystems. Keep in mind that some filesystems will require additional filesystem tools to be emerged prior to rebooting. Please consult the following table for more information:

FilesystemRecommended as root file system?Additional tools required to emerge
zfsNo - advanced users onlysys-fs/zfs
btrfsNo - advanced users onlysys-fs/btrfs-progs

We do not recommend users set up ZFS or BTRFS as their root filesystem. This is much more complex and usually not necessary. Instead, choose XFS or ext4. We do support ZFS or BTRFS as non-root filesystems and this is much, much easier to configure. See ZFS and Btrfs after you are done setting up your Funtoo Linux system to configure ZFS or BTRFS for additional secondary storage.

If you're not sure, choose ext4. Here's how to create a root ext4 filesystem:

root # mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda3

...and here's how to create an XFS root filesystem, if you prefer to use XFS instead of ext4:

root # mkfs.xfs /dev/sda3

Your filesystems (and swap) have all now been initialized, so that that can be mounted (attached to your existing directory heirarchy) and used to store files. We are ready to begin installing Funtoo Linux on these brand-new filesystems.

Additional Filesystems


This can be very useful for Raspberry Pi systems!

You may want to create additional filesystems for various parts of your Funtoo filesystem tree. It is not uncommon to place /home or /var on separate filesystems.

For Raspberry Pi, you may not have a lot of spare room on the card depending on the capacity of your microSD card, and it may make a lot of sense to put the entire /var filesystem on an external hard drive or solid state disk. This will not only ensure you don't run out of disk space, but can also improve performance since writes to the microSD card typically aren't that fast.

To do this, you will want to use fdisk or gdisk to create a partition on your external drive, and then use the mkfs.xfs or mkfs.ext4 commands to create a filesystem on the new partition. We will mount this new filesystem in the next step prior to extracting the stage3 tarball.

Mounting Filesystems

Mount the newly-created filesystems as follows, creating /mnt/funtoo as the installation mount point:

root # mkdir /mnt/funtoo
root # mount /dev/sda3 /mnt/funtoo
root # mkdir /mnt/funtoo/boot
root # mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/funtoo/boot

If you have any additional filesystems you created earlier (such as /home or /var), you should mount them now, so that when the stage3 is extracted (which we will do in a later step) these filesystems will get populated with the necessary files. This can be done as follows:

root # mkdir /mnt/funtoo/var
root # mount /dev/sdb1 /mnt/funtoo/var

Setting the Date


If your system's date and time are too far off (typically by months or years), then it may prevent Portage from properly downloading source tarballs. This is because some of our sources are downloaded via HTTPS, which use SSL certificates and are marked with an activation and expiration date. However, if your system time is relatively close to correct, you can probably skip this step for now.

Now is a good time to verify the date and time are correctly set to UTC. Use the date command to verify the date and time:

root # date
Fri Jul 15 19:47:18 UTC 2011

If the date and/or time need to be corrected, do so using date MMDDhhmmYYYY, keeping in mind hhmm are in 24-hour format. The example below changes the date and time to "July 16th, 2011 @ 8:00PM" UTC:

root # date 071620002011
Fri Jul 16 20:00:00 UTC 2011

Once you have set the system clock, it's a very good idea to copy the time to the hardware clock, so it persists across reboots:

root # hwclock --systohc

Download and Extract Stage3

Now that filesystems are created and your hardware and system clock are set, the next step is downloading the initial Stage 3 tarball. The Stage 3 is a pre-compiled system used as a starting point to install Funtoo Linux.

To download the correct build of Funtoo Linux for your system, first familiarize yourself with the Support Matrix, in particular the Desktop Environments section, to help you make a decision about which desktop environment to set up (we recommend GNOME for new users.) Then, head over to the Subarches page. Subarches are builds of Funtoo Linux that are designed to run on a particular type of CPU, to offer the best possible performance. They also take advantage of the instruction sets available for each CPU.

What Subarch?

From the subarch list at Subarches, choose your desired level of optimization. A system built specifically for your CPU will run faster than a less-optimized system. For a modern Intel or AMD system, it is safe to pick the exact optimization level for your particular family of CPU. This will offer the best possible performance.

If you are using a virtualization technology to run Funtoo Linux and your VM may be used on different types of hardware, then it's recommended that you use a stage3 that is optimized for the oldest CPU instruction set that your VM will run on, or a more generic image if it may run on both AMD and Intel processors.

Once you have found the appropriate subarch at Subarches, you will likely have a few installation images to choose from. This next section will help you understand which one to pick.

Which Image?

Our desktop environment stages (GNOME, Cinnamon, etc.) now support seamless installation on VMware Workstation Pro virtual machines. We highly recommend you enable 3D Accelerated Video for your VM, which is not enabled by default. Click here for more info.

You can always manually choose an installation image via as well as using the Subarches page. Here is some guidance on choosing the best .tar.xz image for download. When choosing an image:

Pick next.
This is next release of Funtoo Linux, our current release.
Pick the subarch for the CPU family of the system you are installing on.
This will provide the best performance.
Choose stage3 for...
The stage3 is a more traditional, minimal and non-graphical installation of Funtoo. You will then build your system up to your desired state using emerge.
Choose gnome for...
The gnome installation image, if available, includes the full GNOME environment as well as Firefox already optimized for your hardware. You can then continue to further customize your system after installation. See the Desktop Environments section of our Support Matrix for more desktop options.
The lxd image for...
The lxd image is for use with LXD, and is not used for installing directly on a desktop or laptop, so you should not select this option for regular installs. To install, first download and then lxc image import <name>.tar.xz --alias funtoo and then you can lxc launch funtoo my_container.

Download the Stage3

Once you have found the stage3 that you would like to download, use wget to download the Stage 3 tarball you have chosen to use as the basis for your new Funtoo Linux system. It should be saved to the /mnt/funtoo directory as follows:


If you are using the Funtoo LiveCD, you can use a text-based browser to download your preferred stage. Type links rather than the wget command below. Hit enter to select the appropriate directories and stage3.

root # cd /mnt/funtoo
root # wget

Verify downloaded tarball

Funtoo Linux stage tarballs are signed using GPG by the build server they are built on. It's a good practice to verify authenticity and integrity of downloaded files when possible. For instructions how to import and trust GPG keys check our wiki page about GPG signatures.

Then, you can download the stage3's GPG signature and use the gpg --verify command in order to verify your tarball:

root # wget
root # gpg --verify stage3-latest.tar.xz.gpg stage3-latest.tar.xz

Once the stage is downloaded and verified, extract the contents with the following command, substituting in the actual name of your Stage 3 tarball:

root # tar --numeric-owner --xattrs --xattrs-include='*' -xpf stage3-latest.tar.xz

It is very important to use all the options included above. See below for details.

Here are what the options to tar do:

Without this option, tar will map ownership and group ownership based on the UID to user and GID to group mappings as defined on the LiveCD. We don't want this -- we want the numeric values of the UIDs and GIDs in the tarball to be preserved on disk, so when your Funtoo Linux system boots, the UIDs and GIDs are set correctly for Funtoo. That is what this option tells tar to do.
--xattrs --xattrs-include='*'
Funtoo Linux uses filesystem extended attributes to set Linux capabilities, which allow for certain programs such as ping to have enhanced privileges without having to be fully 'suid root'. Even with the -p option, tar will not restore extended attributes we need unless these two options are specified.
This instructs tar to extract (x), preserve regular permissions and ownership (p), and use the filename (f) specified.

Chroot into Funtoo

To set up your Funtoo Linux system, we need to "enter into" it before we boot. If you are using the Funtoo Linux LiveCD, this can be easily done with the fchroot command:

root # fchroot /mnt/funtoo
fchroot #

The fchroot command will take care of all necessary steps to enter into your new Funtoo Linux system, as well as clean up things when you exit the fchroot by typing exit or ctrl-D.

If you are using another LiveCD or USB media to install Funtoo, you can manually chroot by using the following set of commands:

root # cd /mnt/funtoo
root # mount --rbind /proc proc
root # mount --rbind /sys sys
root # mount --rbind /dev dev
root # cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/funtoo/etc/
root # chroot . /bin/su --login
chroot #

For users of live CDs with 64-bit kernels installing 32-bit systems: Some software may use uname -r to check whether the system is 32 or 64-bit. You may want to append linux32 to the chroot command as a workaround, but it's generally not needed.


If you receive the error "chroot: failed to run command `/bin/bash': Exec format error", it is most likely because you are running a 32-bit kernel and trying to execute 64-bit code. Make sure that you have selected the proper type of kernel when booting your live CD.

Test internet name resolution from within the chroot:

chroot # ping -c 5

If you can't ping, make sure that /etc/resolv.conf specifies a valid IP address for a reachable nameserver in its nameserver setting.

Congratulations! You are now chrooted inside a Funtoo Linux system. Now it's time to get Funtoo Linux properly configured so that Funtoo Linux will start successfully, without any manual assistance, when your system is restarted.

Download Portage Tree

Now it's time to install the Portage repository, which contains package scripts (ebuilds) that tell portage how to build and install thousands of different software packages. To create the Portage repository, simply run ego sync from within the chroot. This will automatically clone the portage tree from GitHub and all kits:

chroot # ego sync

Configuration Files

As is expected from a Linux distribution, Funtoo Linux has its share of configuration files. The one file you are absolutely required to edit in order to ensure that Funtoo Linux boots successfully is /etc/fstab. The others are optional.

Using Nano

The default editor included in the chroot environment is called nano. To edit one of the files below, run nano as follows:

chroot # nano -w /etc/fstab

When in the editor, you can use arrow keys to move the cursor, and common keys like backspace and delete will work as expected. To save the file, press Control-X, and answer y when prompted to save the modified buffer if you would like to save your changes.

We will edit the /etc/fstab file later, when we set up the boot loader.

Configuration Files

Here are a full list of files that you may want to edit, depending on your needs:

FileDo I need to change it?Description
/etc/fstab YES - required Mount points for all filesystems to be used at boot time. This file must reflect your disk partition setup. We'll guide you through modifying this file below.
/etc/localtime Maybe - recommended Your timezone, which will default to UTC if not set. This should be a symbolic link to something located under /usr/share/zoneinfo (e.g. /usr/share/zoneinfo/America/Montreal)
/etc/make.conf NO - not required or recommended Unlike Gentoo, it is normal and correct for this file to be empty in Funtoo Linux, as settings have been migrated to our enhanced profile system. Adding settings from this file will cause your system to be considered a non-standard setup and not officially supported. If you feel you need to add something to this file, be sure to ask on Discord for guidance. You probably don't.
/etc/hosts No You no longer need to manually set the hostname in this file. This file is automatically generated by /etc/init.d/hostname.
/etc/conf.d/hostname Maybe - recommended Used to set system hostname. Set the hostname variable to the fully-qualified (with dots, ie. name if you have one. Otherwise, set to the local system hostname (without dots, ie. foo). Defaults to localhost if not set.
/etc/conf.d/keymaps Optional Keyboard mapping configuration file (for console pseudo-terminals). Set if you have a non-US keyboard. See Funtoo Linux Localization.
/etc/conf.d/hwclock Optional How the time of the battery-backed hardware clock of the system is interpreted (UTC or local time). Linux uses the battery-backed hardware clock to initialize the system clock when the system is booted.
/etc/conf.d/modules Optional Kernel modules to load automatically at system startup. Typically not required. See Additional Kernel Resources for more info.
/etc/conf.d/consolefont Optional Allows you to specify the default console font. To apply this font, enable the consolefont service by running rc-update add consolefont.
/etc/conf.d/swap Optional When using a swap file that is not on the root filesystem, localmount service must be configured to be a dependency of swap service.
profiles Optional Some useful portage settings that may help speed up intial configuration.

If you're installing an English version of Funtoo Linux, you're in luck, as most of the configuration files can be used as-is. If you're installing for another locale, don't worry. We will walk you through the necessary configuration steps on the Funtoo Linux Localization page, and if needed, there's always plenty of friendly, helpful support available. (See Getting Help)

Let's go ahead and see what we have to do. Use nano -w <name_of_file> to edit files -- the "-w" argument disables word-wrapping, which is handy when editing configuration files. You can copy and paste from the examples.


It's important to edit your /etc/fstab file before you reboot! You will need to modify both the "fs" and "type" columns to match the settings for your partitions and filesystems that you created with gdisk or fdisk. Skipping this step may prevent Funtoo Linux from booting successfully.


/etc/localtime is used to specify the timezone that your machine is in, and defaults to UTC. If you would like your Funtoo Linux system to use local time, you should replace /etc/localtime with a symbolic link to the timezone that you wish to use.

chroot # rm -f /etc/localtime
chroot # ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/MST7MDT /etc/localtime

The above sets the timezone to Mountain Standard Time (with daylight savings). Type ls /usr/share/zoneinfo to list available timezones. There are also sub-directories containing timezones described by location.


If you dual-boot with Windows, you'll need to edit this file and change the value of clock from UTC to local, because Windows will set your hardware clock to local time every time you boot Windows. Otherwise you normally wouldn't need to edit this file.

chroot # nano -w /etc/conf.d/hwclock


By default, Funtoo Linux is configured with Unicode (UTF-8) enabled, and for the US English locale and keyboard. If you would like to configure your system to use a non-English locale or keyboard, see Funtoo Linux Localization.

Introducing Portage

Portage, the Funtoo Linux package manager has a command called emerge which is used to build and install packages from source. It also takes care of installing all of the package's dependencies. You call emerge like this:

chroot # emerge packagename

When you install a package by specifying its name in the command-line, Portage records its name in the /var/lib/portage/world file. It does so because it assumes that, since you have installed it by name, you want to consider it part of your system and want to keep the package updated in the future. This is a handy feature, since when packages are being added to the world set, we can update our entire system by typing:

chroot # ego sync
chroot # emerge -auDN @world

This is the "official" way to update your Funtoo Linux system. Above, we first update our Portage tree using git to grab the latest ebuilds (scripts), and then run an emerge command to update the world set of packages. The options specified tell emerge to:

  • a - show us what will be emerged, and ask us if we want to proceed
  • u - update the packages we specify -- don't emerge them again if they are already emerged.
  • D - Consider the entire dependency tree of packages when looking for updates. In other words, do a deep update.
  • N - Update any packages that have changed (new) USE settings.

Of course, sometimes we want to install a package but not add it to the world file. This is often done because you only want the package installed temporarily or because you know the package in question is a dependency of another package. If this behavior is desired, you call emerge like this:

chroot # emerge -1 packagename

Advanced users may be interested in the Emerge wiki page.

Prepare Disk

Funtoo Linux stage3's include a pre-built debian-sources kernel to make installation faster and easier. To see what kernel version is pre-installed, type:

chroot # emerge -s debian-sources
[ Results for search key : debian-sources ]
[ Applications found : 1 ]

*  sys-kernel/debian-sources
      Latest version available: 5.9.6_p1
      Latest version installed: 5.9.6_p1
      Size of files: 118,723 kB
      Description:   Debian Sources (and optional binary kernel)
      License:       GPL-2


At this point it is wise to emerge the latest sys-kernel/linux-firmware package, because various drivers rely on firmware blobs and instructions. Hardware like Wi-Fi cards, graphic cards, network cards, and others will not work properly or at all if firmware is not available. If using the stage3 image, perform the following to install it. linux-firmware will be already installed if using the gnome image:

chroot # emerge -av linux-firmware


How Booting Works

In order for Funtoo Linux to boot, it must detect the boot filesystem, root filesystem and swap. The most reliable way to do this is to use the UUID, or unique identifier, of the partitions holding these filesystems. We will use these UUID values in the /etc/fstab, which we will set up next.

The UUID allows Linux to find the right filesystem, even if it detects the disks differently or you move them around in your computer. Funtoo Linux uses a Linux kernel and initial RAM disk to boot, and to get everything set up, we need to set up /etc/fstab correctly, and then install the GRUB boot loader -- and there are two different commands for this, depending on whether you are using MBR or UEFI. Then, finally, we run ego boot update which is a Funtoo command that configures everything for us.

Label partitions

To see the UUIDs for your existing filesystems, type the following command:

root # ls -l /dev/disk/by-uuid/
total 0
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 Jan 27 13:42 6883428138129353569 -> ../../sdb1
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 15 Jan 27 13:42 CE4B-855D -> ../../nvme0n1p1
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 15 Jan 27 13:42 ac280eb5-1ea7-4742-9e71-9c7addd35c54 -> ../../nvme0n1p2
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 15 Jan 27 13:42 e5a76428-8b3f-4349-81af-cbe29c7f7d09 -> ../../nvme0n1p3

The UUIDs are listed to the left-hand side of the ->. Use these values for setting up the /etc/fstab file, below.


/etc/fstab is used by the mount command which is run when your system boots. Lines in this file inform mount about filesystems to be mounted and how they should be mounted. In order for the system to boot properly, you must edit /etc/fstab and ensure that it reflects the partition configuration you used earlier in the install process. If you can't remember the partition configuration that you used earlier:

chroot # nano -w /etc/fstab
   /etc/fstab - An example fstab file
UUID=CE4B-855D                                  /boot         vfat    noauto,noatime  1 2
UUID=ac280eb5-1ea7-4742-9e71-9c7addd35c54       none          swap    sw              0 0
UUID=e5a76428-8b3f-4349-81af-cbe29c7f7d09       /             ext4    noatime         0 1

Be sure to use the actual UUIDs from your system, not the example values above!


If you mounted a /var or /home partition, add them to your fstab, or your system may not boot correctly.


/etc/boot.conf controls boot loader configuration in Funtoo and is used by ego boot. The default configuration is probably fine for you, so most can skip to the appropriate "GRUB Install" section, later on this page.

Here is what is in the file by default:

boot {
	generate grub
	default "Funtoo Linux"
	timeout 3

"Funtoo Linux" {
	kernel kernel[-v]
	initrd initramfs[-v]
	params += real_root=auto rootfstype=auto

"Funtoo Linux (nomodeset)" {
	kernel kernel[-v]
	initrd initramfs[-v]
	params += real_root=auto rootfstype=auto nomodeset

If you are booting a custom or non-default kernel, please read man boot.conf for information on the various options available to you.


You will notice after booting that you there will be a boot option in the GRUB menu for a "nomodeset" mode. We don't recommend you use this mode by default but it is available to you for a couple of good reasons:

  • For users with HiDPI (4K+) displays, especially laptops: If you have not set up a graphical environment, when the kernel automatically changes graphics modes, the console font can be tiny and unreadable.
  • For users with incompatible graphics cards: Some graphics cards don't handle mode setting properly and this can result in a blank screen after reboot. Use this boot option as a temporary workaround.

To use the nomodeset option, simply select that option from the GRUB menu when your system boots.


If you are using a root partition on an nvme device, add the rootwait kernel parameter to force the kernel to wait for it to asynchronously initialize or the kernel will panic on some hardware.

Intel Microcode

ego boot will ensure that you have the most recent Intel CPU microcode installed on your system if you emerge the following packages. These will be merged for you already if you are using a desktop stage3:

chroot # emerge -av intel-microcode iucode_tool

This is not necessary for AMD systems.

GRUB Install: Old School (BIOS) MBR

When using "old school" BIOS booting, run the following command to install GRUB to your MBR, and generate the /boot/grub/grub.cfg configuration file that GRUB will use for booting:

chroot # grub-install --target=i386-pc --no-floppy /dev/sdX

GRUB Install: New School (UEFI) Boot Entry

If you're using "new school" UEFI booting, run of the following sets of commands, depending on whether you are installing a 64-bit or 32-bit system. This will add GRUB as a UEFI boot entry.

For x86-64bit systems:

chroot # mount -o remount,rw /sys/firmware/efi/efivars
chroot # grub-install --target=x86_64-efi --efi-directory=/boot --bootloader-id="Funtoo Linux [GRUB]" --recheck

For x86-32bit systems:

chroot # mount -o remount,rw /sys/firmware/efi/efivars
chroot # grub-install --target=i386-efi --efi-directory=/boot --bootloader-id="Funtoo Linux [GRUB]" --recheck


Now, let's run Funtoo's ego boot update command to get everything configured. This will detect the current kernel(s) on your system and create the necessary GRUB boot entries to get your system booted:

chroot # ego boot update

You only need to run grub-install when you first install Funtoo Linux, but you need to re-run ego boot update every time you modify your /etc/boot.conf. When you emerge updated kernels, ego boot update will be run automatically as part of the install process. This will regenerate /boot/grub/grub.cfg so that you will have new kernels available in your GRUB boot menu upon your next reboot.

Post reboot UEFI troubleshooting

In case UEFI NVRAM boot entry is missing in BIOS and grub does not start you can try moving an already installed GRUB EFI executable to the default/fallback path

chroot # mv -v '/boot/EFI/Funtoo Linux [GRUB]' /boot/EFI/BOOT
chroot # mv -v /boot/EFI/BOOT/grubx64.efi /boot/EFI/BOOT/BOOTX64.EFI

First Boot, and in the future...

OK -- you are almost ready to boot!


It's important to ensure that you will be able to connect to your local-area network after you reboot into Funtoo Linux. There are three approaches you can use for configuring your network: NetworkManager, dhcpcd, and the Funtoo Linux Networking scripts. Here's how to choose which one to use based on the type of network you want to set up.



If using the gnome or other desktop install image, linux-firmware and NetworkManager are already installed and available. You can use nmtui to get Wi-Fi going if you need network connectivity prior to getting X and GNOME fully up and running. In addition, desktop stage3's have ZeroConf/Bonjour multicast DNS lookups enabled by default. Both these things will not be set up yet if you are using the basic stage3 image.

For laptop/mobile systems where you will be using Wi-Fi, roaming, and connecting to various networks, NetworkManager is strongly recommended. Since Wi-Fi cards require firmware to operate, it is also recommended that you emerge the linux-firmware ebuild if you have not done so already:

chroot # emerge linux-firmware networkmanager
chroot # rc-update add NetworkManager default

The above command will ensure that NetworkManager starts after you boot into Funtoo Linux. Once you've completed these installation steps and have booted into Funtoo Linux, you can use the nmtui command (which has an easy-to-use console-based interface) to configure NetworkManager so that it will connect (and automatically reconnect, after reboot) to a Wi-Fi access point:

chroot # nmtui

For more information about NetworkManager, see the NetworkManager package page.

Desktop (Wired DHCP)

For a home desktop or workstation with wired Ethernet that will use DHCP, the simplest and most effective option to enable network connectivity is to simply add dhcpcd to the default runlevel:

chroot # rc-update add dhcpcd default

When you reboot, dhcpcd will run in the background and manage all network interfaces and use DHCP to acquire network addresses from a DHCP server.

If your upstream DHCP server is dnsmasq, it can be configured to assign addresses via mac address to make servers on DHCP feasible.

Server (Static IP)

For servers, the Funtoo Linux Networking scripts are the supported option for network configuration, and they have their own documentation. They are optimized for static configurations and things like virtual Ethernet bridging for virtualization setups. See Funtoo Linux Networking for information on how to use Funtoo Linux's template-based network configuration system.


By default Funtoo uses "localhost" as hostname. Although the system will work perfectly fine using this name, some ebuilds refuse to install when detecting localhost as hostname. It also may create confusion if several systems use the same hostname. Therefore, it is advised to change it to a more meaningful name. The hostname itself is arbitrary, meaning you can choose almost any combination of characters, as long as it makes sense to the system administrator. To change the hostname, edit

chroot # nano /etc/conf.d/hostname

Look for the line starting with hostname and change the entry between the quotes. Save the file, on the next boot Funtoo will use the new hostname.


Hostnames can be up to 63 characters long and may use the following characters: a-z, 0-9 and hyphens (-). However, the hyphen may not be the first or last character.

Finishing Up

Set your root password

It's imperative that you set your root password before rebooting so that you can log in.

chroot # passwd
New password: **********
Retype new password: **********
passwd: password updated successfully

Create a Regular User

It's also a good idea to create a regular user for daily use. If you're using GNOME, this is a requirement as you cannot log in to GDM (The GNOME Display Manager) as root. This can be accomplished as follows:

chroot # useradd -m drobbins

You will also likely want to add your primary user to one or more supplemental groups. Here is a list of important groups and their effect:

wheelAllows your user account to 'su' to root. Recommended on your primary user account for easy maintenance. Also used with sudo.
audioAllows your user account to directly access audio devices. Required if using ALSA; otherwise optional.
videoAllows your user account to directly access video devices. Required for certain video drivers and webcams.
plugdevAllows your user account work with various removable devices. Allows adding of a WiFi network in GNOME without providing root password. Recommended for desktop users.
portageAllows extended use of Portage as regular user. Recommended.

To add your user to multiple groups, use the usermod command, specifying a complete group list:

chroot # usermod -G wheel,audio,video,plugdev,portage drobbins

As with your root account, don't forget to set a password:

chroot # passwd drobbins
New password: **********
Retype new password: **********
passwd: password updated successfully

Install an Entropy Generator

The Linux kernel uses various sources such as user input to generate entropy, which is in turn used for generating random numbers. Encrypted communications can use a lot of entropy, and often the amount of entropy generated by your system will not be sufficient. This is commonly an issue on headless server systems, which can also include ARM systems such as Raspberry Pi, and can result in slower than normal ssh connections among other issues.

To compensate for this, a user-space entropy generator can be emerged and enabled at boot time. We will use haveged in this example, although others are available, such as rng-tools.

chroot # emerge haveged
chroot # rc-update add haveged default

Haveged will now start at boot and will augment the Linux kernel's entropy pool.

Restart your system

Now is the time to leave fchroot, to unmount Funtoo Linux partitions and files and to restart your computer. When you restart, the GRUB boot loader will start, load the Linux kernel and initramfs, and your system will begin booting.

To leave the fchroot, simply type exit and you will be returned back to your LiveCD shell.

If you used manual chroot steps, you can use the following sequence of commands prepare to restart:

chroot # exit
root # cd /mnt
root # umount -lR funtoo

Now, you are ready to reboot into Funtoo:

root # reboot

You should now see your system reboot, the GRUB boot loader appear for a few seconds, and then see the Linux kernel and initramfs loading. After this, you should see Funtoo Linux itself start to boot, and you should be greeted with a login: prompt. Funtoo Linux has been successfully installed!


Once you have rebooted into Funtoo Linux, you can further customize your system to your needs by using Funtoo Profiles. A quick introduction to profiles is included below -- consult the Funtoo Profiles page for more detailed information. There are five basic profile types: arch, build, subarch, flavors and mix-ins:

Sub-Profile TypeDescription
archTypically x86-32bit or x86-64bit, this defines the processor type and support of your system. This is defined when your stage was built and should not be changed.
buildDefines whether your system is a current, stable or experimental build. At the moment, all Funtoo Linux builds use the funtoo-current build profile.
subarchDefines CPU optimizations for your system. The subarch is set at the time the stage3 is built, but can be changed later to better settings if necessary. Be sure to pick a setting that is compatible with your CPU.
flavorDefines the general type of system, such as server or desktop, and will set default USE flags appropriate for your needs.
mix-insDefines various optional settings that you may be interested in enabling.

One arch, build and flavor must be set for each Funtoo Linux system, while mix-ins are optional and you can enable more than one if desired. Often, flavors and mix-ins inherit settings from other sub-profiles. Use epro show to view your current profile settings, in addition to any inheritance information.


It's recommended that your run this command now, particularly if you are using the gnome install image, in order to familiarize yourself with the current profile settings on your system.

root # epro show

=== Enabled Profiles: ===

        arch:  x86-64bit
       build:  current
     subarch:  intel64-haswell
      flavor:  desktop
     mix-ins:  gnome

=== All inherited flavors from desktop flavor: ===

                     workstation (from desktop flavor)
                            core (from workstation flavor)
                         minimal (from core flavor)

=== All inherited mix-ins from desktop flavor: ===

                               X (from workstation flavor)
                           audio (from workstation flavor)
                             dvd (from workstation flavor)
                           media (from workstation flavor)
      mediadevice-audio-consumer (from media mix-in)
                mediadevice-base (from mediadevice-audio-consumer mix-in)
      mediadevice-video-consumer (from media mix-in)
                mediadevice-base (from mediadevice-video-consumer mix-in)
        mediaformat-audio-common (from media mix-in)
          mediaformat-gfx-common (from media mix-in)
        mediaformat-video-common (from media mix-in)
                  console-extras (from workstation flavor)
                           print (from desktop flavor)

Here are some basic examples of epro usage:

View available profiles. Enabled profiles will be highlighted in cyan. Directly enabled profiles will be in bold and have a * appended.epro list
Change the system flavor.epro flavor desktop
Add a mix-in.epro mix-in +gnome

Graphics Settings


The gnome install image will have additional graphic support already enabled for you, but you will still need to set up X and your display manager (covered in the next section.)

Funtoo Linux 1.4 features the following mix-ins to allow simplified configuration of your graphics settings. It's recommended to use these mix-ins rather than manually placing USE and VIDEO_CARDS settings in /etc/make.conf. You can learn more about Funtoo's graphics configuration and the design approach of these settings at the make.conf/VIDEO_CARDS page.

Funtoo Graphics Mix-Ins

This mix-in is equivalent to gfxcard-intel-classic or gfxcard-intel-iris, depending on the release you're running. Currently, it defaults to gfxcard-intel-classic on 1.4-release and to gfxcard-intel-classic on Next release. Do not enable more than 1 gfxcard-intel* mix-in at the same time. The result is not what you might expect.
This mix-in enables Intel graphics support based on the older i915 mesa driver (not to be confused with the i915 kernel driver). Choose this if you have a Gen3 or older chipset.
This mix-in enables Intel graphics support for cards with glamor modesetting support (drivers i965 or iris), including support OpenGL ES (>=Gen4) and OpenCL and Vulkan (>=Gen7) and video acceleration where available. If your card is >=Gen5, do an emerge libva-intel-driver or emerge media-libs/libva-intel-media-driver (for >=Gen8) afterwards to ensure you have full video acceleration support.
This mix-in enables support for modern Radeon cards, Southern Islands -- GFX Core 6 (see this reference) and greater. Includes Vulkan and video acceleration where available. Drivers are built for both the Gallium framework (modern replacement for DRI framework) and DRI framework. Glamor is used to accelerate 2D operations.
This mix-in enables support for modern Radeon cards, R600 through Northern Islands -- GFX Core 4 and 5 (see this reference). Drivers are built for the Gallium framework (modern replacement for DRI framework) as well as DRI framework. Glamor is used to accelerate 2D operations.
Use this mix-in to enable support for R300 up to (but not including) R600 Radeon cards -- -- GFX Core 3 (see this reference). DRI as well as Gallium-based drivers are enabled.
Use this mix-in to enable support pre-R300 cards -- GFX Core 1 and 2 (see this reference). These drivers are DRI-based.
Use this to enable support for proprietary NVIDIA drivers. You will also need to emerge nvidia-kernel-modules, blacklist nouveau and add yourself to the video group. See this documentation for more details. Note that Funtoo now has two catpkgs for NVIDIA proprietary graphics -- nvidia-drivers and nvidia-kernel-modules -- to aid the use of NVIDIA acceleration on containers.
Proprietary NVIDIA drivers like above, but the legacy version of the driver that supports older hardware. See and browse the specific driver version that emerge is installing to get detailed compatibility information.
Use this mix-in to enable support for Open Source nouveau drivers.

Enable the appropriate graphics options for your hardware as follows:

root # epro mix-in +gfxcard-intel

Once this has been done, proceed to set up X, KDE, GNOME or another desktop environment on your system, as desired. See the next section for more information on this.

All Done!

If you are brand new to Funtoo Linux and Gentoo Linux, please check out Funtoo Linux First Steps, which will help get you acquainted with your new system.


If you are using the gnome install image, please see the "A few finishing touches" section of the GNOME setup docs in order to continue setting up your graphical environment.

You may also be interested in the following resources:

  • Chroot_and_Containers setting up 32 bit containers to run wine, and STEAM.
  • Security - tips for securing your system
  • Btrfs - a simple guide for setting up btrfs on your new Funtoo Linux system.
  • official documentation, which includes all docs that we officially maintain for installation and operation of Funtoo Linux.

We also have a number of pages dedicated to setting up your system. See the First Steps Category for a list of these pages.

If your system did not boot correctly, see Installation Troubleshooting for steps you can take to resolve the problem.